Acts 18

Acts 18


After this Paul leftI AthensII and wentIII to Corinth.IV 

Notes on verse 1

I “left” = chorizo. 13x in NT. From choris (apart from, separate from); from chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). Properly, this is to separate or create space. It can be literal as divide, depart, or withdraw. It can be figurative in reference to divorce.
II “Athens” = Athenai. 4x in NT. From Athene (Athena; Greek goddess of wisdom). This is Athens, said to be founded by Athena.
III “went” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
IV “Corinth” = Korinthos. 6x in NT. From “Pre-Greek Pelasgian kar (point, peak); perhaps named after Corinthos, a descendant of the god Zeus.” This is Corinth. See &

There he foundV a JewVI namedVII

Notes on verse 2a

V “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
VI “Jew” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
VII “named” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.

AquilaVIII from Pontus,IX, X

Notes on verse 2b

VIII “Aquila” = Akulas. 6x in NT. From Latin Aquila (Aquila); from aquila (eagle); perhaps related to aquilus (“blackish, the color of darkness”); perhaps from aqua (water). This is Aquila, meaning eagle. See
IX “Pontus” = Pontikos. 1x in NT. From Pontos (Pontus, an area adjacent to the Black Sea; perhaps meaning “sea”). This is from Pontus or related to Pontus. It means “sea.” See
X {untranslated} = genos. From ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense.

who had recentlyXI comeXII from ItalyXIII with his wifeXIV Priscilla,XV

Notes on verse 2c

XI “recently” = prosphatos. 1x in NT. From prosphatos (freshly slain, new or recent); {from pros (at, to, toward, with) + phen- (to kill) OR from pro (before, earlier, above) + akin to sphazo (to slay, butcher an animal, maim)}. This is recently or newly.
XII “come” = erchomai. Same as “went” in v1. See note III above.
XIII “Italy” = Italia. 4x in NT. From Latin Italia (Italy); from Oscan viteliu (land of bulls”). This is Italy, meaning “land of bulls.” See
XIV “wife” = gune. Related to {untranslated} in v2. Perhaps from ginomai (see note X above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
XV “Priscilla” = Priskilla. 3x in NT. From Priska (Prisca, “of earlier times.”); from Latin priscus (Priscus, a male name); from Latin priscus (ancient, former); from prae (first, earlier). This is Priscilla, it is an affectionate short form of Prisca. So, it means “little Prisca.” Prisca means “of earlier times.” See &

because ClaudiusXVI had orderedXVII allXVIII Jews to leave Rome.XIX

Notes on verse 2d

XVI “Claudius” = Klaudios. 3x in NT – all in Acts. From Latin Claudius (Claudius); {from Latin claudico (to limp, waver, be lacking in something) or from Latin claudo (to enclose, close)}. This is Claudius, meaning “limp” or “enclosure” or “lame” or “safe haven” or “support” or “one to lean on.” See &
XVII “ordered” = diatasso. 16x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is to arrange thoroughly, charge, appoint, give orders to. It is a command that is a proper order, given with the chain of command and so binding. This is from ancient military language.
XVIII “all” = pas. This is all or every.
XIX “Rome” = Rhome. 8x in NT. From the base of rhonnumi (to strengthen, be firm, have health; used as a salutation in letters at the end); {probably from rhoomai (to move quickly)} OR from Latin Romulus (the one who founded Rome according to legend – many scholars believe this was suggested after the fact i.e. long after Rome was called Rome) OR from Rumon or Rumen (the Tiber river); {related to Proto-Indo-European root *srew- (to flow)} OR from Etruscan ruma (teat). This is Rome. See

Paul went to seeXX them, and, because he wasXXI of the same trade,XXII

Notes on verses 2e-3a

XX “went to see” = proserchomai. Related to “went” in v1. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (see note III above). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
XXI “was” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
XXII “same trade” = homotechnos. 1x in NT. From the same as homou (together); {from homos (the same)} + techne (art, craft, skill, or trade); {from tekton (craftsman; particularly one who works with wood); from the base of timoria (penalty, punishment, vengeance); from timoreo (to punish, protect honor); {perhaps from time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; also esteem or dignity; also precious or valuables); {from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value) or from tikto (to produce, bring forth, beget)}}. This is having the same trade or craft.

he stayedXXIII with them, and they workedXXIV together—by tradeXXV they were tentmakers.XXVI 

Notes on verse 3b

XXIII “stayed” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.
XXIV “worked” = ergazomai. From ergon (work, task, action, employment). This is to work, labor, perform, toil.
XXV “trade” = techne. Related to “same trade” in v3. 3x in NT. See note XXII above.
XXVI “tentmakers” = skenopoios. 1x in NT. From skene (a tent, booth, tabernacle, dwelling – in a literal or figurative sense); {perhaps related to skeuos (vessel, tool, container, implement; also vessel in a figurative or literal sense) or perhaps related to skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad)} + poieo (to make, do, construct, cause). This is tentmaker.

EveryXXVII SabbathXXVIII he would argueXXIX

Notes on verse 4a

XXVII “every” = pas. Same as “all” in v2. See note XVIII above.
XXVIII “Sabbath” = sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.
XXIX “argue” = dialegomai. 13x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is to discuss, preach, reason, argue, address, lecture.

in the synagogueXXX and would try to convinceXXXI Jews and Greeks.XXXII

Notes on verse 4b

XXX “synagogue” = sunagoge. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.
XXXI “convince” = peitho. This is to have confidence, to urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust. It is the root from which the Greek word for faith is drawn (pistis).
XXXII “Greeks” = Hellen. From Hellas (Hellas, what Greeks called themselves); perhaps from helane (torch) OR from selene (moon). This is Greek, but was used for Gentiles, broader populations that spoke Greek and were a part of Greek culture regardless of their heritage. See

When SilasXXXIII and TimothyXXXIV arrivedXXXV from Macedonia,XXXVI

Notes on verse 5a

XXXIII “Silas” = Silas. 13x in NT. From Aramaic She’ila (Silas; related to “Saul,” meaning “asked of the Lord”); {from shaal (to ask, borrow); related to Hebrew shaal (to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request; can also mean demand)} OR from Silouanos (Silvanus, meaning either “asked of the Lord” or “forest”); {from Latin Silvanus (Silvanus, god of forests, sylvan); {from silva (forest, grove); from Proto-Indo-European *sel- or *swell- (board, threshold)}. This is Silas, either a form of Saul, meaning “asked of the Lord,” or of Silvanus, meaning “forest.” See &
XXXIV “Timothy” = Timoutheou. Related to “same trade” and “trade” in v3. From time (see note XXII above) + Theos (God or a god). This is Timothy, literally “dear to God.”
XXXV “arrived” = katerchomai. Related to “went” in v1 & “went to see” in v2. 16x in NT. From kata (down, against, among) + erchomai (see note III above). This is to descend, depart, go lower, land. It could be to descend from sky to the ground or from higher to lower ground or from the sea to the shore. It is to go down in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXVI “Macedonia” = Makedonia. From makedonia (Macedonia, highland); from makednos (high or tall). This is Macedonia in Greece. See

PaulXXXVII was occupiedXXXVIII with proclaiming the word,XXXIX 

Notes on verse 5b

XXXVII “Paul” = Paulos. From Latin Paulus (small, little). This is Paul or Paulos, meaning little.
XXXVIII “occupied” = sunecho. 12x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + echo (to have, hold, possess). This is to hold together or hold fast, to close or press together. It can also be to be struck by an illness, arrested, compressed as by a multitude or a siege. Figuratively, it can mean to compel, perplex, preoccupy, or generally afflict.
XXXIX “word” = logos. Related to “argue” in v4. From lego (see note XXIX above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.

testifyingXL to the Jews that the MessiahXLI was Jesus.XLII 

Notes on verse 5c

XL “testifying” = diamarturomai. 15x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + marturomai (to witness, testify, call as a witness, affirm, charge, protest); {from martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr)}. This is to affirm, give evidence, testify thoroughly. It is giving full testimony.
XLI “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
XLII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

When they opposedXLIII and reviledXLIV him, in protest he shookXLV the dust from his clothesXLVI 

Notes on verse 6a

XLIII “opposed” = antitasso. Related to “ordered” in v2. 5x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + tasso (see note XVII above). This is to oppose or resist. It is to set against as in battle or in defense.
XLIV “reviled” = blasphemeo. From blasphemos (blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil); {from perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (to say, declare, speak comparatively through contrasts, bring to light); from phao (to shine)}}. This is to slander, malign, hurl abuse, speak against, blaspheme, or defame. It is speaking evil or abusive language – not acknowledging what is good or worth reverence/respect.
XLV “shook” = ektinasso. 4x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + tinasso (to swing). This is shake off or out.
XLVI “clothes” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.

and said to them, “Your bloodXLVII be on your own heads!XLVIII I am innocent.XLIX From now on I will goL to the gentiles.”LI 

Notes on verse 6b

XLVII “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).
XLVIII “heads” = kephale. This is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from.
XLIX “innocent” = katharos. This is clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying.
L “go” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
LI “gentiles” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.

Then he leftLII the synagogue and wentLIII to the houseLIV

Notes on verse 7a

LII “left” = metabaino. 12x in NT. From meta (with, among, behind, beyond) + baino (to walk, to go). This is to pass over, leave, remove, change place.
LIII “went” = eiserchomai. Related to “went” in v1 & “went to see” in v2 & “arrived” in v5. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note III above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
LIV “house” = oikia. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.

of a manLV named TitiusLVI Justus,LVII

Notes on verse 7b

LV “man” = tis. This is someone, a particular person.
LVI “Titius” = Titos. 14x in NT. From Latin Titus (Titus, meaning “honorable” or “strong” or “of the giants”). This is Titus or Titius, meaning “honorable” or “strong” or “of the giants.” See
LVII “Justus” = Ioustos. 3x in NT. From Latin Justus (Justus); from iustus (righteous, legal, suitable, exact, direct). This is Justus, meaning “just.” See &

a worshiperLVIII of God;LIX his house was next doorLX to the synagogue. 

Notes on verse 7c

LVIII “worshiper” = sebo. 10x in NT. This is to worship, revere, adore, be devout. Properly this is personally placing a high value on someone or something, showing respect.
LIX “God” = Theos. Related to “Timothy” in v5. See note XXXIV above.
LX “next door” = sunomoreo. Related to “same trade” in v3. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + homoreo (to border on) OR from sun (with, together with) + akin to homou (see note XXII above) + related to horion (boundary, territory); {from horos (limit, boundary)}. This is to border or adjoin.

Crispus,LXI the official of the synagogue,LXII became a believerLXIII in the Lord,LXIV

Notes on verse 8a

LXI “Crispus” = Krispos. 2x in NT. From Latin Crispus (Crispus); from crispus (curly, tremulous). This is Crispus. See
LXII “official of the synagogue” = archisunagogos. Related to “synagogue” in v4. 9x in NT. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + sunagoge (see note XXX above). This is ruler or leader of a synagogue who presided over worship.
LXIII “became a believer” = pisteuo. Related to “convince” in v4. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (see note XXXI above). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
LXIV “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

together with allLXV his household,LXVI and manyLXVII of the CorinthiansLXVIII who heardLXIX Paul became believers and were baptized.LXX 

Notes on verse 8b

LXV “all” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
LXVI “household” = oikos. Related to “house” in v7. See note LIV above.
LXVII “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
LXVIII “Corinthians” = Korinthios. Related to “Corinth” in v1. 2x in NT. From Korinthos (see note IV above); perhaps named after Corinthos, a descendant of the god Zeus.” This is Corinthian. See &
LXIX “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
LXX “baptized” = baptizo. From bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is to submerge, wash, or immerse. Used specially for baptism.

One nightLXXI the Lord said to Paul in a vision,LXXII “Do not be afraid,LXXIII

Notes on verse 9a

LXXI “night” = nux. This is night in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXII “vision” = horama. 12x in NT. From horao (to see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience; to stare at, which implies clear discernment; by extension, attending to what was seen and learned; to see, often with a metaphorical sense, which can include inward spiritual seeing). This is a sight, something seen, a vision. In the New Testament, it is always a supernatural vision.
LXXIII “be afraid” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.

but speakLXXIV and do not be silent,LXXV 10 for I am with you, and no one will lay a hand onLXXVI you

Notes on verses 9b-10a

LXXIV “speak” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.
LXXV “be silent” = siopao. 10x in NT. From siope (silence or muteness). This is to be silent whether by choice or not. Figuratively, this is being calm as water, keeping one’s peace.
LXXVI “lay a hand on” = epitithemi. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to lay on or place on, whether in a friendly or aggressive way.

to harmLXXVII you, for there are many in this cityLXXVIII who are my people.”LXXIX 

Notes on verse 10b

LXXVII “harm” = kakoo. 6x in NT. From kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character; can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil; also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue). This is to afflict, mistreat, hurt, embitter, harm, injure. Figuratively, it can mean to exasperate or entreat evil.
LXXVIII “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
LXXIX “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.

11 He stayedLXXX there a year and sixLXXXI months, teachingLXXXII the word of God among them.

Notes on verse 11

LXXX “stayed” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.
LXXXI “six” = hex. 13x in NT This is six. It is part of where “hexagon” comes from.
LXXXII “teaching” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.

12 But when GallioLXXXIII was proconsulLXXXIV of Achaia,LXXXV

Notes on verse 12a

LXXXIII “Gallio” = Gallion. 3x in NT – all in this passage. From Latin gallus (rooster, caller) OR Greek gala (milk) OR from Celt Gallus (Gaul, Gallic). This is Gallio or Gallion, meaning “the Gaul” or “crier” or “rooster-like” or “living on milk” or “infantile” or “immature.” See
LXXXIV “proconsul” = anthupatos. 5x in NT – all in Acts. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + hupatos (highest); {from huper (by, under, over, above, under the authority of another)}. This is a proconsul, a deputy.
LXXXV “Achaia” = Achaia. 10x in NT. Perhaps from achos (pain, distress, or grief). This is Achaia, perhaps meaning pain or trouble. Achaia was also a name used to refer to Demeter. See

the Jews made a unitedLXXXVI attackLXXXVII on Paul and broughtLXXXVIII him before the tribunal.LXXXIX 

Notes on verse 12b

LXXXVI “united” = homothumadon. Related to “same trade” in v3 & “next door” in v7. 11x in NT. From homou (see note XXII above) + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}}. This is having one mind or a shared passion. It is people who share the same desire.
LXXXVII “made a…attack” = katephistemi. 1x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + ephistemi (to stand upon, happen, be present; usually, literally); {from epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to assault, rise against, rush.
LXXXVIII “brought” = ago. Related to “synagogue” in v4 & “official of the synagogue” in v8. See note XXX above.
LXXXIX “tribunal” = bema. Related to “left” in v7. 12x in NT. From the same as basis (a pace, base, step, foot); from baino (see note LII above). This is a place that is raised and has steps such as where a tribunal would meet to mete out justice. It also refers literally to the chair from which such justice would come whether for reward or punishment. This word was borrowed into Jewish religious practice from Byzantine Greek (from the same root) to describe the raised area of the synagogue from which the Torah was proclaimed – the bima. See

13 They said,XC “This man is persuadingXCI peopleXCII to worship God in ways that are contrary to the law.”XCIII 

Notes on verse 13

XC “said” = lego. Related to “argue” in v4 & “word” in v5. See note XXIX above.
XCI “persuading” = anapeitho. Related to “convince” in v4 & “became a believer” in v8. 1x in NT. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + peitho (see note XXXI above). This is to tempt, incite, or seduce.
XCII “people” = anthropos. Related to “vision” in v9. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note LXXII above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XCIII “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.

14 Just as Paul was about toXCIV speak,XCV Gallio said to the Jews, “IfXCVI it were a matter of crimeXCVII

Notes on verse 14a

XCIV “was about to” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
XCV “speak” = anoigo + ho + stoma. Literally, “open the mouth.” Anoigo is from ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open). This is to open in literal or figurative sense. Stoma is perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.
XCVI {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XCVII “crime” = adikema. 3x in NT. From adikeo (to harm, damage, behave in an unjust way; an offender; a moral wrong, especially caused by neglecting justice); {from adikos (unjust, unrighteous, wicked, treacherous); {from a (not, without) + dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known)}.}. This is a wrong, injury, sin, crime.

or seriousXCVIII villainy,XCIX I would be justified in acceptingC the complaintCI of youCII Jews, 

Notes on verse 14b

XCVIII “serious” = poneros. From poneo (to toil); related to ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is bad, evil, wicked, malicious, grievous, or toilsome. Properly, it is something that bears pain – it emphasizes the miseries and pains that come with evil. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.
XCIX “villainy” = rhadiourgema. Related to “worked” in v3. 1x in NT. From rhadios (easy, reckless) + ergon (word, task, action, employment); {from ergo (to work, accomplish) or from erdo (to do)}. This is a deed that is reckless, lewdness, a crime.
C “justified in accepting” = anecho. Related to “occupied” in v5. 15x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + echo (see note XXXVIII above). This is to endure, bear with, tolerate, persist, put up with.
CI “complaint” = logos. Same as “word” in v5. See note XXXIX above.
CII {untranslated} = o. 17x in NT. This is O or oh – used to speak to someone or express a strong feeling.

15 but since it is a matter of questionsCIII about words and names and your own law, seeCIV to it yourselves; I do not wishCV to be a judgeCVI of these matters.” 

Notes on verse 15

CIII “questions” = zetema. 5x in NT – all in Acts. From zeteo (to seek, search for, desire. searching for something by inquiring or investigation; to seek in a literal or figurative sense; to worship God). This is a question, controversy, issue, debate, search.
CIV “see” = horao. Related to “vision” in v9 & “people” in v13. See note LXXII above.
CV “wish” = boulomai. This is to wish, desire, intend. Also, to plan with great determination.
CVI “judge” = krites. 19x in NT. From krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is judge or ruler.

16 And he dismissedCVII them from the tribunal. 17 Then allCVIII of them seizedCIX

Notes on verses 16-17a

CVII “dismissed” = apelauno. 1x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + elauno (to propel or carry – to drive forward with oars or like the wind does; driven by a demon); {akin to elasson (smaller, worse, younger, lesser quality); from elachistos (smallest or littlest in the sense of size, amount, rank, dignity, and so on); from elachus (short); used as a superlative for mikros (small)}. This is to drive away.
CVIII “all” = pas. Same as “all” in v2. See note XVIII above.
CIX “seized” = epilambanomai. 19x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take hold of, catch, or seize. It can also mean to help. It focuses on the intentionality and resolve of the one doing the catching.

Sosthenes,CX the official of the synagogue, and beatCXI him in front of the tribunal. But Gallio paid no attentionCXII to any of these things.

Notes on verse 17b

CX “Sosthenes” = Sosthenes. 2x in NT. From the same as sozo (to save, heal, rescue); {from sos (safe, well, rescued)} + sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); {from sthenos (strength)}. This is Sosthenes, which means “of safe strength.”
CXI “beat” = tupto. 14x in NT. This is to strike, beat, or wound – generally with a stick or cudgel. It is hitting with repeated blows. So, it contrasts with paiso and patasso, which describe single blows by hand or weapon. Also contrast plesso (beating with a fist or hammer), rhapizo (to slap), and tugchaono (hitting accidentally). This word is hitting to punish. Figuratively, it can refer to being offended.
CXII “paid…attention” = melo. Related to “was about to” in v14. 10x in NT. See note XCIV above.

18 After stayingCXIII there for a considerableCXIV time,CXV Paul said farewellCXVI to the brothersCXVII and sisters

Notes on verse 18a

CXIII “staying” = prosmeno. Related to “stayed” in v3. 7x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + meno (see note XXIII above). This is to remain, adhere to continue, remain together in a place or with someone. Figuratively, to persevere in something.
CXIV “considerable” = hikanos. From hikneomai (to reach, come to, attain). This is sufficient, suitable, adequate, competent, ample.
CXV “time” = hemera. Literally, “days.” Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
CXVI “said farewell” = apotasso. Related to “ordered” in v2 & “opposed” in v6. 6x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + tasso (see note XVII above). This is to say goodbye, to dismiss someone, renounce, give up, set apart, forsake.
CXVII “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.

and sailedCXVIII for Syria,CXIX accompaniedCXX by Priscilla and Aquila. At CenchreaeCXXI

Notes on verse 18b

CXVIII “sailed” = ekpleo. 3x in NT – all in Acts. From ek (from, from out of) + pleo (to sail, voyage); {probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow)}. This is to sail or leave on a ship.
CXIX “Syria” = Suria. 8x in NT. From Akkadian ashshur (after the god Ashur, head of their gods). This is Syria. See;
CXX “accompanied” = sun. This is with, together with.
CXXI “Cenchreae” = Kegchreai. 2x in NT. Perhaps from kegchros (millet). This is Cenchreae, perhaps meaning “millet.”

he had his hairCXXII cut,CXXIII for he was underCXXIV a vow.CXXV 

Notes on verse 18c

CXXII “hair” = kephale. Same as “heads” in v6. See note XLVIII above.
CXXIII “had…cut” = keiro. 4x in NT. This is to shear, as cutting hair.
CXXIV “was under” = echo. Related to “occupied” in v5 & “justified in accepting” in v14. See note XXXVIII above.
CXXV “vow” = euche. 3x in NT. From euchomai (to wish, request, pray to God). This is a prayer, vow, or petition in prayer.

19 When they reachedCXXVI Ephesus,CXXVII he leftCXXVIII them there, but first he himself wentCXXIX into the synagogue and had a discussionCXXX with the Jews. 

Notes on verse 19

CXXVI “reached” = katantao. 13x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among); + antao (to meet with personally) OR from kata (see above) + anti (opposite, instead of, against). This is to come down, reach, arrive. It can be to descend from a higher elevation to a lower one or, more specifically, go to the coast or from out in the waters back to the coast. Figuratively, it is arriving at one’s destination or receiving inheritance.
CXXVII “Ephesus” = Ephesos. 16x in NT. Perhaps from Luwian Apa-ša (“later-city”) OR from Hittite Apasa (capital of Arzawa – an allied group in western Anatolia); {from appa (behind, back, after)}. This is Ephesus, meaning the “later place,” which would perhaps have the sense of a city named Newtown or Lands End. See &
CXXVIII “left” = kataleipo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing). This is to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve.
CXXIX “went” = eiserchomai. Same as “went” in v7. See note LIII above.
CXXX “had a discussion” = dialegomai. Same as “argue” in v4. See note XXIX above.

20 When they askedCXXXI him to stayCXXXII longer,CXXXIII he declined,CXXXIV 21 but on taking leaveCXXXV of them

Notes on verses 20-21a

CXXXI “asked” = erotao. From eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of). This is asking a question or making an earnest request. It is used between someone with whom the asker is close in some sense. So, they anticipate special consideration for their request.
CXXXII “stay” = meno. Same as “stayed” in v3. See note XXIII above.
CXXXIII “longer” = pleion + chronos. Pleion is related to “many” in v8. From polus (see note LXVII above). This is many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent. Chronos is time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time.
CXXXIV “declined” = ou + epineuo. Epineuo is 1x in NT. From epi (on, upon, fitting) + neuo (to nod, to signal). This is to nod approval.
CXXXV “taking leave” = apotasso. Same as “said farewell” in v18. See note CXVI above.

he said, “CXXXVII will returnCXXXVII to you, if God wills.”CXXXVIII Then he set sailCXXXIX from Ephesus.

Notes on verse 21b

CXXXVI Some manuscripts add “I must at all costs keep the approaching festival in Jerusalem, but I” = dei + ego + pantos + ho + heorte + ho + erchomai + poieo + eis + Heirosoluma + palin. Dei is from deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary. Pantos is related to “all” in v2. 9x in NT. From pas (see note XVIII above). This is entirely, all, altogether, undoubtedly. Heorte is a holiday or feast. Erchomai is the same as “went” in v1. See note III above. Poieo is related to “tentmakers” in v3. See note XXVI above. Heirosoluma is from Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
CXXXVII “return” = anakampto. 4x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + kampto (to bend or bow). This is to return, bend back.
CXXXVIII “wills” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
CXXXIX “set sail” = anago. Related to “synagogue” in v4 & “official of the synagogue” in v8 & “brought” in v12. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + ago (see note XXX above). This is to lead up, offer, set sail, bring out, depart, loose.

22 When he had landedCXL at Caesarea,CXLI he went upCXLII to Jerusalem 

Notes on verse 22a

CXL “landed” = katerchomai. Same as “arrived” in v5. See note XXXV above.
CXLI “Caesarea” = Kaisareia. 17x in NT. From kaisar (Caesar, at first a last name, then taken as a title by Roman emperors); from Latin (Caesar); perhaps from Punic caesai (elephant) OR from Latin a cesiis oculis (because of the blue eyes) OR from Latin a caesarie (because of the hair) OR from Latin a caeso matris utero (born by Caesarean section) OR from Latin caedo (to cut). This is Caesarea – part of the name of two cities in Palestine. See
CXLII “went up” = anabaino. Related to “left” in v7 & “tribunal” in v12. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (see note LII above)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.

and greetedCXLIII the churchCXLIV and then went downCXLV to Antioch.CXLVI 

Notes on verse 22b

CXLIII “greeted” = aspazomai. Perhaps from a (with, together with) + a form of spao (to draw, draw out, pull). This is to welcome, salute, or greet. It can also be to embrace or acclaim.
CXLIV “church” = ekklesia. From ek (from, out from) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is properly a calling out or an assembly. It was used to refer to a church.
CXLV “went down” = katabaino. Related to “left” in v7 & “tribunal” in v12 & “went up” in v22. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note LII above). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLVI “Antioch” = Antiocheia. Related to “occupied” in v5 & “justified in accepting” in v14 & “was under” in v18. 18x in NT. From Antiochos (Antiochus, a proper name common to kings of Syria); {perhaps from anti (opposite, instead of, against) + echo (see note XXXVIII above)}. This is Antioch or Antiochia, two cities in the Bible have this name. It means “resistant” or “set against.” See

23 After spendingCXLVII some timeCXLVIII there he departedCXLIX

Notes on verse 23a

CXLVII “spending” = poieo. Same as {untranslated} in v21. See note CXXXVI above.
CXLVIII “time” = chronos. Same as “longer” in v20. See note CXXXIII above.
CXLIX “departed” = exerchomai. Related to “went” in v1 & “went to see” in v2 & “arrived” in v5 & “went” in v7. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note III above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.

and went from place to placeCL through the region of GalatiaCLI and Phrygia,CLII

Notes on verse 23b

CL “went from place to place” = dierchomai + kathexes. Dierchomai is related to “went” in v1 & “went to see” in v2 & “arrived” in v5 & “went” in v7 & “departed” in v23. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (see note III above). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse. Kathexes is related to “occupied” in v5 & “justified in accepting” in v14 & “was under” in v18 & “Antioch” in v22. 5x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hexes (next, tomorrow, successive); {from echo (see note XXXVIII above)}. This is in order, soon, step by step, consecutively, onward.
CLI “Galatia” = Galatikos. Related to “Gallio” in v12. 2x in NT– both in Acts. From Galatia (Galatia, a Roman province in Asia Minor); {from Celt (Celt, barbarian) OR from Gerek gala (see note LXXXIII above) OR from Latin gallus (see note LXXXIII above)}. This is Galatian or related to the Galatian province. It may mean “land of Celts,” “land of barbarians,” “land of milk,” “land of roosters,” “milky land,” “rooster land,” or “land of the criers” See
CLII “Phrygia” = Phrugia. 3x in NT. From phrux (Phrygian); perhaps from Phrygian Bryges (ancient Balkan tribe); perhaps from Proto-Indo-European *bʰerǵʰ- (“high, mountain, hill”). This is Phrygia or Phrygian. It was northeastern Asia Province (Asia Minor). See

strengtheningCLIII allCLIV the disciples.CLV

Notes on verse 23c

CLIII “strengthening” = episterizo. Related to “made a…attack” in v12. 4x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + sterizo (to make fast, support, strengthen, establish, fix firmly, to go resolutely); {from sterigx (a support, plant down); perhaps from histemi (see note LXXXVII above)}. This is to strengthen, support, reestablish.
CLIV “all” = pas. Same as “all” in v2. See note XVIII above.
CLV “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.

24 Now there cameCLVI to Ephesus a Jew named ApollosCLVII from Alexandria.CLVIII, CLIX

Notes on verse 24a

CLVI “came” = katantao. Same as “reached” in v19. See note CXXVI above.
CLVII “Apollos” = Apollos. 10x in NT. Probably from Apollonios (belonging to Apollo); from the same as apollonia (Apollonia, a Macedonian city); from Apollon (the Greek god Apollo, who was god of “light, music, medicine, poetry, prophecy, dance, manly beauty”); possibly from Pre-Greek (to drive away) OR from Greek apollumi (to destroy) OR apolouon (washing) OR apoluon (delivering) OR haploun (simple) OR aeiballon (always shooting) OR a (not) + polus (parts). This is Apollos. See
CLVIII “Alexandria” = Alexandreus. Related to “people” in v13. 2x in NT. From Alexandreia (Alexandria); {from Alexandros (Alexander, “man-defender”); {from alexo (to ward off) + aner (see note XCII above)}}. This is Alexandria. See
CLIX {untranslated} = genos. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note X above.

He was an eloquentCLX man,CLXI well-versedCLXII in the scriptures.CLXIII 

Notes on verse 24b

CLX “eloquent” = logios. Related to “argue” in v4 & “word” in v5 & “said” in v13. 1x in NT. From logos (see note XXXIX above). This is learned or eloquent, an orator.
CLXI “man” = aner. Related to “people” in v13 & “Alexandria” in v24. See note XCII above.
CLXII “well-versed” = dunatos. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is mighty or powerful. It speaks of ability of persons, possibility of things. It is what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits. The root verb is also related to miracles i.e. deeds of power.
CLXIII “scriptures” = graphe. From grapho (to write). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.

25 He had been instructedCLXIV in the WayCLXV of the Lord, and he spokeCLXVI

Notes on verse 25a

CLXIV “instructed” = katecheo. 8x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, among) + echeo (to sound, reverberate, give a loud sound); {from echos (a loud sound, roaring, or echo. It can also be a report, rumor, or fame); from eche (noise or sound)}. This is literally to sound down. It is to study something by sounding it out and repeating it. It can also imply indoctrinate. This is where “catechism” comes from.
CLXV “Way” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
CLXVI “spoke” = laleo. Same as “speak” in v9. See note LXXIV above.

with burning enthusiasmCLXVII and taught accuratelyCLXVIII the things concerning Jesus, though he knewCLXIX

Notes on verse 25b

CLXVII “with burning enthusiasm” = zeo + ho + pneuma. Literally, “being fervent in spirit.” Zeo is 2x in NT. This is to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow. It is used figuratively for being fervent or earnest. The word is onomatopoeia for the sound that water makes when it boils. Pneuma is from pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
CLXVIII “accurately” = akribos. 9x in NT. From akriboo (examine carefully, learn diligently); from akribes (high point, extreme) OR from akros (the point, end); from akrib– (learning precise information with as much accuracy as possible; probing inquiry to gain a comprehensive, exact sense of the facts). This is carefully, strictly, diligently, with great accuracy. This is investigated to the finest point and so precise.
CLXIX “knew” = epistamai. Related to “made a…attack” in v12 & “strengthening” in v23. 14x in NT. From epihistemi (to stand upon, be present, stand by, be urgent; to attack, confront, appear); {from epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + histemi (see note LXXXVII above)}. This is to know, stand on, get knowledge face to face or with personal effort, comprehend, be acquainted. It is related to “epistemology.”

onlyCLXX the baptismCLXXI of John.CLXXII 

Notes on verse 25c

CLXX “only” = monon. Related to “stayed” in v3 & “staying” in v18. From monos (alone, single, remaining, mere, desolate); from meno (see note XXIII above). This is merely, only, simply, sole. It can also imply alone.
CLXXI “baptism” = baptisma. Related to “baptized” in v8. From baptizo (see note LXX above). This is dipping or sinking. Also, the rite of baptism.
CLXXII “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v5. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note XLII above) + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”

26 He beganCLXXIII to speak boldlyCLXXIV in the synagogue, but when Priscilla and Aquila heard him they took him asideCLXXV and explainedCLXXVI the Way of God to him more accurately. 

Notes on verse 26

CLXXIII “began” = archomai. Related to “official of the synagogue” in v8. See note LXII above.
CLXXIV “speak boldly” = parresiazomai. Related to “all” in v2 & {untranslated} in v21. 9x in NT– 7 in the book of Acts. From parresia (confidence, openness, boldness, outspokenness; can imply assurance – free speech); {from pas (see note XVIII above) + rhesis (speech); {from rheo (say, speak of, command)}}. This is to be confident, speak freely or with boldness. It can also refer to a confident spirit or manner.
CLXXV “took…aside” = proslambano. Related to “seized” in v17. 12x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + lambano (see note CIX above). This is to take aside, accept, receive, or welcome. It can be to take in a friendly or hospitable sense or to eat (i.e. take food).
CLXXVI “explained” = ektithemi. Related to “lay a hand on” in v10. 4x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + tithemi (see note LXXVI above). This is to set forth, expound, abandon, declare.

27 And when he wished to cross overCLXXVII to Achaia, the brothers and sisters encouragedCLXXVIII him and wroteCLXXIX to the disciples to welcomeCLXXX him.

Notes on verse 27a

CLXXVII “cross over” = dierchomai. Same as “went from place to place” in v23. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (see note III above). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.
CLXXVIII “encouraged” = protrepo. 1x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + akin to trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); {from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn forward, encourage, persuade.
CLXXIX “wrote” = grapho. Related to “scriptures” in v24. See note CLXIII above.
CLXXX “welcome” = apodechomai. 7x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is to welcome, embrace, receive, approve of. It can also mean to show hospitality.

On his arrivalCLXXXI he greatlyCLXXXII helpedCLXXXIII those who through graceCLXXXIV had become believers, 

Notes on verse 27b

CLXXXI “arrival” = paraginomai. Related to {untranslated} and “wife” in v2. From para (from beside, by) + ginomai (see note X above). This is to arrive, appear, reach. It implies appearing publicly.
CLXXXII “greatly” = polus. Same as “many” in v8. See note LXVII above.
CLXXXIII “helped” = sumballo. 6x in NT – 2x in Luke & 4x in Acts. From sun (with, together with) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw together, consider, encounter, discuss, debate, wage, help, join.
CLXXXIV “grace” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.

28 for he powerfullyCLXXXV refutedCLXXXVI the Jews in public,CLXXXVII showingCLXXXVIII by the scriptures that the Messiah is Jesus.

Notes on verse 28

CLXXXV “powerfully” = eutonos. 2x in NT – 1x in Luke & 1x in Acts. From eu (good, well done) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain). This is powerfully, fully extended, vigorously.
CLXXXVI “refuted” = diakatelegchomai. 1x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + kata (down, against, throughout, among) + elegcho (to expose, reprove, discipline, convict, or rebuke; using convincing evidence to expose a wrong). This is to completely refute, to win in an argument, to convince.
CLXXXVII “in public” = demosios. Related to {untranslated} in v21. 4x in NT– all in Acts. From demos (district, multitude, rabble, assembly; Greeks bound by similar laws or customs); from deo (see note CXXXVI above). This is public, common, or openly.
CLXXXVIII “showing” = epideiknumi. 7x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is to show, demonstrate, prove, or display.

Image credit: “Ave, Caesar! Io, Saturnalia!” by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, 1880.

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