Acts 4

Acts 4


While Peter and JohnI were speakingII to the people,III the priests,IV

Notes on verse 1a

I “Peter and John” = autos. Literally, “they.”
II “speaking” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.
III “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
IV “priests” = hiereus. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god). This is a priest, used for Jewish and Gentile priests.

the captainV of the temple,VI and the SadduceesVII cameVIII to them, 

Notes on verse 1b

V “captain” = strategos. 10x in NT. From stratia (army; used figuratively for large, organized groups like the angels and the hosts of heaven, which is to say the stars); {from the same as strateuo (to wage war, fight, serve as a soldier; used figuratively for spiritual warfare); or from the base of stronnuo (to spread, to spread out like a bed)} + hegeomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); {from ago (lead, bring, carry, drive, go)}. This is a military leader, general, military governor, magistrate. It can also be a temple leader such as the Levitical head of the temple guard.
VI “temple” = hieron. Related to “priests” in v1. From hieros (see note IV above). This is the word for temple.
VII “Sadducees” = Saddoukaios. 14x in NT. Probably from Hebrew tsadoq (Zadok, a personal name); from tsadaq (to be just or righteous, do justice); from tsedeq (rightness, righteousness, just cause, vindication; that which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense; abstractly equity; figuratively prosperity). This is a Sadducee. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders.
VIII “came” = ephistemi. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to stand upon, happen, be present. Usually, it is used in a literal sense.

much annoyedIX because they were teachingX the people and proclaimingXI

Notes on verse 2a

IX “annoyed” = diaponeomai. 2x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + poneomai (to work hard) OR from dia (see note above) + ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); {from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day)}. This is to work hard through something, to be exhausted from trouble or grief, to worry.
X “teaching” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.
XI “proclaiming” = kataggello. Related to “captain” in v1. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, throughout, among, daily) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (angel, messenger – supernatural or human envoy of God); probably from ago (see note V above)}. This is to proclaim openly and confidently a very specific message. It can also be celebrate, preach, or teach.

that in JesusXII there is the resurrectionXIII of the dead.XIV 

Notes on verse 2b

XII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XIII “resurrection” = anastasis. Related to “came” in v1. From anistemi (to raise up, rise, appear; to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect); from ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note VIII above). This is literally standing up or standing again. It is used figuratively for recovering a spiritual truth. It can be raising up, rising, or resurrection.
XIV “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.

So they arrestedXV them and putXVI them in custodyXVII

Notes on verse 3a

XV “arrested” = epiballo + autos + ho + cheir. Literally, “laid hands on them.” Epiballo is 18x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to place on, fall, lay, throw over, think about, waves crashing, emotions emerging. Cheir is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
XVI “put” = tithemi. This is to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense. Properly, it is placing something in a passive or horizontal position.
XVII “custody” = teresis. 3x in NT. From tereo (to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve; figuratively, spiritual watchfulness; guarding something from being lost or harmed; fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining; figuratively can mean to remain unmarried.); {teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy)}. This is watching. So, it could be a prison or somewhere that something is preserved. It can also mean observance as in obeying the commandments.

until the next day,XVIII for it wasXIX already evening. But manyXX of those who heardXXI the wordXXII

Notes on verses 3b-4a

XVIII “next day” = aurion. 14x in NT. Perhaps from aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is tomorrow.
XIX “was” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
XX “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
XXI “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XXII “word” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.

believed,XXIII and they numberedXXIV about fiveXXV thousand.XXVI

Notes on verse 4b

XXIII “believed” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
XXIV “numbered” = ginomai + ho + arithmos + ho + aner. Literally, “the number of the men became.” Ginomai is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth. Arithmos is 18x in NT. Perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is a number, total, or group. Aner is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
XXV “five” = pente. This is five. It may be symbolically associated with the Temple or redemption.
XXVI “thousand” = chilias. From chilioi (thousand; symbolically it has a sense of inclusiveness of every thing). This is thousand. Figuratively, it has the sense of totality.

XXVIIThe next day their rulers,XXVIII elders,XXIX and scribesXXX

Notes on verse 5a

XXVII {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as “numbered” in v4. See note XXIV above.
XXVIII “rulers” = archon. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is ruler, leader, magistrate, official, prince, chief.
XXIX “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.
XXX “scribes” = grammateus. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (to write). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.

assembledXXXI in Jerusalem,XXXII with AnnasXXXIII the high priest,XXXIV

Notes on verses 5b-6a

XXXI “assembled” = sunago. Related to “captain” in v1 & “proclaiming” in v2. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note V above). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
XXXII “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
XXXIII “Annas” = Hannas. Related to “Jesus” in v2. 4x in NT. From Hebrew chananyah (Hannaniah; “the Lord has been gracious” or “the Lord has favored); {from chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status) Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note XII above)}. This is Annas, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
XXXIV “high priest” = archiereus. Related to “priests” and “temple” in v1 and to “rulers” in v5. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + hiereus (see note IV above) This is a high or chief priest.

Caiaphas,XXXV John,XXXVI and Alexander,XXXVII and all who were of the high-priestlyXXXVIII family.XXXIX 

Notes on verse 6b

XXXV “Caiaphas” = Kaiaphas. 9x in NT. From Aramaic (as beautiful) OR from kefa (rock, stone) OR from Akkadian kaypha (dell, depression). This is Caiaphas. See
XXXVI “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v2 & “Annas” in v6. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note XII above) + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
XXXVII “Alexander” = Alexandros. Related to “numbered” in v4. 6x in NT. From alexo (to ward off) + aner (see note XXIV above). This is Alexander, meaning “man-defender.”
XXXVIII “high-priestly” = archieratikos. Related to “priests” and “temple” in v1 & “high priest” in v6 & to “rulers” in v5 & “high priest” in v6. 1x in NT. From archiereus (see note XXXIV above). This is high-priestly or related to the high priest.
XXXIX “family” = genos. Related to “numbered” in v4. From ginomai (see note XXIV above). This is family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense.

When they had made the prisoners standXL in their midst,XLI they inquired,XLII

Notes on verse 7a

XL “made…stand” = histemi. Related to “came” in v1 & “resurrection” in v2. See note VIII above.
XLI “midst” = mesos. Perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action). This is middle, among, center, midst.
XLII “inquired” = punthanomai. 12x in NT. This is to ask in order to learn. It is not to ask a favor (erotao in Greek), to demand something felt to be owed (aiteo), to search for a hidden thing (zeteo), or to ask for urgent help (deomai). This is to figure something out through questions.

“By what powerXLIII or by what nameXLIV did you doXLV this?” 

Notes on verse 7b

XLIII “power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
XLIV “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
XLV “do” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.

Then Peter,XLVI filledXLVII with the HolyXLVIII Spirit,XLIX said to them, “Rulers of the people and elders, 

Notes on verse 8

XLVI “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
XLVII “filled” = pleitho. This is to fill to the highest level possible – to accomplish, supply, or complete.
XLVIII “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
XLIX “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

if we are being questionedL todayLI because of a good deedLII done

Notes on verse 9a

L “questioned” = anakrino. 16x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). 16x in NT. This is to scrutinize, examine, investigate, judge, or discern. Properly, it refers to very thorough investigation or careful study. It was used to talk about investigating crimes in the ancient world. It can also be used to talk about interrogation that uses torture.
LI “today” = semeron. From hemera (day, time, daybreak); perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is today, now, at present.
LII “good deed” = euergesia. 2x in NT. From euergetes (someone who does good, benefactor, philanthropist); {from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + the same as ergon (word, task, action, employment); {from ergo (to work, accomplish) or from erdo (to do)}}. This is a good deed, benefit, service.

to someoneLIII who was sickLIV and are being asked how this manLV has been healed,LVI 

Notes on verse 9b

LIII “someone” = anthropos. Related to “numbered” in v4 & “Alexandar” in v6. Probably from aner (see note XXIV above) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
LIV “sick” = asthenes. From a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}. This is without strength so weak, sick, helpless, frail, feeble. It can also be unimpressive or impotent. It can be used for physical or moral weakness.
LV “this man” = houtos. Literally, “this one.”
LVI “healed” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.

10 let it be knownLVII to all of you, and to allLVIII the people of Israel,LIX

Notes on verse 10a

LVII “known” = gnostos. Related to “name” in v7. 15x in NT. From ginosko (see note XLIV above). This is known or acquaintance.
LVIII “all” = pas. This is all or every.
LIX “Israel” = Israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.

that this man is standingLX beforeLXI you in good healthLXII by the name of Jesus ChristLXIII of Nazareth,LXIV 

Notes on verse 10b

LX “standing” = paristemi. Related to “came” in v1 & “resurrection” in v2 & “make…stand” in v7 & “crucified” in v10. From para (from beside, by) + histemi (see note VIII above). This is literally to place by stand. It can mean to present, exhibit, appear, bring, stand by, or prove. It can also mean to be ready, to assist, to yield, or to commend.
LXI “before” = enopion. Related to “someone” in v9. From en (in, on, at, by with) + ops (see note LIII above). This is literally “in the eye of” and is used for before or in the presence of.
LXII “in good health” = hugies. 12x in NT. Perhaps from auksano (to grow or enlarge, whether literal or figurative). This is healthy, whole, pure, normal, restored, wholesome. Figuratively, it can mean a sound or true teaching. It is where “hygiene” comes from.
LXIII “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
LXIV “Nazareth” = Nazoraios. 13x in NT. Probably from nazara (Nazareth); perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazarene. See

whom you crucified,LXV whom GodLXVI raisedLXVII from the dead. 

Notes on verse 10c

LXV “crucified” = stauroo. Related to “came” in v1 & “resurrection” in v2 & “make…stand” in v7. From stauros (upright stake, cross; literally the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die); from the same as histemi (see note VIII above). This can be to attach someone to a cross or fencing with stakes. In a figurative sense, it could be to destroy, mortify, or subdue passions/selfishness.
LXVI “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
LXVII “raised” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.

11 This Jesus is

‘the stoneLXVIII that was rejectedLXIX by you, the builders;LXX
    it has becomeLXXI the cornerstone.’LXXII

Notes on verse 11

LXVIII “stone” = lithos. This is stone in a literal or figurative sense.
LXIX “rejected” = exoutheneo. 11x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + oudeis (no one, none, nothing; ruling out absolutely); {from oude (and not, neither, not even) {from ou (not, no) + de (but, and, now, indeed)} + heis (one, first, alone)}. Properly, this is casting someone or something out as nothing, consider someone or something nothing – of no account. This would be to treat someone with utter contempt or to ignore them.
LXX “builders” = oikodomeo. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + domeo (to build). This is to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden.
LXXI “become” = ginomai. Same as “numbered” in v4. See note XXIV above.
LXXII “cornerstone” = kephale + gonia. Kephale is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from. Gonia is 9x in NT. From gonu (knee, foot). This is an angle or corner. It could also figuratively refer to somewhere that is secret.

12 “There is salvationLXXIII in no one else,LXXIV for there is no otherLXXV name under heavenLXXVI

Notes on verse 12a

LXXIII “salvation” = soteria. Related to “healed” in v9. From soter (a savior, deliverer); from sozo (see note LVI above). This is deliverance, salvation, preservation, welfare, prosperity, safety.
LXXIV “else” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
LXXV “other” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
LXXVI “heaven” = ouranos. Related to “numbered” in v4. May be related to oros (mountain, hill); probably related to airo (see note XXIV above). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.

givenLXXVII among mortalsLXXVIII by which we mustLXXIX be saved.”LXXX

Notes on verse 12b

LXXVII “given” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXVIII “mortals” = anthropos. Same as “someone” in v9. See note LIII above.
LXXIX “must” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
LXXX “saved” = sozo. Same as “healed” in v9. See note LVI above.

13 Now when they sawLXXXI the boldnessLXXXII of Peter and John and realizedLXXXIII

Notes on verse 13a

LXXXI “saw” = theoreo. Related to “custody” in v3. See note XVII above.
LXXXII “boldness” = parresia. Related to “all” in v10. From pas (see note LVIII above) + rhesis (speech); {from rheo (say, speak of, command)}. This is confidence, openness, boldness, outspokenness. It can imply assurance – free speech.
LXXXIII “realized” = katalambano. 15x in NT. From kata (down, against, among, throughout) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take hold of something with great intention for one’s own interest. It can be seize or arrest – grasping forcefully. Figuratively, it can also mean to comprehend, to win, to surprise, or to possess.

that they were uneducatedLXXXIV and ordinaryLXXXV men,LXXXVI

Notes on verse 13b

LXXXIV “uneducated” = agrammatos. Related to “scribes” in v5. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + grapho (see note XXX above). This is literally unlettered. It come mean illiterate, lacking education, or not learned in the teachings of the faith.
LXXXV “ordinary” = idiotes. 5x in NT – 1x in Acts, 3x in 1 Corinthians, and 1x in 2 Corinthians. From idios (something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart; a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun). This is related to oneself. This is someone who did not have a teacher or receive education from others. What they know comes from themselves. So, it could be someone who is private, ungifted, or ignorant. It is where the word “idiot” comes from.
LXXXVI “men” = anthropos. Same as “someone” in v9. See note LIII above.

they were amazedLXXXVII and recognizedLXXXVIII them as companionsLXXXIX of Jesus. 

Notes on verse 13c

LXXXVII “amazed” = thaumazo. Related to “custody” in v3 & “saw” in v13. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (see note XVII above). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
LXXXVIII “recognized” = epiginosko. Related to “name” in v7 & “known” in v10. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + ginosko (see note XLIV above). This is to perceive, discern, acknowledge, recognize, know exactly because of direct interaction.
LXXXIX “companions” = sun. Literally with or together with, a close association.

14 When they sawXC the manXCI who had been curedXCII

Notes on verse 14a

XC “saw” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
XCI “man” = anthropos. Same as “someone” in v9. See note LIII above.
XCII “cured” = therapeuo. From therapon (servant, attendant, minister); perhaps from theros (properly heat and so used for summer); from thero (to heat). This is to serve, care, attend, heal, or cure. Since it means to attend to, it can be used for doctors, but also for those who serve God. So, it can mean worship. This is where the word “therapy” comes from.

standingXCIII besideXCIV them, they hadXCV nothing to say in opposition.XCVI 

Notes on verse 14b

XCIII “standing” = histemi. Same as “made…stand” in v7. See note XL above.
XCIV “beside” = sun. Same as “companions” in v13. See note LXXXIX above.
XCV “had” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
XCVI “say in opposition” = antilego. Related to “word” in v4. 11x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + lego (see note XXII above). This is literally to speak against – so, to contradict, oppose, resist. It is being argumentative, especially with a hostile bent through opposition. It can indicate attempts to thwart.

15 So they orderedXCVII them to leaveXCVIII the councilXCIX while they discussedC the matter with one another. 

Notes on verse 15

XCVII “ordered” = keleuo. From kelomai (to urge on). This is to command, order, or direct.
XCVIII “leave” = exoaperchomai. Literally, “go…outside.” Exo is out, outside, away, strange. Aperchomai is from apo (from, away from) + erchomai (to come or go). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
XCIX “council” = sunedrion. From sun (with, together with) + hedra (convening, siting together, being firm and faithful); {from aphedron (seat, well-seated; figuratively, this is firm in purpose, steadfast); from hedra (a seat)}. This is Sanhedrin – literally a sitting together. It was the high court for Jews and had 71 members. This term could also mean council or meeting place and was used for the lower courts that were throughout the land and had 23 members.
C “discussed” = sumballo. Related to “arrested” in v3. 6x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + ballo (see note XV above). This is to throw together, discuss, ponder, meet, contribute, help, debate, attack.

16 They said,CI “What will we doCII with them?CIII CIVFor it is obviousCV

Notes on verse 16a

CI “said” = lego. Related to “word” in v4 & “say in opposition” in v14. See note XXII above.
CII “do” = poieo. Same as “do” in v7. See note XLV above.
CIII “them” = ho + anthropos + houtos. Literally, “these people.” Anthropos is the same as “someone” in v9. See note LIII above. Houtos is the same as “this man” in v7. See note LV above.
CIV {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
CV “obvious” = phaneros. 18x in NT. From phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); from phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is visible, apparent, clear, shining.

to all who liveCVI in Jerusalem that a notableCVII signCVIII

Notes on verse 16b

CVI “live” = katoikeo. Related to “builders” in v11. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home); {from oikos (see note LXX above)}. This is to live or settle on a permanent basis.
CVII “notable” = gnostos. Same as “known” in v10. See note LVII above.
CVIII “sign” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.

has been doneCIX through them; we cannotCX denyCXI it. 17 But to keepCXII it from spreadingCXIII

Notes on verses 16c-17a

CIX “done” = ginomai. Same as “numbered” in v4. See note XXIV above.
CX “cannot” = ou + dunamai. Dunamai is related to “power” in v7. See note XLIII above.
CXI “deny” = arneomai. Related to “boldness” in v13. From a (not) + rheo (see note LXXXII above). This is to deny, disown, refuse, repudiate someone or a previously held belief, to contradict.
CXII “keep” = me. Literally, not, neither.
CXIII “spreading” = dianemo. 1x in NT. From dia (through, across, because of, thoroughly) + nemo (to parcel out, assign). This is to distribute portions of something, to spread about.

furtherCXIV among the people, let us warnCXV them to speak no more to anyoneCXVI in this name.” 

18 So they calledCXVII them and orderedCXVIII them

Notes on verses 17b-18a

CXIV “further” = pleion. Related to “many” in v4. From polus (see note XX above). This is many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent.
CXV “warn” = apeile. 2x in NT. Perhaps from apeileo (to threaten, warn). This is to threaten, menace, or forbid.
CXVI “anyone” = medeis + anthropos. Literally, “no people.” Anthropos is the same as “someone” in v9. See note LIII above.
CXVII “called” = kaleo. Related to “ordered” in v15. Related to keleuo (see note XCVII above). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
CXVIII “ordered” = paraggello. Related to “captain” in v1 & “proclaiming” in v2 & “assembled” in v5. From para (from beside, by) + aggello (see note XI above). This is to send a message, order, notify, command. It is a charge – a proper command as a military term that has followed proper channels. It can also mean to entreat solemnly.

not to speakCXIX or teach at allCXX in the name of Jesus. 19 But Peter and John answeredCXXI them,

Notes on verses 18b-19a

CXIX “speak” = phtheggomai. Related to “obvious” in v16. 3x in NT. Perhaps related to pheggos (light, brightness, radiance); related to phos (see note CV above); from phaos (light); perhaps related to phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view).
CXX “at all” = katholou. 1x in NT. From kata (down, against, among) + holos (whole, complete, or entire; a state where every member is present and functioning in concert). This is entirely, in general, or altogether.
CXXI “answered” = apokrinomai. Related to “questioned” in v9. From apo (from, away from) + krino (see note L above). This is to reply or respond, to draw one’s own conclusions, to speak when one is expected to.

“Whether it is rightCXXII in God’s sightCXXIII to listenCXXIV to you

Notes on verse 19b

CXXII “right” = dikaios. From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person. It implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice.
CXXIII “in…sight” = enopion. Same as “before” in v10. See note LXI above. From en (in, on, at, by with) + ops (see note LIII above). This is literally “in the eye of” and is used for before or in the presence of.
CXXIV “listen” = akouo. Same as “heard” in v4. See note XXI above.

ratherCXXV than to God, you must judge;CXXVI 20 for we cannot keep from speakingCXXVII about what we have seenCXXVIII and heard.” 

Notes on verses 19c-20

CXXV “rather” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.
CXXVI “judge” = krino. Related to “questioned” in v9 & “answered” in v19. See note L above.
CXXVII “speaking” = laleo. Same as “speaking” in v1. See note II above.
CXXVIII “seen” = horao. Related to “someone” in v9 & “before” in v10. See note LIII above.

21 After threateningCXXIX them again, they let them go,CXXX findingCXXXI no way

Notes on verse 21a

CXXIX “threatening” = prosapeileo. Related to “warn” in v17. 1x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + apeileo (see note CXV above). This is to make additional threats.
CXXX “let…go” = apoluo. From apo (from, away from) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.
CXXXI “finding” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.

to punishCXXXII them because of the people, for all of them praisedCXXXIII God for what had happened.CXXXIV 

Notes on verse 21b

CXXXII “punish” = kolazo. 2x in NT. From kolos (docked). This is to chastise or punish. Literally, it means to curtail. It was used to describe incapacitating slaves. So, it means to punish or retrain someone.  
CXXXIII “praised” = doxazo. From doxa (glory, opinion, praise, honor, renown; particularly used as a quality of God or manifestation of God – splendor); from dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.
CXXXIV “happened” = ginomai. Same as “numbered” in v4. See note XXIV above.

22 For the manCXXXV on whom this sign of healingCXXXVI had been performedCXXXVII was more thanCXXXVIII fortyCXXXIX years old.

Notes on verse 22

CXXXV “man” = anthropos. Same as “someone” in v9. See note LIII above.
CXXXVI “healing” = iasis. 3x in NT. From iaomai (to heal, particularly from a physical illness, or a spiritual difficulty; to cure or make whole in a literal or figurative sense). This is healing or a cure.
CXXXVII “performed” = ginomai. Same as “numbered” in v4. See note XXIV above.
CXXXVIII “more than” = pleion. Same as “further” in v17. See note CXIV above.
CXXXIX “forty” = tessarakonta. From tessares (four). This is forty, which may refer to a full period of time.

23 After they were released,CXL they wentCXLI to their ownCXLII people and reportedCXLIII what the chief priests and the elders had said to them. 

Notes on verse 23

CXL “released” = apoluo. Same as “let…go” in v21. See note CXXX above.
CXLI “went” = erchomai. Related to “leave” in v15. See note XCVIII above.
CXLII “own” = idios. Related to “ordinary” in v13. See note LXXXV above.
CXLIII “reported” = apaggello. Related to “captain” in v1 & “proclaiming” in v2 & “assembled” in v5 & “ordered” in v18. From apo (from, away from) + aggello (see note XI above). This is to report, declare, bring word. It is an announcement that emphasizes the source.

24 When they heard it, they raisedCXLIV their voicesCXLV togetherCXLVI to God and said,

Notes on verse 24a

CXLIV “raised” = airo. Related to “numbered” in v4 & “heaven” in v12. See note XXIV above.
CXLV “voices” = phone. Related to “obvious” in v16 & “speak” in v18. Probably from phemi (see note CXIX above) or phaino (see note CV above). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
CXLVI “together” = homothumadon. 11x in NT. From homou (together); {from homos (the same)} + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}}. This is having one mind or a shared passion. It is people who share the same desire.

“Sovereign Lord,CXLVII who madeCXLVIII the heaven and the earth,CXLIX the sea,CL and everythingCLI in them, 

Notes on verse 24b

CXLVII “Sovereign Lord” = Despotes. Related to “must” in v12. 10x in NT. Perhaps from deo (see note LXXIX above). This is lord, master, despot, sovereign Lord. It is an authority who has unrestricted power and jurisdiction.
CXLVIII “made” = poieo. Same as “do” in v7. See note XLV above.
CXLIX “earth” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
CL “sea” = thalassa. Perhaps from hals (sea, salt, a boy of saltwater) or halas (salt; can be figurative for prudence). This is the sea, a lake, or seashore.
CLI “everything” = pas. Same as “all” in v10. See note LVIII above.

25 it is you who said by the Holy Spirit throughCLII our ancestorCLIII David,CLIV your servant:CLV

Notes on verse 25a

CLII {untranslated} = stoma. Perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.
CLIII “ancestor” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
CLIV “David” = Dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
CLV “servant” = pais. Perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is child, youth, servant, or slave.

‘Why did the gentilesCLVI rageCLVII
    and the peoples imagineCLVIII vain things?CLIX

Notes on verse 25b

CLVI “gentiles” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
CLVII “rage” = phruasso. 1x in NT. Perhaps from bruo (to swell, gush forth, send) OR brucho (to bite, grind teeth; can be a sine of pain or rage). This is to snort or neigh as a horse does. Figuratively, it refers to a horse out of control and so to someone raging or roaring.
CLVIII “imagine” = meletao. 2x in NT. From melete (care) OR related to melo (to think about something, take an interest; to care or worry about something). This is to care for, study, plan, imagine.
CLIX “vain things” = kenos. 18x in NT. Properly, this is something that is empty or void. Hence, it is worthless, foolish, ineffective, morally void, pretentious, unreal, or false.

26 The kingsCLX of the earth took their stand,CLXI
    and the rulers have gatheredCLXII together
        against the LordCLXIII and against his Messiah.’CLXIV

Notes on verse 26

CLX “kings” = basileus. Probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
CLXI “took…stand” = paristemi. Same as “standing” in v10. See note LX above.
CLXII “gathered” = sunago. Same as “assembled” in v5. See note XXXI above.
CLXIII “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
CLXIV “Messiah” = Christos. Same as “Christ” in v10. See note LXIII above.

27 “For in this city,CLXV in fact,CLXVI both HerodCLXVII

Notes on verse 27a

CLXV “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
CLXVI “fact” = aletheia. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic). {from a (not, without) + lanthano (unnoticed, concealed)}. Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.
CLXVII “Herod” = Herodes. Perhaps from heros (hero, warrior) + oide (song, ode, legend, tale); {from aoide (song, ode, legend, tale); {from aeido (to sing) + e (this is added to verbs to make them nouns)}} OR from hera (Hera) + oide (same as above). This is Herod, perhaps “hero’s song,” “Hera’s song,” or “heroic.” See

and PontiusCLXVIII Pilate,CLXIX with the gentiles and the peoples of Israel, gathered together against your holy servant Jesus, whom you anointed,CLXX 

Notes on verse 27b

CLXVIII “Pontius” = Pontios. 3x in NT. From Latin Pontius (Pontius, a name); from Oscan pontus or pmptus (given names Pontus or Pomptus); {from Proto-Italic kenke (give)} OR from Latin pons (bridge); {from Proto-Indo-European pontehs (path, road); from pent (path)}. This is Pontius, perhaps meaning “bridged.” See
CLXIX “Pilate” = Pilatos. From Latin Pilatus (may mean one who has skill with a javelin); perhaps from pilum (javelin) OR perhaps from pileus (a soft cap made of felt that was brimless and was associated with people who were freedmen). This is Pilate. See
CLXX “anointed” = chrio. Related to “arrested” in v3 & “Christ” in v10. 5x in NT. See note LXIII above.

28 to doCLXXI whatever your handCLXXII and your planCLXXIII had predestinedCLXXIV to take place.CLXXV 

Notes on verse 28

CLXXI “do” = poieo. Same as “do” in v7. See note XLV above.
CLXXII “hand” = cheir. Same as “arrested” in v3. See note XV above.
CLXXIII “plan” = boule. 12x in NT. From boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination). This is counsel, plan, purpose, decision. It refers to wisdom that comes from deliberation.
CLXXIV “predestined” = proorizo. 6x in NT. From pro (before, earlier than, ahead, prior) + horizo (to determine, set boundaries, appoint, designate, pre-determined; literally, this is setting horizons); {from the same as horion (boundary, territory); from horos (limit, boundary)}. This is to predetermine, to set limits or boundaries in advance. Figuratively, it is foreordain or predestine.
CLXXV “take place” = ginomai. Same as “numbered” in v4. See note XXIV above.

29 And now, Lord, lookCLXXVI at their threats,CLXXVII and grantCLXXVIII to your servantsCLXXIX to speakCLXXX your word with all boldness, 

Notes on verse 29

CLXXVI “look” = epeidon. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + eidos (form, shape, sight, appearance); {from eido (to know, remember, perceive – to see and so understand)}. This is to look on with favor, behold.
CLXXVII “threats” = apeile. Related to “warn” in v17 & “threatening” in v21. 3x in NT. Perhaps from apeileo (see note CXV above). This is a threat or menacing.
CLXXVIII “grant” = didomi. Same as “given” in v12. See note LXXVII above.
CLXXIX “servants” = doulos. Related to “must” in v12 & “Sovereign Lord” in v24. Perhaps from deo (see note LXXIX above). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
CLXXX “speak” = laleo. Same as “speaking” in v1. See note II above.

30 while you stretch outCLXXXI your hand to heal,CLXXXII and signs and wondersCLXXXIII are performed through the name of your holy servant Jesus.” 

31 When they had prayed,CLXXXIV the placeCLXXXV

Notes on verses 30-31a

CLXXXI “stretch out” = ekteino. 16x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain). This is to stretch out, reach, lay hands on. Can also be used for casting an anchor.
CLXXXII “heal” = iasis. Same as “healing” in v22. See note CXXXVI above.
CLXXXIII “wonders” = teras. 16x in NT. This is a wonder or marvel performed to get bystanders to react. It could also be a portent or omen.
CLXXXIV “prayed” = deomai. Related to “must” in v12 & “Sovereign Lord” in v24 & “servants” in v29. From deo (see note LXXIX above) This is having an urgent need because one is missing or needing something so it is an earnest appeal or pressing request.
CLXXXV “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.

in which they were gathered together was shaken,CLXXXVI and they were allCLXXXVII filled with the Holy Spirit and spokeCLXXXVIII the word of God with boldness.

Notes on verse 31b

CLXXXVI “shaken” = saleuo. 15x in NT. From salos (tossing, agitation, rolling – like the sea swells). This is to agitate or shake up. It can mean to disturb, topple, incite, or destroy.
CLXXXVII “all” = hapas. Related to “all” in v10 & “boldness” in v13. From hama (at once, together with) + pas (see note LVIII above) OR from a (with) + pas (see above). This is all; every part working together as a unit.
CLXXXVIII “spoke” = laleo. Same as “speaking” in v1. See note II above.

32 Now the whole groupCLXXXIX of those who believed were of oneCXC heartCXCI and soul,CXCII

Notes on verse 32a

CLXXXIX “whole group” = plethos. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is fullness, multitude, great number.
CXC “one” = heis. Related to “rejected” in v11. See note LXIX above.
CXCI “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
CXCII “soul” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.

and no one claimedCXCIII private ownershipCXCIV of any possessions,CXCV but everything they owned was held in common.CXCVI 

Notes on verse 32b

CXCIII “claimed” = eiron. Literally, to speak or say.
CXCIV “private ownership” = idios. Same as “own” in v23. See note CXLII above.
CXCV “possessions” = huparcho. Related to “rulers” in v5 & “high priest” and “high-priestly” in v6. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (see note XXVIII above). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.
CXCVI “in common” = koinos. 14x in NT. From sun (with, together with). This is common, shared – something for ordinary or everyday use. It can also denote unclean, unholy, or profane – unholy rather than something reserved for a sacred purpose.

33 With greatCXCVII power the apostlesCXCVIII gaveCXCIX their testimonyCC to the resurrection of the Lord Jesus, and great graceCCI was upon them all. 

Notes on verse 33

CXCVII “great” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
CXCVIII “apostles” = apostolos. Related to “came” in v1 & “resurrection” in v2 & “make…stand” in v7 & “crucified” and “standing” in v10. From apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {probably from histemi (see note VIII above)}}. This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.
CXCIX “gave” = apodidomi. Related to “given” in v12. From apo (from, away from) + didomi (see note LXXVII above). This is to give back, return, give away. It is to restore as when one makes payment – to rend what is due, to sell.
CC “testimony” = marturion. 19x in NT.  From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is something that counts as evidence whether a witness, testimony, or other proof.
CCI “grace” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.

34 There was not a needyCCII personCCIII among them, for as many as ownedCCIV landsCCV or housesCCVI, CCVII

Notes on verse 34a

CCII “needy” = endees. Related to “must” in v12 & “Sovereign Lord” in v24 & “servants” in v29 & “prayed” in v31. 1x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + deo (see note LXXIX above). This is lacking or poor.
CCIII “person” = tis. Literally a certain person or someone.
CCIV “owned” = ktetor. 1x in NT. From ktaomai (to get, purchase, possess). This is possessor or owner.
CCV “lands” = chorion. 10x in NT. From chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is place, estate, possession, piece of ground, property.
CCVI “houses” = oikia. Related to “builders” in v11 & “live” in v16. From oikos (see note LXX above). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
CCVII {untranslated} = huparcho. Same as “possessions” in v32. See note CXCV above.

soldCCVIII them and broughtCCIX the proceedsCCX of what was sold.CCXI 

Notes on verse 34b

CCVIII “sold” = poleo. This is to barter or sell. It can also refer to the thing that is sold.
CCIX “brought” = phero. This is to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly. It is to carry in a literal or figurative sense.
CCX “proceeds” = time. From tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value). This has to do with worth or something’s perceived value. Literally, it means price, but figuratively, it means the honor or value one sees in someone or something else. It can be esteem or dignity. It can also mean precious or valuables.
CCXI “sold” = piprasko. 9x in NT. From pernemi (to sell by export). This is to sell with travel involved. It can also mean to sell into slavery or to be devoted to.

35 They laidCCXII it at the apostles’ feet,CCXIII and it was distributedCCXIV to eachCCXV as any had need.CCXVI 

Notes on verse 35

CCXII “laid” = tithemi. Same as “put” in v3. See note XVI above.
CCXIII “feet” = pous. This is foot in a figurative or literal sense.
CCXIV “distributed” = diadidomi. Related to “given” in v12 & “gave” in v33. 4x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + didomi (see note LXXVII above). This is to distribute, divide, or deal out.
CCXV “each” = hekastos. Perhaps from hekas (separate). This is each one, any, every. It is every individual as a distinct entity as opposed to those counted as a group in small sets.
CCXVI “need” = chreia. From chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary). This is the is task, business, or affair. It can also be need, want, or destitution.

36 There was a LeviteCCXVII from Cyprus,CCXVIII, CCXIX

Notes on verse 36a

CCXVII “Levite” = Leuites. 3x in NT. From Leui (Levi, the tribe or a name); from Hebrew Levi (Levi, or the tribe of Levi). This is someone descended from Levi who assists priests.
CCXVIII “from Cyprus” = Kuprios. 3x in NT – all in Acts. From Kupros (Cyprus); {perhaps from kaphar (to appease, cover, pacify, cancel) or from kuparissos (cypress tree) or from ] “money” = chrema. Related to “need” in v35. 7x in NT. From chraomai (see note CCXVI above). This is something one uses or needs. It could be money, possessions, or wealth. (henna tree) or from Sumerian zubar (copper) or from Sumerian kubar (bronze)}. This is related to Cyprus or living in Cyprus. It may mean “enclave” or “redeemed” or “fortified settlement” or “atoned from. See;
CCXIX {untranslated} = ho + genos. Literally, “at birth.” Genos is the same as “family” in v6. See note XXXIX above.

Joseph,CCXX to whom the apostles gave the nameCCXXI BarnabasCCXXII

Notes on verse 36b

CCXX “Joseph” = Ioseph. From Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases.”
CCXXI “gave the name” = epikaleo. Related to “ordered” in v15 & “called” in v18. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + kaleo (see note CXVII above). This is to call on, appeal to, worship, invoke for help.
CCXXII “Barnabas” = Barnabas. Probably from Aramaic Barnabas (Barnabas); {from bar (son) + nabi (prophet, prophecy, speaker; someone inspired)}. This is Barnabas, meaning “son of prophecy” or “representative.” See

(which meansCCXXIII “sonCCXXIV of encouragement”).CCXXV 

Notes on verse 36c

CCXXIII “means” = eimi + methermeneuo. Literally, “is translated.” Eimi is the same as “was” in v3. See note XIX above. Methermeneuo is 8x in NT. From meta (with, among, beyond) + hermeneuo (to interpret, translate, explain the meaning of); {perhaps from Hermes, the god of language and a proper name}. This is to explain beyond i.e. to translate or interpret.
CCXXIV “Son” = Huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
CCXXV “encouragement” = paraklesis. Related to “ordered” in v15 & “called” in v18 & {untranslated} in v36. From parakaleo (to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg; to exhort or admonish; to encourage, comfort, or console; has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom); {from para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (see note CXVII above)}. This is calling someone for help, a personal exhortation, comfort, encouragement, joy, entreaty, urging. This word comes from a legal setting – as bringing evidence to advocate for another in court. This word is related to the word “Advocate” or paraclete used for the Holy Spirit.

37 He soldCCXXVI a fieldCCXXVII that belongedCCXXVIII to him, then brought the moneyCCXXIX and laid it at the apostles’ feet.

Notes on verse 37

CCXXVI “sold” = poleo. Same as “sold” in v34. See note CCVIII above.
CCXXVII “field” = agros. This is a field as a place where one grows crops or pastures cattle. It can also refer to a farm or lands. This is one of the roots of “agriculture.”
CCXXVIII “belonged” = huparcho. Same as “possessions” in v32. See note CXCV above.
CCXXIX “money” = chrema. Related to “need” in v35. 7x in NT. From chraomai (see note CCXVI above). This is something one uses or needs. It could be money, possessions, or wealth.

Image credit: “Pentecost Sermon” by Gebhard Fugel, late 19th/early 20th century.

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