Acts 14

Acts 14


The same thing occurredI in Iconium,II where Paul and BarnabasIII 

Notes on verse 1a

I “occurred” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
II “Iconium” = Ikonion. 6x in NT– 5x in Acts & 1x in 2 Timothy 3. Perhaps from eikon (a likeness such as an image, statue, or other representation; a prototype that is being mirrored – a replication rather than a shadow; an image in a figurative sense); {from eiko (resemble, be like) OR perhaps related to eiko (to submit, give way, be weak, yield)}. This is Iconium, which may mean “image-like” or “city of the image.” See
III “Paul and Barnabas” = autos. Literally, “they.”

wentIV into the JewishV synagogueVI and spokeVII in such a way that a greatVIII numberIX

Notes on verse 1b

IV “went” = eiserchomai. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
V “Jewish” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
VI “synagogue” = sunagoge. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.
VII “spoke” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.
VIII “great” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
IX “number” = plethos. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is fullness, multitude, great number.

of both JewsX and GreeksXI became believers.XII 

Notes on verse 1c

X “Jews” = Ioudaios. Same as “Jewish” in v1. See note V above.
XI “Greeks” = Hellen. From Hellas (Hellas, what Greeks called themselves); perhaps from helane (torch) OR from selene (moon). This is Greek, but was used for Gentiles, broader populations that spoke Greek and were a part of Greek culture regardless of their heritage. See
XII “became believers” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

But the unbelievingXIII Jews stirred upXIV the gentilesXV

Notes on verse 2a

XIII “unbelieving” = apeitheo. Related to “became believers” in v1. 14x in NT. From apeithes (unbelieving, disobedient, spiritually rebellious); {from a (not, without) + peitho (see note XII above)}. This is to disobey or rebel. It refers to those who refuse to be convinced of something – willful disbelief.
XIV “stirred up” = epegeiro. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + egeiro (to awake, raise up or lift up; to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death; figuratively, rising from inactivity or from ruins). This is to stimulate, instigate, rouse against.
XV “gentiles” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.

and poisonedXVI their mindsXVII against the brothers.XVIII 

Notes on verse 2b

XVI “poisoned” = kakoo. 6x in NT. From kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character; can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil; also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue). This is to afflict, mistreat, hurt, embitter, harm, injure. Figuratively, it can mean to exasperate or entreat evil.
XVII “minds” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
XVIII “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.

So they remainedXIX for a longXX, XXI timeXXII

Notes on verse 3a

XIX “remained” = diatribo. 9x in NT.  From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + the same as tribos (worn track or path like a rut that is formed from rubbing i.e. steady use; also road or highway); {from tribo (to rub or thresh)}. This is to spend time, remain, stay, continue. Literally, it is to rub or wear away.
XX “long” = hikanos. From hikneomai (to reach, come to, attain). This is sufficient, suitable, adequate, competent, ample.
XXI {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XXII “time” = chronos. Time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time.

speaking boldlyXXIII for the Lord,XXIV who testifiedXXV

Notes on verse 3b

XXIII “speaking boldly” = parresiazomai. 9x in NT– 7 in the book of Acts. From parresia (confidence, openness, boldness, outspokenness; can imply assurance – free speech); {from pas (all, every, each) + rhesis (speech); {from rheo (say, speak of, command)}}. This is to be confident, speak freely or with boldness. It can also refer to a confident spirit or manner.
XXIV “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XXV “testified” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.

to the wordXXVI of his graceXXVII by grantingXXVIII

Notes on verse 3c

XXVI “word” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
XXVII “grace” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
XXVIII “granting” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.

signsXXIX and wondersXXX to be doneXXXI throughXXXII them. 

Notes on verse 3d

XXIX “signs” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
XXX “wonders” = teras. 16x in NT.  This is a wonder or marvel performed to get bystanders to react. It could also be a portent or omen.
XXXI “done” = ginomai. Same as “occurred” in v1. See note I above.
XXXII {untranslated} = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.

But the residentsXXXIII of the cityXXXIV were divided:XXXV

Notes on verse 4a

XXXIII “residents” = plethos. Same as “number” in v1. See note IX above.
XXXIV “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
XXXV “divided” = schizo. 11x in NT. This is to split, divide, tear, sever; split in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “schism” comes from and also “schizophrenia” (literally “split mind”).

someXXXVI sidedXXXVII with the Jews, and some with the apostles.XXXVIII 

Notes on verse 4b

XXXVI {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XXI above.
XXXVII “sided” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
XXXVIII “apostles” = apostolos. From apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {probably from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm)}}. This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.

And when an attemptXXXIX was madeXL by both gentiles and Jews, with their rulers,XLI to mistreatXLII them and to stoneXLIII them, 

Notes on verse 5

XXXIX “attempt” = horme. 2x in NT. This is onrush, quick motion forward, attempt, inclination, attempt.
XL “was made” = ginomai. Same as “occurred” in v1. See note I above.
XLI “rulers” = archon. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is ruler, leader, magistrate, official, prince, chief.
XLII “mistreat” = hubrizo. 5x in NT. From hubris (insult, damage, harm, reproach, insolence; damage that includes reproach); from huper (by, under, over, above, under the authority of another). This is to insult, mistreat, steal. Figuratively, it is to harm someone so that they experience a loss, particularly to their reputation or honor. So, it is violence or abuse. This is where the word “hubris” comes from.
XLIII “stone” = lithoboleo. 7x in NT. From lithos (stone literal of figurative) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to stone as in kill by throwing stones at.

the apostles learnedXLIV of it and fledXLV to LystraXLVI and Derbe,XLVII

Notes on verse 6a

XLIV “learned” = suneidon. 4x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + eidon (shape, appearance, kind; something observable; form in a literal or figurative sense); from eido (to know, remember, perceive – to see and so understand)}. This is to see together and so know, realize, consider, be conscious of. It is a through understanding or awareness of something.
XLV “fled” = katapheugo. 2x in NT. From kata (down, against, among) + pheugo (to run away in a literal or figurative sense; to flee, escape, shun, or vanish). This is to flee or take refuge.
XLVI “Lystra” = Lustra. 6x in NT – 5x in Acts & 1x in 2 Timothy. Perhaps from luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld) + tranoo (to make clear) or trauma (wound); {from titrosko (to wound)} + tribos (path, road, rut; a path worn in by repeated use); {from trizo (to grate, gnash teeth, creak, squeak)}. This is Lystra, perhaps meaning “loose goats” or “pain relief” or “city of madness.” See
XLVII “Derbe” = Derbe. 3x in NT – all in Acts. Perhaps from Persian Darband (Derbe); {from dar (gate) + band (bar)}. This is Derbe, perhaps meaning “barred gate” or “narrow pass” or “narrow gate entrance.” See

cities of Lycaonia,XLVIII and to the surrounding region,XLIX and there they continuedL proclaiming the good news.LI

Notes on verses 6b-7

XLVIII “Lycaonia” = Lukaonia. 1x in NT. Perhaps from lukos (wolf, jackal; someone who is wolf-like); perhaps related to leukos (bright, white); from luke (light) OR perhaps form Hittite Lukka (a people group – Lukka). This is Lycaonia, a place in Asia Minor. It may mean “she-wolf land.” See
XLIX “surrounding region” = perichoros. 9x in NT. From peri (all-around, encompassing, excess) + chora (space, land, region, fields, open area – the countryside in contrast to the town); {from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn)}. This is neighboring, surrounding region, circum-adjacent.
L “continued” = eimi. Same as “sided” in v4. See note XXXVII above.
LI “proclaiming the good news” = euaggelizo. Related to “synagogue” in v1. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel) {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (see note VI above)}. This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.

In Lystra there was a manLII sittingLIII who could not useLIV his feetLV

Notes on verse 8a

LII “man” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
LIII “sitting” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
LIV “could not use” = adunatos. 10x in NT. From a (not, without) + dunatos (mighty or powerful; ability of persons, possibility of things; what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits); {from dunamai (to be able, have power or ability)}. This is powerless, unable, impotent, or impossible. It is weak in a literal or figurative sense.
LV “feet” = pous. This is foot in a literal or figurative sense.

and had never walked,LVI for he had been lameLVII from birth.LVIII 

Notes on verse 8b

LVI “walked” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.
LVII “lame” = cholos. 14x in NT. This is lame or limping. It can also mean missing a foot.
LVIII “birth” = koilia + meter + autos. Literally, “his mother’s womb.” Koilia is from koilos (hollow). This is belly or organs in the abdomen. So, it could be stomach, womb, or heart. Figuratively, this refers to one’s inner self. Meter is mother in a literal or figurative sense.

He listenedLIX to PaulLX as he was speaking. And Paul, looking at him intentlyLXI

Notes on verse 9a

LIX “listened” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
LX “Paul” = Paulos. From Latin Paulus (small, little). This is Paul or Paulos, meaning little.
LXI “looking…intently” = atenizo. 14x in NT. From a (has an intensive sense) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain). This is to gaze or look steadily at with one’s full attention and fascination.

and seeingLXII that he hadLXIII faithLXIV to be healed,LXV 

Notes on verse 9b

LXII “seeing” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
LXIII “had” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
LXIV “faith” = pistis. Related to “became believers” in v1 & “unbelieving” in v2. See note XII above.
LXV “healed” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.

10 said in a loudLXVI voice,LXVII “StandLXVIII uprightLXIX on your feet.” And the man sprang upLXX and began to walk. 

Notes on verse 10

LXVI “loud” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
LXVII “voice” = phone. Probably from phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
LXVIII “stand” = anistemi. Related to “apostles” in v4. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note XXXVIII above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
LXIX “upright” = orthos. 2x in NT. Perhaps from oros (mountain, hill); probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove).  This is straight or direct. It could also mean morally upright, honest, or virtuous.
LXX “sprang up” = hallomai. 3x in NT. This is to leap or bubble up.

11 When the crowdsLXXI saw what Paul had done,LXXII they shoutedLXXIII in the Lycaonian language,LXXIV, LXXV

Notes on verse 11a

LXXI “crowds” = ochlos. Related to “had” in v9. Perhaps from echo (see note LXIII above). This is a crowd, the common people, a rabble. Figuratively, it can refer to a riot.
LXXII “done” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
LXXIII “shouted” = epairo + ho + phone. Literally, “lifted up their voice.” Epairo is related to “upright” in v10. 19x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + airo (see note LXIX above). This is to lift up or raise in a literal or figurative sense. Figuratively, it could mean to exalt oneself. Phone is the same as “voice” in v10. See note LXVII above.
LXXIV “in the Lycaonian language” = Lukaonisti. Related to “Lycaonia” in v6. 1x in NT. From Lukaonia (see note XLVIII above). This is literally, Lycaonistically. So, it is use to refer to the Lycaonian language. See
LXXV {untranslated} = lego. Related to “word” in v3. See note XXVI above.

“The godsLXXVI have come downLXXVII to us in humanLXXVIII form!”LXXIX 

Notes on verse 11b

LXXVI “gods” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
LXXVII “come down” = katabaino. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (to walk, go). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXVIII “human” = anthropos. Related to “seeing” in v9. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note LXII above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
LXXIX “in…form” = homoioo. 15x in NT. From homoios (similar to, resembling, like); from the same as homou (together); from homos (the same). This is to compare, liken, resemble, become similar.

12 BarnabasLXXX they calledLXXXI Zeus,LXXXII

Notes on verse 12a

LXXX “Barnabas” = Barnabas. Probably from Aramaic Barnabas (Barnabas); {from bar (son); {Aramaic corresponding to ben (son literal or figurative; also, grandson, subject, nation); from banah (to build or obtain children)} + nabi (prophet, prophecy, speaker; someone inspired)}. This is Barnabas, meaning “son of prophecy” or “representative.” See
LXXXI “called” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
LXXXII “Zeus” = Zeus. 2x in NT. Origin uncertain. This is Zeus, the Greek god. His name may mean “Sky Being” or “Light Bearer.” See

and Paul they called Hermes,LXXXIII because he wasLXXXIV the chiefLXXXV speaker.LXXXVI 

Notes on verse 12b

LXXXIII “Hermes” = Hermes. 2x in NT. Perhaps from ereo (to say, tell, speak). This is Hermes, Greek god who was messenger to the other gods, also god of language. His name may mean “new declaration” or “supporting message” or “border crosser.” See
LXXXIV “was” = eimi. Same as “sided” in v4. See note XXXVII above.
LXXXV “chief” = hegeomai. Related to “synagogue” in v1 & “proclaiming the good news” in v7. From ago (see note VI above). This is to think, suppose, have an opinion. It is to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority. It can refer to one who commands in an official capacity. This word shares a root with the word “hegemony.”
LXXXVI “speaker” = logos. Same as “word” in v3. See note XXVI above.

13 The priestLXXXVII of Zeus, whose temple was just outside the city, broughtLXXXVIII oxenLXXXIX

Notes on verse 13a

LXXXVII “priest” = hiereus. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god). This is a priest, used for Jewish and Gentile priests.
LXXXVIII “brought” = phero. This is to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly. It is to carry in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXIX “oxen” = tauros. 4x in NT. This is a bull or ox.

and garlandsXC to the gates;XCI he and the crowds wantedXCII to offer sacrifice.XCIII 

Notes on verse 13b

XC “garlands” = stemma. 1x in NT. From the same as stephanos (something that surrounds i.e. a crown or garland; properly, the wreath or garland that the winner of athletic games would win; symbolized victory and honor from skill as contrasted with a royal crown, which is diadema in Greek); stepho (to twine, encircle). This is a wreath, garland, or crown.
XCI “gates” = pulon. 18x in NT. From pule (gate, large entryway to a town or fortress; often used for an exit; often figurative for authority and power). This is a porch, gateway, or vestibule. It is a passageway from the street through the house to the courtyard.
XCII “wanted” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
XCIII “offer sacrifice” = thuo. 14x in NT. This is to rush along, breathe violently. It can also mean to offer sacrifice, specifically by fire (in reference to the blowing smoke).

14 When the apostles Barnabas and Paul heardXCIV of it, they toreXCV their clothesXCVI and rushed outXCVII into the crowd, shouting,XCVIII 

Notes on verse 14

XCIV “heard” = akouo. Same as “listened” in v9. See note LIX above.
XCV “tore” = diarresso. 5x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + rhegnumi (to break, burst, wreak, crack, break apart). This is to tear apart or burst.
XCVI “clothes” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.
XCVII “rushed out” = eispedao. 3x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + pedao (to leap or spring). This is to rush in or spring in.
XCVIII “shouting” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.

15 XCIX“People,C why are you doingCI this? We are mortalsCII just likeCIII you,

Notes on verse 15a

XCIX {untranslated} = lego. Same as {untranslated} in v11. See note LXXV above.
C “people” = aner. Same as “man” in v8. See note LII above.
CI “doing” = poieo. Same as “done” in v11. See note LXXII above.
CII “mortals” = anthropos. Same as “human” in v11. See note LXXVIII above.
CIII “just like” = homoiopathes. Related to “in…form” in v11. 2x in NT. From homoios (see note LXXIX above) + pascho (to be acted on for good or ill; often used for negative treatment; properly, feeling strong emotions – especially suffering; can also be the ability to feel suffering). This is having a similar nature or passion or feelings. It can also be someone who is affected in a similar way.

and we bring you good news,CIV that you should turnCV from these worthless thingsCVI to the livingCVII God,CVIII

Notes on verse 15b

CIV “bring…good news” = euaggelizo. Same as “proclaiming the good news” in v7. See note LI above.
CV “turn” = epistrepho. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn, return, or come again. It can also mean to revert. It is turning in a literal or figurative sense – also a moral turning.
CVI “worthless things” = mataios. 6x in NT. From the same as maten (in vain, aimlessly, pointless, fruitless); from mate (a folly) or from massaomai (to chew, gnaw); {from masso (to kneed, squeeze). This is vain, useless, worthless, unproductive, or purposeless. It can also figuratively mean fleeting or refer to idols.
CVII “living” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
CVIII “God” = Theos. Same as “gods” in v11. See note LXXVI above.

who madeCIX the heavenCX and the earthCXI and the seaCXII and allCXIII that is in them. 

Notes on verse 15c

CIX “made” = poieo. Same as “done” in v11. See note LXXII above.
CX “heaven” = ouranos. Related to “upright” in v10 & “shouted” in v11. May be related to oros (see note LXIX above). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
CXI “earth” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
CXII “sea” = thalassa. Perhaps from hals (sea, salt, a boy of saltwater) or halas (salt; can be figurative for prudence). This is the sea, a lake, or seashore.
CXIII “all” = pas. Related to “speaking boldly” in v3. See note XXIII above.

16 In pastCXIV generationsCXV he allowedCXVI all peoplesCXVII to followCXVIII their own ways,CXIX 

Notes on verse 16

CXIV “past” = paroichomai. 1x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + oichomai (to depart). This is to escape along, be passed (as time).
CXV “generations” = genea. Related to “occurred” in v1. From genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note I above). This is family, generation, kind, or nation. As generation, it implies an age as a period of time. It can also mean infinity. This is the root of the word “generation.”
CXVI “allowed” = eao. 11x in NT. This is to allow, leave, put up with something.
CXVII “peoples” = ethnos. Same as “gentiles” in v2. See note XV above.
CXVIII “follow” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
CXIX “ways” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.

17 yet he has not leftCXX himself without a witnessCXXI in doing good,CXXII givingCXXIII you rainsCXXIV from heavenCXXV

Notes on verse 17a

CXX “left” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
CXXI “without a witness” = amarturos. Related to “testified” in v3. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + martus (see note XXV above). This is unattested to.
CXXII “doing good” = agathoergeo. 2x in NT. From agathos (good, a benefit, or a good thing; good by its very nature, inherently good) + ergon (word, task, action, employment); {from ergo (to work, accomplish) or from erdo (to do)}. This is to do work that is intrinsically good.
CXXIII “giving” = didomi. Same as “granting” in v3. See note XXVIII above.
CXXIV “rains” = huetos. 5x in NT. From huo (to rain). This is rain or a shower
CXXV “from heaven” = ouranothen. Related to “upright” in v10 & “shouted” in v11 & “heaven” in v15. 2x in NT – both in Acts. From ouranos (see note CX above). This is from the sky or heaven.

and fruitfulCXXVI seasonsCXXVII and fillingCXXVIII you with foodCXXIX

Notes on verse 17b

CXXVI “fruitful” = karpophoros. Related to “brought” in v13. 1x in NT. From karpos (a fruit or vegetable; sometimes an animal; figuratively, deeds, results, profits, or gain) + phero (see note LXXXVIII above). This is fruitful or productive.
CXXVII “seasons” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.
CXXVIII “filling” = empiplemi. Related to “great” in v1. 5x in NT– including the Magnificat in Luke 1:53 “God has filled the hungry with good things.” From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + same as pleistos (most, very great, much, very numerous); {from polus (see note VIII above)}. This is to fill up or satisfy literally or figuratively.
CXXIX “food” = trophe. 16x in NT. Perhaps from trepho (to bring up, rear, nourish, fatten, nurse; properly, to enlarge through proper nourishment). This is nourishment in a literal or figurative sense. By implication, it can be ration or wages.

and your heartsCXXX with joy.”CXXXI 18 Even with these words, they scarcelyCXXXII restrainedCXXXIII the crowds from offering sacrifice to them.

Notes on verses 17c-18

CXXX “hearts” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
CXXXI “joy” = euphrosune. Related to “proclaiming the good news” in v7. 2x in NT – both in Acts. From eu (see note LI above) + phren (literally the diaphragm; used figuratively for heart, thought, or understanding; personal outlook we use to decide our actions, general outlook); {may be from phrao (to rein in, curb)}. This is joy or rejoicing.
CXXXII “scarcely” = molis. 6x in NT. From mogos (laborious toil) OR from molos (toil) OR from mogis (scarcely, barely; something that only happens with difficulty; emphasizes that the action is prolonged and therefore difficult). This is something that hardly happens and/or requires a lot of effort.
CXXXIII “restrained” = katapauo. 4x in NT. From kata (down, against, among) + pauo (to stop, refrain, pause, restrain, quit, come to an end). This is to rest, restrain, cease.

19 But Jews cameCXXXIV there from AntiochCXXXV and Iconium and won overCXXXVI the crowds.

Notes on verse 19a

CXXXIV “came” = eperchomai. Related to “went” in v1. 10x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + erchomai (see note IV above). This is to come upon, arrive, occur. It focuses on the impact or influence beyond the initial coming.
CXXXV “Antioch” = Antiocheia. Related to “had” in v9 & “crowds” in v11. 18x in NT. From Antiochos (Antiochus, a proper name common to kings of Syria); {perhaps from anti (opposite, instead of, against) + echo (see note LXIII above)}. This is Antioch or Antiochia, two cities in the Bible have this name. It means “resistant” or “set against.” See
CXXXVI “won over” = peitho. Related to “became believers” in v1 & “unbelieving” in v2 & “faith” in v9. See note XII above.

Then they stonedCXXXVII Paul and draggedCXXXVIII him out of the city, supposingCXXXIX that he was dead.CXL 

Notes on verse 19b

CXXXVII “stoned” = lithazo. Related to “stone” in v5. 9x in NT. From lithos (see note XLIII above). This is to stone someone.
CXXXVIII “dragged” = suro. Related to “upright” in v10 & “shouted” in v11 & “heaven” in v15 & “from heaven” in v17. 5x in NT. Perhaps from haireomai (to take, choose, or prefer); perhaps related to airo (see note LXIX above). This is to drag, sweep away.
CXXXIX “supposing” = nomizo. 15x in NT. From nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); from nemo (to parcel out, assign). This is to practice, think, consider, suppose, hold by custom. This is thinking that something applies given precedent and practice – to do by law.
CXL “was dead” = thnesko. 9x in NT. This is to die or be dead in a spiritual or literal sense.

20 But when the disciplesCXLI surroundedCXLII him, he got upCXLIII and went into the city. The next dayCXLIV he went onCXLV with Barnabas to Derbe.

Notes on verse 20

CXLI “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
CXLII “surrounded” = kukloo. 5x in NT. From the same as kuklo (circle, surrounding); from kuklos (circle, ring). This is to encircle, surround, gather. It is where the word “cycle” comes from.
CXLIII “got up” = anistemi. Same as “stand” in v10. See note LXVIII above.
CXLIV “next day” = epaurion. 17x in NT. From epi (on, upon, something fitting) + aurion (tomorrow); {from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow)}. This is tomorrow, the next day.
CXLV “went on” = exerchomai. Related to “went” in v1 & “came” in v19. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note IV above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.

21 After they had proclaimed the good news to that city and had made manyCXLVI disciples,CXLVII they returnedCXLVIII to Lystra, then on to Iconium and Antioch. 22 There they strengthenedCXLIX the soulsCL of the disciples

Notes on verses 21-22a

CXLVI “many” = hikanos. Same as “long” in v3. See note XX above.
CXLVII “made…disciples” = matheteuo. Related to “disciples’ in v20. 4x in NT. See note CXLI above.
CXLVIII “returned” = hupostrepho. Related to “turn” in v15. From hupo (by, under, about) + strepho (see note CV above). This is to turn back or behind in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLIX “strengthened” = episterizo. Related to “apostles” in v4 & “stand” in v10. 4x in NT – all in Acts. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + sterizo (to make fast, support, strengthen, establish, fix firmly, to go resolutely); {from sterigx (a support, plant down); perhaps from histemi (see note XXXVIII above)}. This is to strengthen, support, confirm.
CL “souls” = psuche. Same as “minds” in v2. See note XVII above.

and encouragedCLI them to continueCLII in the faith, saying, “It is through manyCLIII persecutionsCLIV

Notes on verse 22b

CLI “encouraged” = parakaleo. Related to “called” in v12. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (see note LXXXI above). This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.
CLII “continue” = emmeno. Related to “worthless things” in v15. 4x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + meno (to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure; to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition; to continue with hope and expectation) or from massaomai (see note CVI above). This is to live, observe, continue, abide by, persevere.
CLIII “many” = polus. Same as “great” in v1. See note VIII above.
CLIV “persecutions” = thlipsis. From thlibo (to press in on and make narrow, rub together, constrict; figuratively to oppress or afflict). This is pressure that hems us in – used often of internal pressure that makes us feel like we have no other options and are confined or restricted. So, this is persecution, affliction, trouble, distress, and anguish. There is a different word, stenoxoria, that refers to external pressure that we feel from what’s going on.

that we mustCLV enterCLVI the kingdomCLVII of God.” 

Notes on verse 22c

CLV “must” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
CLVI “enter” = eiserchomai. Same as “went” in v1. See note IV above.
CLVII “kingdom” = basileia. Related to “come down” in v11. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (see note LXXVII above). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.

23 And after they had appointedCLVIII eldersCLIX for them in each church,CLX

Notes on verse 23a

CLVIII “appointed” = cheirotoneo. Related to {untranslated} in v3. 2x in NT. From cheir (see note XXXII above) + teino (to stretch). This is to choose by raising one’s hand, to vote in an assembly, to appoint.
CLIX “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.
CLX “church” = ekklesia. Related to “called” in v12 & “encouraged” in v22. From ek (from, out from) + kaleo (see note LXXXI above). This is properly a calling out or an assembly. It was used to refer to a church.

with prayerCLXI and fastingCLXII they entrustedCLXIII them to the Lord in whom they had come to believe.CLXIV

Notes on verse 23b

CLXI “prayer” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.
CLXII “fasting” = nesteia. 6x in NT. From nesteuo (to fast, not eat food, to make a religious fast); from nestis (hungry, fasting, fasting for religious reasons); {from ne (not) + the same as esthio (to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust); {akin to edo (to eat)}}. This is fasting, hunger. Can be used specifically for the fast done on the Day of Atonement.
CLXIII “entrusted” = paratithemi. 19x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is properly, to set beside or place before. So, it can mean to set or serve a meal, to deposit something with someone, to set forth an argument. It can also mean to entrust, commend, or tell a parable (as setting forth information).
CLXIV “believe” = pisteuo. Same as “became believers” in v1. See note XII above.

24 Then they passed throughCLXV PisidiaCLXVI and cameCLXVII to Pamphylia.CLXVIII 

Notes on verse 24

CLXV “passed through” = dierchomai. Related to “went” in v1 & “came” in v19 & “went on” in v20. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (see note IV above). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.
CLXVI “Pisidia” = Pisidia. 2x in NT – both in Acts. Perhaps from pisos (meadow). This is Pisidia or Pisidian, which man mean “meadow.” See
CLXVII “came” = erchomai. Related to “went” in v1 & “came” in v19 & “went on” in v20 & “passed through” in v24. See note IV above.
CLXVIII “Pamphylia” = Pamphulia. Related to “speaking boldly” in v3 & “all” in v15. 5x in NT. From pas (see note XXIII above) + phule (clan, tribe, lineage); {from phuo (to produce, spring up, grow, germinate; perhaps originally meaning puff or blow)}. This is Pamphylia, meaning every tribe. It is a province on the southern coast of Asia Minor

25 When they had spoken the word in Perga,CLXIX they went downCLXX to Attalia.CLXXI 

Notes on verse 25

CLXIX “Perga” = Perge. 3x in NT. Probably related to Pergamos (Pergamum; “fortified,” “capital,” “citadel,” “of first class courage); {from purgos (a tower or other kind of structure that is fortified) or from Pergamon (citadel, acropolis); from Priamos (similar to or from Priam, king of Troy); perhaps from Luwian Priya-muwa (“first-class courage)}. This is Perge or Perga, a city meaning “tower” or “capital” or “citadel” or “of first class courage.” See &
CLXX “went down” = katabaino. Same as “come down” in v11. See note LXXVII above.
CLXXI “Attalia” = Attaleia. 1x in NT. From Attalos (Attalus, the name of a king of Pergamum). This is Attalia, a city whose name has uncertain meaning.

26 From there they sailedCLXXII back to Antioch, where they hadCLXXIII been commendedCLXXIV to the grace of God for the workCLXXV that they had completed.CLXXVI 

Notes on verse 26

CLXXII “sailed” = apopleo. 4x in NT – all in Acts. From apo (from, away from) + pleo (to sail, voyage); {perhaps from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow)}. This is to sail, sail away.
CLXXIII “had” = eimi. Same as “sided” in v4. See note XXXVII above.
CLXXIV “commended” = paradidomi. Related to “granting” in v3. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (see note XXVIII above). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
CLXXV “work” = ergon. Related to “doing good” in v17. See note CXXII above.
CLXXVI “completed” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.

27 When they arrived,CLXXVII they called the church togetherCLXXVIII and relatedCLXXIX

Notes on verse 27a

CLXXVII “arrived” = paraginomai. Related to “occurred” in v1 & “generations” in v16. From para (from beside, by) + ginomai (see note I above). This is to arrive, appear, reach. It implies appearing publicly.
CLXXVIII “called…together” = sunago. Related to “synagogue” in v1 & “proclaiming the good news” in v7 & “chief” in v12. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note VI above). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
CLXXIX “related” = anaggello. Related to “synagogue” in v1 & “proclaiming the good news” in v7 & “chief” in v12 & “called…together” in v27. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, by, anew) + aggello (see note LI above). This is returning with word, reporting, declaring, announcing. It is to tell something all the way, which is to say to tell it clearly.

all that God had doneCLXXX with them and how he had openedCLXXXI a doorCLXXXII of faith for the gentiles. 28 And they stayedCLXXXIII there with the disciples for someCLXXXIV time.

Notes on verses 27b-28

CLXXX “done” = poieo. Same as “done” in v11. See note LXXII above.
CLXXXI “opened” = anoigo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open). This is to open in literal or figurative sense.
CLXXXII “door” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.
CLXXXIII “stayed” = diatribo. Same as “remained” in v3. See note XIX above.
CLXXXIV “some” = ou + oligos. Literally, “no little.” Oligos is few or small – it can be a short time or extent, low light, amount, or worth.

Image credit: “Paul Confronts a Fortune Teller” by Boettcher+Trinklein TV Inc.

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