Acts 15

Acts 15


Then certain individuals came downI from JudeaII and were teachingIII the brothers,IV

Notes on verse 1a

I “came down” = katerchomai. 16x in NT. From kata (down, against, among) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to descend, depart, go lower, land. It could be to descend from sky to the ground or from higher to lower ground or from the sea to the shore. It is to go down in a literal or figurative sense.
II “Judea” = Ioudaia. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.
III “teaching” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.
IV “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.

“Unless you are circumcisedV according to the customVI of Moses,VII you cannotVIII be saved.”IX 

Notes on verse 1b

V “circumcised” = peritemno. 18x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + same as tomos or tomoteros (sharp or keener); {from temno (to cut as with a single slice)}. This is to circumcise – literally to cut around.
VI “custom” = ethos. 12x in NT. From etho (custom, what is customary). This is custom habit, rite – also, doing something that the law requires. It can be an unwritten custom, acting in accordance with tradition.
VII “Moses” = Mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
VIII “cannot” = ou + dunamai. Dunamai is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
IX “saved” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.

And after PaulX and BarnabasXI hadXII no smallXIII dissensionXIV

Notes on verse 2a

X “Paul” = Paulos. From Latin Paulus (small, little). This is Paul or Paulos, meaning little.
XI “Barnabas” = Barnabas. Probably from Aramaic Barnabas (Barnabas); {from bar (son); {Aramaic corresponding to ben (son literal or figurative; also, grandson, subject, nation); from banah (to build or obtain children)} + nabi (prophet, prophecy, speaker; someone inspired)}. This is Barnabas, meaning “son of prophecy” or “representative.” See
XII “had” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
XIII “small” = oligos. This is few or small – it can be a short time or extent, low light, amount, or worth.
XIV “dissension” = stasis. 9x in NT– including Barabbas’s crime. From histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is standing – the act of standing, a place, an uprising, insurrection, dissension, or controversy.

and debateXV with them, Paul and Barnabas and some of the othersXVI were appointedXVII to go upXVIII

Notes on verse 2b

XV “debate” = zetesis. 8x in NT. From zeteo (to seek, search for, desire. searching for something by inquiring or investigation; to seek in a literal or figurative sense; to worship God). This is a search, controversy, discussion, or debate.
XVI “others” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
XVII “appointed” = tasso. 9x in NT. This word was common in military settings to mean appoint or commission to a certain status. It referred to arranging in a specified order, setting in place, or sending to a specific task.
XVIII “go up” = anabaino. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (to walk, to go)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.

to JerusalemXIX to discuss this questionXX with the apostlesXXI and the elders.XXII 

Notes on verse 2c

XIX “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
XX “question” = zetema. Related to “debate” in v2. 5x in NT. From zeteo (see note XV above). This is a question, dispute, debate, point of disagreement, controversy.
XXI “apostles” = apostolos. Related to “dissension” in v2. From apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {probably from histemi (see note XIV above)}}. This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.
XXII “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.

So theyXXIII were sent on their wayXXIV by the church,XXV

Notes on verse 3a

XXIII {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XXIV “sent on…way” = propempo. 9x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + pempo (to send, put forth, or dispatch; often a temporary errand; sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from). This is to send forth, accompany, escort. It is to prepare for a journey.
XXV “church” = ekklesia. From ek (from, out from) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is properly a calling out or an assembly. It was used to refer to a church.

and as they passed throughXXVI both PhoeniciaXXVII and Samaria,XXVIII

Notes on verse 3b

XXVI “passed through” = dierchomai. Related to “came down” in v1. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (see note I above). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.
XXVII “Phoenicia” = Phoinike. 3x in NT– all in Acts. Probably from phoinix (palm tree, palm branch, date palm) OR from Phoinix (Phoenician, Tyrian purple); {related to phoinos (red); probably related to Egyptian fenkhu (carpenter – used to refer to a people)}. This is Phoenicia, perhaps meaning “palm country.” It is north of Galilee. See
XXVIII “Samaria” = Samareia. 11x in NT. From Hebrew Shomron (capital of the northern kingdom of Israel); from shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is Samaria, meaning watch station.

they reportedXXIX the conversionXXX of the gentilesXXXI

Notes on verse 3c

XXIX “reported” = ekdiegeomai. 2x in NT– both in Acts. From ek (from, from out of) + diegeomai (to describe fully, narrate, declare, tell something clearly so that one knows what is most important); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + hegeomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); {from ago (lead, bring, carry, drive, go)}}. This is to report or describe fully – the reporter having thorough knowledge of the issue at hand.
XXX “conversion” = epistrophe. 1x in NT. From epistrepho (to turn, return, or come again; to revert; turning in a literal or figurative sense – also a moral turning); {from epi epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}}. This is conversion or reversion. It is a turning or a moral revolution.
XXXI “gentiles” = ethnos. Related to “custom” in v1. Probably from etho (see note VI above). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.

and broughtXXXII greatXXXIII joyXXXIV to allXXXV the brothers and sisters. 

Notes on verse 3d

XXXII “brought” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XXXIII “great” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
XXXIV “joy” = chara. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is joy, delight, gladness. Can be understood as the feeling you get when you are aware of grace.
XXXV “all” = pas. This is all or every.

When they cameXXXVI to Jerusalem, they were welcomedXXXVII by the church and the apostles and the elders, and they reportedXXXVIII all thatXXXIX GodXL had doneXLI with them. 

Notes on verse 4

XXXVI “came” = paraginomai. Related to “had” in v2. From para (from beside, by) + ginomai (see note XII above). This is to arrive, appear, reach. It implies appearing publicly.
XXXVII “welcomed” = paradechomai. 6x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is to receive, welcome, accept, adopt, admit. It can also mean to find joy in.
XXXVIII “reported” = anaggello. Related to “reported” in v3. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, by, anew) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (angel, messenger – supernatural or human envoy of God); probably from ago (see note XXIX above)}. This is returning with word, reporting, declaring, announcing. It is to tell something all the way, which is to say to tell it clearly.
XXXIX “all that” = hosos. From hos (who, which, that). This is how much, as many as, as great as.
XL “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XLI “done” = poieo. Same as “brought” in v3. See note XXXII above.

But some believersXLII who belonged to the sectXLIII of the PhariseesXLIV stood upXLV

Notes on verse 5a

XLII “believers” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
XLIII “sect” = hairesis. 9x in NT. From haireo (to take, choose, or prefer); {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is a choice, contention, heresy, or sect. It is making a person choice so, by implication, choice of a separate party or faction. It is where the word “heresy” comes from.
XLIV “Pharisees” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
XLV “stood up” = exanistemi. Related to “dissension” in v2 & “apostles” in v2. 3x in NT. From ek (out, out of) + anistemi (to raise up, rise, appear; to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect); {from ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note XIV above)}. This is to rise up, stand, grow, beget. It can also mean to raise children.

and said,XLVI “It is necessaryXLVII for them to be circumcised and orderedXLVIII to keepXLIX the lawL of Moses.”

Notes on verse 5b

XLVI “said” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XLVII “is necessary” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
XLVIII “ordered” = paraggello. Related to “reported” in v3 & “reported in v4. From para (from beside, by) + aggello (see note XXXVIII above). This is to send a message, order, notify, command. It is a charge – a proper command as a military term that has followed proper channels. It can also mean to entreat solemnly.
XLIX “keep” = tereo. From teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve. It can also be used f iguratively for spiritual watchfulness. It is guarding something from being lost or harmed – keeping an eye on it. Contrast the Greek phulasso, which is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape. Also contrast koustodia, which generally denotes a fortress or military presence. This word can mean fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining. It can also figuratively mean to remain unmarried.
L “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.

The apostles and the elders met togetherLI to considerLII this matter.LIII 

Notes on verse 6

LI “met together” = sunago. Related to “reported” in v3 & “reported in v4 & “ordered” in v5. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note XXIX above). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
LII “consider” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
LIII “matter” = logos. Related to “said” in v5. From lego (see note XLVI above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.

After there had beenLIV muchLV debate, PeterLVI stood upLVII

Notes on verse 7a

LIV “been” = ginomai. Same as “had” in v2. See note XII above.
LV “much” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
LVI “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
LVII “stood up” = anistemi. Related to “dissension” in v2 & “apostles” in v2 & “stood up” in v5. See note XLV above.

and said to them, “LVIIIMy brothers, you knowLIX that in the earlyLX daysLXI

Notes on verse 7b

LVIII {untranslated} = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
LIX “know” = epistamai. Related to “dissension” in v2 & “apostles” in v2 & “stood up” in v5 & “stood up” in v7. 14x in NT. From epihistemi (to stand upon, be present, stand by, be urgent; to attack, confront, appear); {from epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + histemi (see note XIV above)}. This is to know, stand on, get knowledge face to face or with personal effort, comprehend, be acquainted. It is related to “epistemology.”
LX “early” = archaios. 11x in NT. From arche (origin, beginning, rule; can refer to the power of a magistrate or a king; it is the first thing as being the starting point or the most important); {from archomai (to begin or rule); from archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power)}. This is old, ancient, original. It is where the word “archaic” comes from.
LXI “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.

God made a choiceLXII among you, that I should be the oneLXIII through whom the gentiles would hearLXIV the messageLXV of the good newsLXVI and become believers.LXVII 

Notes on verse 7c

LXII “made a choice” = eklego. Related to “said” in v5 & “matter” in v6. From ek (from, from out of) + lego (see note XLVI above). This is to choose, select.
LXIII {untranslated} = dia + ho + stoma + ego. Literally, “by my mouth.” Stoma is related to “circumcised” in v1. Perhaps from tomoteros (see note V above). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.
LXIV “hear” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
LXV “message” = logos. Same as “matter” in v6. See note LIII above.
LXVI “good news” = euaggelion. Related to “reported” in v3 & “reported in v4 & “ordered” in v5 & “met together” in v6. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (see note XXXVIII above). This is literally “the good news,” used for the gospel. This is also where “evangelism” comes from.
LXVII “become believers” = pisteuo. Same as “believers” in v5. See note XLII above.

And God, who knows the human heart,LXVIII testifiedLXIX to them by givingLXX them the HolyLXXI Spirit,LXXII just as he did to us, 

Notes on verse 8

LXVIII “knows the human heart” = kardiognostes. 2x in NT. From kardia (the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings; the center of something; only used figuratively in the Bible) + gnostes (expert, a knower); {from ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience)}. This is one who knows hearts i.e. the inner life, moral convictions. Used of God both times.
LXIX “testified” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.
LXX “giving” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXI “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
LXXII “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

and in cleansingLXXIII their heartsLXXIV by faithLXXV he has made no distinctionLXXVI between them and us. 

Notes on verse 9

LXXIII “cleansing” = katharizo. From katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying). This is to cleanse, make clean, purify, purge, or declare to be clean. Like its roots, it includes cleansing in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense. Being pure or purified is not something that is only available to the rare few or the innocent. Anyone can be purified.
LXXIV “hearts” = kardia. Related to “knows the human heart” in v8. See note LXVIII above.
LXXV “faith” = pistis. Related to “believers” in v5. See note XLII above.
LXXVI “made…distinction” = diakrino. 19x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is to judge, separate, contend, investigate, thoroughly judge.

10 Now, therefore, why are you putting God to the testLXXVII by placingLXXVIII on the neckLXXIX of the disciplesLXXX

Notes on verse 10a

LXXVII “putting…to the test” = peirazo. From peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative of peiro (to pierce). This is to test, try, tempt, or make proof of. It is to test, scrutinize, or assay something. It could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline.
LXXVIII “placing” = epitithemi. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to lay on or place on, whether in a friendly or aggressive way.
LXXIX “neck” = trachelos. 7x in NT. Probably from trachus (rough, uneven). This is the neck or throat. It can also refer to an embrace. It shares a root with the word “trachea.”
LXXX “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.

a yokeLXXXI that neither our ancestorsLXXXII nor we have been ableLXXXIII to bear?LXXXIV 

Notes on verse 10b

LXXXI “yoke” = zugos. 6x in NT. From zeugnumi (to yoke). This is a yoke or set of scale. It is what unites people in shared work so it is servitude or obligation.
LXXXII “ancestors” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
LXXXIII “been able” = ischuo. From ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance); {perhaps from is (force) + echo (to have, hold, possess)}. This is to be strong or have power. It can also refer to being healthy and vigorous. Further, it can mean to prevail. It is strength in action against resistance, exercising force in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXIV “bear” = bastazo. Related to “go up” in v2. Perhaps from the base of basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (see note XVIII above). This is to lift in a literal of figurative sense. It can also mean take up, carry, bear, or remove. Figuratively, it can mean declare, endure, or sustain.

11 On the contrary, we believe that we will be saved through the graceLXXXV of the LordLXXXVI Jesus,LXXXVII just asLXXXVIII they will.”

Notes on verse 11

LXXXV “grace” = charis. Related to “joy” in v3. From chairo (see note XXXIV above). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
LXXXVI “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
LXXXVII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
LXXXVIII {untranslated} = tropos. Related to “conversion” in v3. 13x in NT. From the same as trope (see note XXX above). This is turning and taking on a new direction or manner. It can refer to way, fashion, style, or character. This is where the word “trope” comes from.

12 The wholeLXXXIX assemblyXC kept silenceXCI and listenedXCII to Barnabas and Paul

Notes on verse 12a

LXXXIX “whole” = pas. Same as “all” in v3. See note XXXV above.
XC “assembly” = plethos. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is fullness, multitude, great number.
XCI “kept silence” = sigao. 10x in NT. From sige (silence, hush); perhaps from sizo (to hiss or hush). This is to be silent or hold peace.
XCII “listened” = akouo. Same as “hear” in v7. See note LXIV above.

as they toldXCIII of allXCIV the signsXCV and wondersXCVI that God had done through them among the gentiles. 

Notes on verse 12b

XCIII “told” = exegeomai. Related to “reported” in v3 & “reported in v4 & “ordered” in v5 & “met together” in v6 & “good news” in v7. 6x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + hegeomai (see note XXIX above). This is to lead the way, bring forth. Figuratively, it is to unfold or explain something thoroughly to show what is most important. This is where the word “exegesis” comes from.
XCIV “all” = hosos. Same as “all that” in v4. See note XXXIX above.
XCV “signs” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
XCVI “wonders” = teras. 16x in NT. This is a wonder or marvel performed to get bystanders to react. It could also be a portent or omen.

13 After they finished speaking,XCVII JamesXCVIII replied,XCIX, CCIMy brothers, listen to me. 

Notes on verse 13

XCVII “finished speaking” = sigao. Same as “kept silence” in v12. See note XCI above.
XCVIII “James” = Iakob. From Hebrew Yaaqob (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
XCIX “replied” = apokrinomai. Related to “made…distinction” in v9. From apo (from, away from) + krino (see note LXXVI above). This is to reply or respond, to draw one’s own conclusions, to speak when one is expected to.
C {untranslated} = lego. Same as “said” in v5. See note XLVI above.
CI {untranslated} = aner. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note LVIII above.

14 SimeonCII has relatedCIII how God firstCIV

Notes on verse 14a

CII “Simeon” = Sumeon. 7x in NT. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simeon, Symeon, or Simon. It is a personal name as well as the tribe Simeon. It means “he who hears.”
CIII “related” = exegeomai. Same as “told” in v12. See note XCIII above.
CIV “first” = proton. From protos (what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief); from pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is firstly, before, in the beginning, formerly.

looked favorablyCV on the gentiles, to takeCVI from among them a peopleCVII for his name.CVIII 

Notes on verse 14b

CV “looked favorably” = episkeptomai. 11x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + the base of skopos (a mark or goal like the marker at the end of a race; figuratively, other goals or destinations; also, a watch or sentry); {from skeptomai (to peer out, consider, gaze carefully); perhaps related to skapto (to dig or excavate)}. This is to look at, look out for, see, select, visit.
CVI “take” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
CVII “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
CVIII “name” = onoma. Related to “knows the human heart” in v8. May be from ginosko (see note LXVIII above). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.

15 This agreesCIX with the wordsCX of the prophets,CXI as it is written,CXII

Notes on verse 15

CIX “agrees” = sumphoneo. 6x in NT. From sumphonos (harmonious, agreeing, consent; having one voice i.e. a shared understanding); {from sun (with, together with) + phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}}. This is to harmonize with, agree, have a shared opinion, an accord. This is the root that “symphony” comes from.
CX “words” = logos. Same as “matter” in v6. See note LIII above.
CXI “prophets” = prophetes. Related to “agrees” in v15. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note CIX above); {from phao (see note CIX above) or phaino (see note CIX above)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
CXII “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.

16 ‘After this I will return,CXIII
and I will rebuildCXIV the dwellingCXV of David,CXVI which has fallen;CXVII

Notes on verse 16a

CXIII “return” = anastrepho. Related to “conversion” in v3 & {untranslated} in v11. 9x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + strepho (see note XXX above). This is to turn back, return, or over turn. It can also imply busying oneself and so to remain, dwell, behave, or live somewhere.
CXIV “rebuild” = anoikodomeo. 2x in NT. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oikodomeo (to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden); {from oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + domeo (to build)}. This is To rebuild – something that has fallen or been destroyed.
CXV “dwelling” = skene. Perhaps related to skeuos (vessel, tool, container, implement; also vessel in a figurative or literal sense) or perhaps related to skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is a tent, booth, tabernacle, or dwelling. It could be a cloth hut. This is a tent in a literal or figurative sense.
CXVI “David” = Dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
CXVII “fallen” = pipto. This is to fall literally or figuratively.

    from its ruinsCXVIII I will rebuild it,
        and I will set it up,CXIX
17 so that all otherCXX peoplesCXXI may seekCXXII the Lord—

Notes on verses 16b-17a

CXVIII “ruins” = kataskapto. Related to “looked favorably” in v14. 2x in NT. From kata (up, again, back, anew) + skapto (see note CV above). This is to dig under, tear down, ruin, destroy.
CXIX “set…up” = anorthoo. 3x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + orthoo (to set up, be straight). This is to set up straight, restore, strengthen, lift up.
CXX “other” = kataloipos. 1x in NT. From kata (up, again, back, anew) + loipos (the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue); {from leipo (to leave behind, be lacking)}. This is remaining, residue, what is left over.
CXXI “peoples” = anthropos. Related to {untranslated} in v7 & to “consider” in v6. Probably from aner (see note LVIII above) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note LII above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
CXXII “seek” = ekzeteo. Related to “debate” and “question” in v2. 7x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + zeteo (see note XV above). This is to seek out, inquire, investigate, crave. It can also mean to worship.

    even allCXXIII the gentiles over whom my name has been called.CXXIV
Thus says the Lord, who has been makingCXXV these things 
18         knownCXXVI from long ago.’CXXVII, CXXVIII

Notes on verses 17b-18

CXXIII “all” = pas. Same as “all” in v3. See note XXXV above.
CXXIV “called” = epikaleo. Related to “church” in v3. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + kaleo (see note XXV above). This is to call on, appeal to, worship, invoke for help.
CXXV “making” = poieo. Same as “brought” in v3. See note XXXII above.
CXXVI “know” = gnostos. Related to “knows the human heart” in v8 & “name” in v14. 15x in NT. From ginosko (see note LXVIII above). This is known or acquaintance.
CXXVII “long ago” = aion. From the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.
CXXVIII Some manuscripts have “are to God all his works” = eimi + ho + Theos + pas + ho + ergon + autou. Eimi is to be, exist. Theos is the same as “God” in v4. See note XL above. Pas is the same as “all” in v3. See note XXXV above. Ergon is from ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.

19 “Therefore I have reached the decisionCXXIX that we should not troubleCXXX those gentiles who are turningCXXXI to God, 

Notes on verse 19

CXXIX “reached the decision” = krino. Related to “made…distinction” in v9 & “replied” in v13. See note LXXVI above.
CXXX “trouble” = parenochleo. Related to “been able” in v10. 1x in NT. From para (from beside, by, alongside of) + enochleo (to crowd, create tumult, to harass someone with the vehemence/momentum of a mob); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + ochleo (to trouble, worry, mob, press on with the force of a mob, harass); {from ochlos (a crowd, the common people, rabble; figuratively, a riot); perhaps from echo (see note LXXXIII above)}}. This is to annoy, trouble, harass, annoy.
CXXXI “turning” = epistrepho. Related to “conversion” in v3 & {untranslated} in v11 & “return” in v16. See note XXX above.

20 but we should writeCXXXII to them to abstain only fromCXXXIII things pollutedCXXXIV by idolsCXXXV

Notes on verse 20a

CXXXII “write” = epistello. Related to “dissension” in v2 & “apostles” in v2 & “stood up” in v5 & “stood up” and “know” in v7. 3x in NT – 2x in Acts & 1x in Hebrews 13. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + stello (see note XXI above). This is to write, to communicate by letter.
CXXXIII “abstain…from” = apecho. Related to “been able” in v10 & “trouble” in v19. 19x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + echo (see note LXXXIII above). This is to be distant, have fully, abstain, be paid, be distant, be enough. It is having something by detaching it from something else or releasing something else.
CXXXIV “polluted” = alisgema. 1x in NT. From alisgeo (to pollute, soil). This is something that is contaminated. It is used particularly of food in reference to ritual pollution.
CXXXV “idols” = eidolon. 11x in NT. From eidos (form, shape, sight, appearance); from eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is image, idol, worship or an idol.

and from sexual immoralityCXXXVI and from whatever has been strangledCXXXVII and from blood.CXXXVIII 

Notes on verse 20b

CXXXVI “sexual immorality” = porneia. From porneuo (to fornicate – used figuratively for practicing idolatry or doing immoral things); from porne (prostitute, whore); from pornos (fornicator or immoral person); perhaps from pernemi (to sell off or export); related to piprasko (to sell with travel involved; to sell into slavery; to be devoted to); from perao (to travel); from peran (over, beyond). This is sexual immorality or unchastity. It could include adultery or incest.
CXXXVII “strangled” = pniktos. Related to “Spirit” in v8. 3x in NT. From pnigo (to choke, wheeze, strangle, or drown); perhaps from pneo (see note LXXII above). This is something that was strangled, but didn’t have the blood drained from it.
CXXXVIII “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).

21 For in every city,CXXXIX for generationsCXL past,CXLI Moses has hadCXLII those who proclaimCXLIII him,

Notes on verse 21a

CXXXIX “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
CXL “generations” = genea. Related to “had” in v2 & “came” in v4. From genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note XII above). This is family, generation, kind, or nation. As generation, it implies an age as a period of time. It can also mean infinity. This is the root of the word “generation.
CXLI “past” = archaios. Same as “early” in v7. See note LX above.
CXLII “had” = echo. Related to “been able” in v10 & “trouble” in v19 & “abstain…from” in v20. See note LXXXIII above.
CXLIII “proclaim” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.

for he has been read aloudCXLIV everyCXLV SabbathCXLVI in the synagogues.”CXLVII

Notes on verse 21b

CXLIV “read aloud” = anaginosko. Related to “knows the human heart” in v8 & “name” in v14 & “known” in v18. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + ginosko (see note LXVIII above). This is literally to know again – to recognize, read, or discern.
CXLV “every” = pas. Same as “all” in v3. See note XXXV above.
CXLVI “Sabbath” = Sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.
CXLVII “synagogues” = sunagoge. Related to “reported” in v3 & “reported in v4 & “ordered” in v5 & “met together” in v6 & “good news” in v7 & “told” in v12. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note XXIX above). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.

22 Then the apostles and the elders, with the consent of the wholeCXLVIII church, decidedCXLIX to chooseCL menCLI from among them

Notes on verse 22a

CXLVIII “whole” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
CXLIX “decided” = dokeo. From dokos (opinion). This is to have an opinion, seem, appear, think, suppose. It deals with a personal judgment. This is the root of the word “doxology.”
CL “choose” = eklego. Same as “made a choice” in v7. See note LXII above.
CLI “men” = aner. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note LVIII above.

and to sendCLII them to AntiochCLIII with Paul and Barnabas. They sent JudasCLIV

Notes on verse 22b

CLII “send” = pempo. Related to “sent on…way” in v3. See note XXIV above.
CLIII “Antioch” = Antiocheia. Related to “been able” in v10 & “trouble” in v19 & “abstain…from” in v20 & “had” in v21. 18x in NT. From Antiochos (Antiochus, a proper name common to kings of Syria); {perhaps from anti (opposite, instead of, against) + echo (see note LXXXIII above)}. This is Antioch or Antiochia, two cities in the Bible have this name. It means “resistant” or “set against.” See
CLIV “Judas” = Ioudas. Related to “Judea” in v1. From Hebrew Yehudah (see note II above). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.

calledCLV Barsabbas,CLVI and Silas,CLVII

Notes on verse 22c

CLV “called” = kaleo. Related to “church” in v3 & “called” in v17. See note XXV above.
CLVI “Barsabbas” = Barsabbas. Related to “Barnabas” in v2. 2x in NT. From Aramaic bar (see note XI above) + perhaps Aramaic tseba (to desire, be pleased); {corresponding to Hebrew tsaba (to wage war, serve, assemble, fight, perform, muster, wait on) OR from tsabah (to swell, grow, amass like an army)} OR from bar (see above) + seba (imbibe) OR from bar (see above) + shaba (to swear, make an oath). This is Barsabbas, meaning “son of Sabbas” or “man of the host” or “one of the drunks” or “son of an oath” or “man of war” or “son of a drunk.” See
CLVII “Silas” = Silas. 13x in NT. From Aramaic She’ila (Silas; related to “Saul,” meaning “asked of the Lord”); {from shaal (to ask, borrow); related to Hebrew shaal (to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request; can also mean demand)} OR from Silouanos (Silvanus, meaning either “asked of the Lord” or “forest”); {from Latin Silvanus (Silvanus, god of forests, sylvan); {from silva (forest, grove); from Proto-Indo-European *sel- or *swell- (board, threshold)}. This is Silas, either a form of Saul, meaning “asked of the Lord,” or of Silvanus, meaning “forest.” See &

CLVIIIleadersCLIX among the brothers, 23 with the following letter:CLX “The brothers, both the apostles and the elders, to the brothers and sisters of gentile origin in Antioch and SyriaCLXI and Cilicia,CLXII greetings.CLXIII 

Notes on verses 22d-23

CLVIII {untranslated} = aner. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note LVIII above.
CLIX “leaders” = hegeomai. Related to “reported” in v3 & “reported in v4 & “ordered” in v5 & “met together” in v6 & “good news” in v7 & “told” in v12 & “synagogues” in v21. See note XXIX above.
CLX “with the following letter” = grapho + dia + cheir + autos. Literally, “having written by their hand.” Grapho is the same as “written” in v5. See note CXII above. Cheir is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
CLXI “Syria” = Suria. 8x in NT. From Akkadian ashshur (after the god Ashur, head of their gods). This is Syria. See;
CLXII “Cilicia” = Kilikia. 8x in NT. This is Cilicia – origin uncertain.
CLXIII “greetings” = chairo. Related to “joy” in v3 & “grace” in v11. See note XXXIV above.

24 Since we have heard that certain persons who have gone outCLXIV from us, though with no instructionsCLXV from us, have said thingsCLXVI to disturbCLXVII you

Notes on verse 24a

CLXIV “gone out” = exerchomai. Related to “came down” in v1 & “passed through” in v3. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note I above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
CLXV “instructions” = diastello. Related to “dissension” in v2 & “apostles” in v2 & “stood up” in v5 & “stood up” and “know” in v7 & “write” in v20. 8x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + stello (see note XXI above). This is to set apart, distinguish, give a commission, order, set apart for service.
CLXVI “things” = logos. Same as “matter” in v6. See note LIII above.
CLXVII “disturb” = tarasso. 18x in NT. This is trouble, agitate, stir up. It is motion back and forth, creating inner turmoil or confusion, roiling water.

and have unsettledCLXVIII your minds,CLXIX, CLXX 

Notes on verse 24b

CLXVIII “unsettled” = anaskeuazo. Related to “dwelling” in v16. 1x in NT. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + skeuazo (to prepare using a tool); {from skeuos (see note CXV above)}. This is to pack up, dismantle, confuse, unsettle, destroy.
CLXIX “minds” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
CLXX Some manuscripts add “saying, you must be circumcised and keep the law” = lego + peritemno + kai + tereo + ho + nomos + hos. Lego is the same as “said” in v5. See note XLVI above. Peritemno is the same as “circumcised” in v1. See note V above. Tereo is the same as “keep” in v5. See note XLIX above. Nomos is the same as “law” in v5. See note L above.

25 we have decided unanimouslyCLXXI to choose men and sendCLXXII them to you, along with our belovedCLXXIII Barnabas and Paul, 

Notes on verse 25

CLXXI “unanimously” = ginomai + homothumadon. Literally, “having come with one accord.” Ginomai is the same as “had” in v2. See note XII above. Homothumadon is 11x in NT. From homou (together); {from homos (the same)} + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}}. This is having one mind or a shared passion. It is people who share the same desire.
CLXXII “send” = pempo. Same as “send” in v22. See note CLII above.
CLXXIII “beloved” = agapetos. From agape (love, goodwill, benevolence; God’s divine love); from agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is Beloved or very dear one. It is a title for the Messiah, but also for Christians. Properly, this is one who personally experiences God’s love.

26 CLXXIVwho have riskedCLXXV their livesCLXXVI for the sakeCLXXVII of our Lord Jesus Christ.CLXXVIII 

Notes on verse 26

CLXXIV {untranslated} = anthropos. Same as “peoples” in v17. See note CXXI above.
CLXXV “risked” = paradidomi. Related to “giving” in v8. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (see note LXX above). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
CLXXVI “lives” = psuche. Same as “minds” in v24. See note CLXIX above.
CLXXVII “sake” = onoma. Same as “name” in v14. See note CVIII above.
CLXXVIII “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

27 We have therefore sentCLXXIX Judas and Silas, who themselves will tellCLXXX you the same things by word of mouth. 28 For it has seemed goodCLXXXI to the Holy Spirit and to us to imposeCLXXXII on you

Notes on verses 27-28a

CLXXIX “sent” = apostello. Related to “dissension” in v2 & “apostles” in v2 & “stood up” in v5 & “stood up” and “know” in v7 & “write” in v20 & “instructions” in v24. See note XXI above.
CLXXX “tell” = apaggello. Related to “reported” in v3 & “reported in v4 & “ordered” in v5 & “met together” in v6 & “good news” in v7 & “told” in v12 & “synagogues” in v21 & “leaders” in v22. From apo (from, away from) + aggello (see note XXXVIII above). This is to report, declare, bring word. It is an announcement that emphasizes the source.
CLXXXI “seemed good” = dokeo. Same as “decided” in v22. See note CXLIX above.
CLXXXII “impose” = epitithemi. Same as “placing” in v10. See note LXXVIII above.

no furtherCLXXXIII burdenCLXXXIV thanCLXXXV these essentials:CLXXXVI 

Notes on verse 28b

CLXXXIII “further” = pleion. Related to “much” in v7. From polus (see note LV above). This is many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent.
CLXXXIV “burden” = baros. Related to “go up” in v2 & “bear” in v10. 6x in NT. From barus (heavy, burdensome; figuratively, violent, oppressive; that which presses down on someone so that they cannot move freely) OR from the same as basis (foot, step, pace); {from baino (see note XVIII above)}. This is weight, load, authority, abundance. It is something of worth.
CLXXXV “than” = plen. Related to “much” in v7 & “further” in v28. From pleion (see note CLXXXIII above). This is yet, nevertheless.
CLXXXVI “essentials” = epanagkes. 1x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + anagke (necessity – something that happens that requires an immediate response; generally associated with pain or distress); {from ana (up, again, anew) + agcho (to press tightly, compress)} or {from ana (see above) + agkale (the arm, particularly one that is bent to carry a load); {from agkos (a bend)}}. This is of necessity, what is needed or suitable, something essential.

29 that you abstain from what has been sacrificed to idolsCLXXXVII and from blood and from what is strangled and from sexual immorality. If you keepCLXXXVIII yourselves from these, you will doCLXXXIX well.CXC Farewell.”CXCI

Notes on verse 29

CLXXXVII “sacrificed to idols” = eidolothutos. Related to “idols” in v20 & to “unanimously” in v25. 10x in NT. From eidolon (see note CXXXV above) + thuo (see note CLXXI above). This is sacrificed to an idol or image.
CLXXXVIII “keep” = diatereo. Related to “keep” in v5. 2x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + tereo (see note XLIX above). This is to hold fast, treasure, keep something with care to make sure it is safe – thoroughly watched or observed. It can also mean totally avoid.
CLXXXIX “do” = prasso. This is to do or practice – something done on an on-going basis or by habit. It can also mean to accomplish, attend, or commit.
CXC “well” = eu. Related to “good news” in v7. 6x in NT. See note LXVI above.
CXCI “farewell” = rhonnumi. 1x in NT. Probably from rhoomai (to move quickly, dart); probably related to rhuomai (to rescue or set free; to deliver from danger, to snatch up); {similar to eruo (to draw towards you, drag) OR similar to rheo (to flow, overflow)}. This is to be strong. It is a way of wishing good health, used as a closing in letters.

30 SoCXCII they were sent offCXCIII and went downCXCIV to Antioch.

Notes on verse 30a

CXCII {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XXIII above.
CXCIII “sent off” = apoluo. From apo (from, away from) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.
CXCIV “went down” = katerchomai. Same as “came down” in v1. See note I above.

When they gatheredCXCV the congregationCXCVI together, they deliveredCXCVII the letter.CXCVIII 

Notes on verse 30b

CXCV “gathered” = sunago. Same as “met together” in v6. See note LI above.
CXCVI “congregation” = plethos. Same as “assembly” in v12. See note XC above.
CXCVII “delivered” = epididomi. Related to “giving” in v8 & “risked” in v26. 9x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + didomi (see note LXX above). This is to deliver, give over, give up, surrender.
CXCVIII “letter” = epistole. Related to “dissension” in v2 & “apostles” in v2 & “stood up” in v5 & “stood up” and “know” in v7 & “write” in v20 & “instructions” in v24 & “sent” in v27. From epistello (see note CXXXII above). This is an epistle, letter, or other written message. This is where the word “epistle” comes from.

31 When they read it, they rejoicedCXCIX at the exhortation.CC 32 Judas and Silas, who were themselves prophets, saidCCI much to encourageCCII and strengthenCCIII the brothers and sisters. 

Notes on verses 31-32

CXCIX “rejoiced” = chairo. Same as “greetings” in v23. See note CLXIII above.
CC “exhortation” = paraklesis. Related to “church” in v3 & “called” in v17 & “called” in v22. From parakaleo (to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg; to exhort or admonish; to encourage, comfort, or console; has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom); {from para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (see note XXV above)}. This is calling someone for help, a personal exhortation, comfort, encouragement, joy, entreaty, urging. This word comes from a legal setting – as bringing evidence to advocate for another in court. This word is related to the word “Advocate” or paraclete used for the Holy Spirit.
CCI “said” = logos. Same as “matter” in v6. See note LIII above.
CCII “encourage” = parakaleo. Related to “church” in v3 & “called” in v17 & “called” in v22 & “exhortation” in v31. See note CC above.
CCIII “strengthen” = episterizo. Related to “dissension” in v2 & “apostles” in v2 & “stood up” in v5 & “stood up” and “know” in v7 & “write” in v20 & “instructions” in v24 & “sent” in v27 & “letter” in v30. 4x in NT– all in Acts. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + sterizo (to make fast, support, strengthen, establish, fix firmly, to go resolutely); {from sterigx (a support, plant down); perhaps from histemi (see note XIV above)}. This is to strengthen, support, confirm.

33 After they had beenCCIV there for some time,CCV they were sent offCCVI in peaceCCVII

Notes on verse 33a

CCIV “been” = poieo. Same as “brought” in v3. See note XXXII above.
CCV “some time” = chronos. Time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time.
CCVI “sent off” = apoluo. Same as “sent off” in v30. See note CXCIII above.
CCVII “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)

by the brothers and sisters to those who had sentCCVIII them. [34 But it seemed good to Silas to remainCCIX there] 35 But Paul and Barnabas remainedCCX in Antioch,

Notes on verses 33b-35a

CCVIII “sent” = apostello. Same as “sent” in v27. See note CLXXIX above.
CCIX “remain” = epimeno. 17x in NT. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + meno (to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure; to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition; to continue with hope and expectation). This is to remain, terry, continue, or persevere. It denotes persistence in pursing a goal or task.
CCX “remained” = diatribo. 9x in NT. From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + the same as tribos (worn track or path like a rut that is formed from rubbing i.e. steady use; also road or highway); {from tribo (to rub or thresh)}. This is to spend time, remain, stay, continue. Literally, it is to rub or wear away.

and there, with manyCCXI others,CCXII they taught and proclaimedCCXIII the word of the Lord.

Notes on verse 35b

CCXI “many” = polus. Same as “much” in v7. See note LV above.
CCXII “others” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
CCXIII “proclaimed” = euaggelizo. Related to “good news” in v7 & “well” in v29 & to “reported” in v3 & “reported in v4 & “ordered” in v5 & “met together” in v6 & “good news” in v7 & “told” in v12 & “synagogues” in v21 & “leaders” in v22 & “tell” in v27. From eu (see note LXVI above) + aggelos (see note XXXVIII above). This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.

36 After some days Paul said to Barnabas, “Come, let us returnCCXIV, CCXV and visitCCXVI the brothers and sisters in every city where we proclaimedCCXVII the word of the Lord and see how they are doing.”CCXVIII 

Notes on verse 36

CCXIV “return” = epistrepho. Same as “turning” in v19. See note CXXXI above.
CCXV {untranslated} = de. 6x in NT. This is a particle to emphasize or make a prhase seem urgent. So, it could be indeed, truly, also.
CCXVI “visit” = episkeptomai. Same as “looked favorably” in v14. See note CV above.
CCXVII “proclaimed” = kataggello. Related to “reported” in v3 & “reported in v4 & “ordered” in v5 & “met together” in v6 & “good news” in v7 & “told” in v12 & “synagogues” in v21 & “leaders” in v22 & “tell” in v27 & “proclaimed” in v35. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, throughout, among, daily) + aggello (see note XXXVIII above). This is to proclaim openly and confidently a very specific message. It can also be celebrate, preach, or teach.
CCXVIII “doing” = echo. Same as “has” in v21. See note CXLII above.

37 Barnabas wantedCCXIX to take withCCXX them JohnCCXXI calledCCXXII Mark.CCXXIII 

Notes on verse 37

CCXIX “wanted” = boulomai. This is to wish, desire, intend. Also, to plan with great determination.
CCXX “take with” = sumparalambano. Related to “take” in v14. 4x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + paralambano (to receive, take, acknowledge, associate with; to take on an office or to learn); {from para (beside, by, in the presence of) + lambano (see note CVI above)}. This is to take or take alone. It is bringing someone as a companion.
CCXXI “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v11. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note LXXXVII above) + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
CCXXII “called” = kaleo. Same as “called” in v22. See note CLV above.
CCXXIII “Mark” = Markos. 8x in NT. From Latin Marcus (Marcus); {from Mars (the planet or god)} This is Mark of Marcus, a name meaning “dedicated to Mars.” See

38 But Paul decidedCCXXIV not to take withCCXXV them one who had desertedCCXXVI them

Notes on verse 38a

CCXXIV “decided” = axioo. Related to “reported” in v3 & “reported in v4 & “ordered” in v5 & “met together” in v6 & “good news” in v7 & “told” in v12 & “synagogues” in v21 & “leaders” in v22 & “tell” in v27 & “proclaimed” in v35 & “proclaimed” in v36. 7x in NT. From axios (related to weight or worth – deserving, suitable, corresponding, due reward); from ago (see note XXIX above). This is to consider worthy, deserve, see something as good.
CCXXV “take with” = sumparalambano. Same as “take with” in v37. See note CCXX above.
CCXXVI “deserted” = aphistemi. Related to “dissension” in v2 & “apostles” in v2 & “stood up” in v5 & “stood up” and “know” in v7 & “write” in v20 & “instructions” in v24 & “sent” in v27 & “letter” in v30 & “strengthen” in v32. 14x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + histemi (see note XIV above). This is to remove, repel, refrain, depart from, foment a revolt, repel.

in PamphyliaCCXXVII and had not accompaniedCCXXVIII them in the work.CCXXIX 

Notes on verse 38b

CCXXVII “Pamphylia” = Pamphulia. Related to “all” in v3. 5x in NT. From pas (see note XXXV above) + phule (clan, tribe, lineage); {from phuo (to produce, spring up, grow, germinate; perhaps originally meaning puff or blow)}. This is Pamphylia, meaning every tribe. It is a province on the southern coast of Asia Minor
CCXXVIII “accompanied” = sunerchomai. Related to “came down” in v1 & “passed through” in v3 & “gone out” in v24. From sun (with, together with) + erchomai (see note I above). This is to go with, assemble, leave together with, cohabit.
CCXXIX “work” = ergon. Same as {untranslated} in v18. See note CXXVIII above.

39 The disagreement becameCCXXX so sharpCCXXXI that they parted company;CCXXXII

Notes on verse 39a

CCXXX “became” = ginomai. Same as “had” in v2. See note XII above.
CCXXXI “disagreement…sharp” = paroxusmos. 2x in NT. From paroxuno (to sharpen; in a figurative sense, stimulate, provoke, anger, irritate; to cult close to, to jab someone to get their emotions up so that they will act; figuratively, to exasperate someone); {from para (from beside, by, close alongside) + oxuno (to sharpen) or oxus (sharp edge, swift, eager, rapid); {from akmen (even now, still yet); from the same as akmazo (ripe, to be vigorous); from acme (point, edge); related to ake (a point)}}. This is provocation, irritation, angry dispute. It is provocation like a jab, forcing the other side to respond. It can be inducing others to do good or stirring the pot so a dispute generates more anger. This is where the word “paroxysm” comes from.
CCXXXII “parted company” = apochorizo. 2x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + chorizo (to separate or create space; literal as divide, depart, or withdraw; figurative in reference to divorce); {from choris (apart from, separate from); from chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn)}. This is to separate, part company, vanish.

Barnabas took Mark withCCXXXIII him and sailed awayCCXXXIV to Cyprus.CCXXXV 

Notes on verse 39b

CCXXXIII “took…with” = paralambano. Related to “take” in v14 & “take with” in v37. See note CCXX above.
CCXXXIV “sailed away” = ekpleo. 3x in NT – all in Acts. From ek (from, from out of) + pleo (to sail, voyage); {probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow)}. This is to sail or leave on a ship.
CCXXXV “Cyprus” = Kupros. 5x in NT– all in Acts. Perhaps from kaphar (to appease, cover, pacify, cancel) or from kuparissos (cypress tree) or from kupros (henna tree) or from Sumerian zubar (copper) or from Sumerian kubar (bronze). This is Cyprus, meaning “enclave” or “redeemed” or “fortified settlement” or “atoned from. See;

40 But Paul choseCCXXXVI Silas and set out,CCXXXVII the brothers and sisters commendingCCXXXVIII him to the grace of the Lord. 41 He went throughCCXXXIX Syria and Cilicia, strengthening the churches.

Notes on verses 40-41

CCXXXVI “chose” = epilego. Related to “said” in v5 & “matter” in v6 & “made a choice” in v7. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + lego (see note XLVI above). This is to call choose, name, select.
CCXXXVII “set out” = exerchomai. Same as “gone out” in v24. See note CLXIV above.
CCXXXVIII “commending” = paradidomi. Same as “risked” in v26. See note CLXXV above.
CCXXXIX “went through” = dierchomai. Same as “passed through” in v3. See note XXVI above.

Image credit: “Ananias and Sapphira” by Nadine de Boer.

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