Deuteronomy 25

Deuteronomy 25


“SupposeI two personsII haveIII a disputeIV

Notes on verse 1a

I {untranslated} = bayin. From bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is among, between, interval.
II “persons” = enosh. From anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is human, humankind, another. It is mortal.
III “have” = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
IV “dispute” = rib. From rib (properly to toss or grapple; used figuratively to mean wrangling and so for arguments, complaints, or disputes; used in a legal setting for pleading or defending a case). This is strife or dispute – whether a personal one or one in a court of law.

and enterV into litigation,VI and the judges decideVII between them,

Notes on verse 1b

V “enter” = nagash. This is to draw, bring, or come near. It is approaching for any reason – as an attack on an enemy, in order to worship, to make an argument. It can also be used as a euphemism for sex.
VI “litigation” = mishpat. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.
VII “judges decide” = shaphat. Related to “litigation” in v1. See note VI above.

declaringVIII one to be in the rightIX and the other to be in the wrong.X 

Notes on verse 1c

VIII “declaring” = tsadeq. From tsedeq (rightness, righteousness, just cause, vindication; that which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense; abstractly equity; figuratively prosperity). This is being just or righteousness. It refers to right in a moral or legal sense. So, it can be doing justice, clearing oneself, or turning to righteousness.
IX “right” = tsaddiq. Related to “declaring” in v1. From the same as tsedeq (see note VIII above). This is just, innocent, righteous, righteous one, or lawful.
X “be in the wrong” = rasha + rasha. Rasha is from resha (wrong, particularly moral wrong; wickedness, evil, wicked deeds, or something that is ill-gotten). This is to be or do something wicked, condemn, give punishment, vex, disturb, or violate. Rasha is related to “be in the wrong” in v1. This is morally wrong so it refers to someone who is actively bad as wicked, criminal, an evil person, offender, condemned, or ungodly.

IfXI the one in the wrongXII XIIIdeserves to be flogged,XIV

Notes on verse 2a

XI {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “have” in v1. See note III above.
XII “one in the wrong” = rasha. See note X above.
XIII {untranslated} = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
XIV “deserves to be flogged” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.

the judgeXV shall make that person lie downXVI and be beatenXVII in his presenceXVIII

Notes on verse 2b

XV “judge” = shaphat. Same as “judges decide” in v1. See note VII above.
XVI “lie down” = naphal. This is to fall, whether by accident, to fall prostrate, or to fall in violent death. Figuratively, it can refer to personal ruin or calamity, a city falling, an attack or a falling away. It can also be a deep sleep or wasting away.
XVII “beaten” = nakah. Same as “deserves to be flogged” in v2. See note XIV above.
XVIII “presence” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

with the number of lashesXIX proportionateXX to the offense.XXI 

Notes on verse 2c

XIX “number of lashes” = mispar. From the same as sepher (writing itself or something that is written like a document, book, letter, evidence, bill, scroll, or register); from saphar (to tally or record something; to enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare). This is a number, whether definite or symbolic – could be innumerable, few, abundance. It can also be a tally or account – or a narration.
XX “proportionate” = day. This is enough, plenty, overflow, or ability.
XXI “offense” = rishah. Related to “be in the wrong” in v1 and “be in the wrong” in v1. 15x in OT. From the same as rasha (see note X above). This is a moral wrong, wickedness, guilt.

FortyXXII lashes may be givenXXIII but not more;XXIV ifXXV moreXXVI

Notes on verse 3a

XXII “forty” = arbaim. From the same as arba (four); from raba (to make square or be four-sided); perhaps from raba (to lie down flat; can be to lie for mating). This is forty.
XXIII “lashes…given” = nakah. Same as “deserves to be flogged” in v2. See note XIV above.
XXIV “more” = yasaph. This is to add, increase, continue, exceed.
XXV “if” = pen. Related to “presence” in v2. Perhaps from panah (see note XVIII above). This is lest, if, or.
XXVI “more” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.

lashesXXVII than these are given,XXVIII your neighborXXIX will be degradedXXX in your sight.XXXI

Notes on verse 3b

XXVII “lashes” = makkah. Related to “deserves to be flogged” in v2. From nakah (see note XIV above). This is a wound, injury, blow. Figuratively, it could be disaster, slaughter, or pestilence.
XXVIII “given” = nakah. Same as “deserves to be flogged” in v2. See note XIV above.
XXIX “neighbor” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
XXX “degraded” = qalah. 6x in OT. This is to be held in low regard, dishonored, inferior, to hate; also, to be light – moving quickly.
XXXI “sight” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).

“You shall not muzzleXXXII an oxXXXIII while it is treading outXXXIV the grain.

“When brothersXXXV resideXXXVI togetherXXXVII

Notes on verses 4-5a

XXXII “muzzle” = chasam. 2x in OT. This is to block off or muzzle.
XXXIII “ox” = shor. Perhaps from shur (to travel, turn, journey; travelling like a prostitute or a merchant). This is bull, ox, head of cattle, cow.
XXXIV “treading out” = dush. 14x in OT. This is to trample, break, tear, thresh.
XXXV “brothers” = ach. Same as “neighbor” in v3. See note XXIX above.
XXXVI “reside” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
XXXVII “together” = yachad. From yachad (to join, be united). This is a unit, both, altogether, unitedness, alike.

and oneXXXVIII of them diesXXXIX and has noXL son,XLI

Notes on verse 5b

XXXVIII “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
XXXIX “dies” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
XL “no” = ayin. Perhaps from a word that means to be nothing. This means nothing, none, non-existent. It can also simply mean not or are not.
XLI “son” = ben. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note XIII above.

the wifeXLII of the deceasedXLIII shall not be marriedXLIV outsideXLV the family to aXLVI stranger.XLVII

Notes on verse 5c

XLII “wife” = ishshah. Related to “persons” in v1. From ish (man); perhaps from enosh (see note II above). This is woman, wife, or female.
XLIII “deceased” = mut. Same as “dies” in v5. See note XXXIX above.
XLIV “be married” = hayah. Same as “have” in v1. See note III above.
XLV “outside” = chuts. Root may mean to sever. So, this is something that is separated by a wall – the outside, the street, a field, highway, or abroad.
XLVI {untranslated} = ish. Related to “persons” in v1 & “wife” in v5. See note XLII above.
XLVII “stranger” = zur. This is to come from somewhere else – a stranger. It is to stop for lodging. Figuratively, it can also mean to profane or commit adultery.

Her husband’s brotherXLVIII shall go inXLIX to her, takingL her in marriageLI and performing the duty of a husband’s brotherLII to her, 

Notes on verse 5d

XLVIII “husband’s brother” = yabam. 2x in OT – both in this passage. Perhaps from yabam (to do what was expected of a man whose brother dies – to marry her widow). This is the brother of one’s husband or a brother-in-law.
XLIX “go in” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
L “taking” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
LI “marriage” = ishshah. Same as “wife” in v5. See note XLII above.
LII “performing the duty of a husband’s brother” = yabam. Related to “husband’s brother” in v5. 3x in OT. See note XLVIII above.

andLIII the firstbornLIV whom she bearsLV shall succeedLVI to the nameLVII of the deceased brother,

Notes on verse 6a

LIII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “have” in v1. See note III above.
LIV “firstborn” = bekor. From bakar (to bear fruit, be firstborn, firstling, that which opens the womb, give the birthright to). This is firstborn or chief.
LV “bears” = yalad. This is to bear or bring forth. It can mean to act as midwife or to show one’s lineage. This is often used for birth or begetting.
LVI “succeed” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
LVII “name” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.

so that his name may not be blotted outLVIII of Israel.LIX But if the manLX has no desireLXI

Notes on verses 6b-7a

LVIII “blotted out” = machah. This is to rub or wipe away, which implies blotting out or erasing, which can be used to mean destroy. This can also be rub in the sense of rubbing oil or grease on something or, more generally, reaching or touching.
LIX “Israel” = Yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
LX “man” = ish. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XLVI above.
LXI “has…desire” = chaphets. Properly, this means inclined towards or bending to. Figuratively, it means to desire, delight in, or be pleased with.

to marryLXII his brother’s widow,LXIII then his brother’s widow shall go upLXIV to the eldersLXV

Notes on verse 7b

LXII “marry” = laqach. Same as “taking” in v5. See note L above.
LXIII “brother’s widow” = yebemeth. Related to “husband’s brother” and “performing the duty of a husband’s brother” in v5. 5x in OT. From the same as yabam (see note XLVIII above). This is sister-in-law, or, more specifically, one’s brother’s wife.
LXIV “go up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
LXV “elders” = zaqen. From the same as zaqan (beard or chin – the beard represents old age). This is old, aged, or elder.

at the gateLXVI and say,LXVII ‘My husband’s brother refuses to perpetuateLXVIII his brother’s name in Israel; he willLXIX not perform the duty of a husband’s brother to me.’ 

Notes on verse 7c

LXVI “gate” = shaar. May be related to sha’ar (to calculate or reckon; may come from a root that means to open up or split). This is a gate, door, or other opening like a port.
LXVII “say” = amar. This is to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report.
LXVIII “perpetuate” = qum. Same as “succeed” in v6. See note LVI above.
LXIX “will” = abah. This is to breathe after, be willing, obey, accept, be content with, satisfy.

Then the elders of his townLXX shall summonLXXI him and speakLXXII to him. If he persists,LXXIII saying, ‘I have no desire to marry her,’

Notes on verse 8

LXX “town” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
LXXI “summon” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
LXXII “speak” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
LXXIII “persists” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.

then his brother’s wife shall go upLXXIV to him in the presenceLXXV of the elders, pullLXXVI his sandalLXXVII off his foot,LXXVIII

Notes on verse 9a

LXXIV “go up” = nagash. Same as “enter” in v1. See note V above.
LXXV “presence” = ayin. Same as “sight” in v3. See note XXXI above.
LXXVI “pull” = chalats. This is to pull off, withdraw, arm, loose, depart, deliver, prepare for a battle, strengthen.
LXXVII “sandal” = naal. From naal (properly to secure with a bar or cord; to lock, bolt, enclose; to secure with a cord i.e. to put on a sandal). This is the tongue of a sandal and, by extension, a sandal or shoe itself. Figuratively, this can refer to occupancy, unwillingness to marry, or something without value.
LXXVIII “foot” = regel. This is foot, endurance, or journey. It is a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey. It can be used euphemistically for private parts.

spit in his face,LXXIX and declare,LXXX, LXXXI ‘This is what is doneLXXXII to the man

Notes on verse 9b

LXXIX “face” = paneh. Same as “presence” in v2. See note XVIII above.
LXXX “declare” = anah. This is answer, respond, announce, sing, shout, or testify. It means to pay attention, which implies responding and, by extension, starting to talk. Used in a specific sense for singing, shouting, testifying, etc.
LXXXI {untranslated} = amar. Same as “say” in v7. See note LXVII above.
LXXXII “done” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.

who does not build upLXXXIII his brother’s house.’LXXXIV 10 Throughout Israel his familyLXXXV shall be knownLXXXVI as ‘the house of him whose sandal was pulled off.’

Notes on verses 9c-10

LXXXIII “build up” = banah. Related to {untranslated} in v2. See note XIII above.
LXXXIV “house” = bayit. Related to {untranslated} in v2 & “build up” in v9. Probably from banah (see note XIII above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
LXXXV “family” = shem. Same as “name” in v6. See note LVII above.
LXXXVI “be known” = qara. Same as “summon” in v8. See note LXXI above.

11 “If men get into a fightLXXXVII withLXXXVIII one anotherLXXXIX and the wife of one intervenesXC

Notes on verse 11a

LXXXVII “get into a fight” = natsah. 11x in OT. Properly, this means to go forth so it implies being expelled. This, in turn, implies being desolate or, causatively, to be laid waste. It can mean waste or ruinous. It can also be used figuratively for quarreling or striving together.
LXXXVIII “with” = yachad. Same as “together” in v5. See note XXXVII above.
LXXXIX “one another” = ish + ach. Literally “a man and his brother.” Ish is the same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XLVI above. Ach is the same as “neighbor” in v3. See note XXIX above.
XC “intervenes” = qarab. This is to come near, offer, make ready, approach, take.

to rescueXCI her husbandXCII from the gripXCIII of his opponentXCIV by reaching outXCV, XCVI

Notes on verse 11b

XCI “rescue” = natsal. This is to snatch someone or something away in a good sense – as rescue, defend, or deliver – or in a bad sense – as strip or plunder.
XCII “husband” = ish. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XLVI above.
XCIII “grip” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
XCIV “opponent” = nakah. Same as “deserves to be flogged” in v2. See note XIV above.
XCV “reaching out” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
XCVI {untranslated} = yad. Same as “grip” in v11. See note XCIII above.

and seizingXCVII his genitals,XCVIII 12 you shall cut offXCIX her hand;C show no pity.CI

Notes on verses 11c-12

XCVII “seizing” = chazaq. This is to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden.
XCVIII “genitals” = mabush. 1x in OT. From bosh (properly, to be pale, which implies shame, disappointment, or confusion). This is male genitals or secrets.
XCIX “cut off” = qatsats. 14x in OT. This is to cut or chop off in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to cut in pieces.
C “hand” = kaph. From kaphaph (to bend – from a root meaning curve or bend down). This is palm of the hand or sole of the foot, footstep, grasp. Figuratively, it can also mean power.
CI “show…pity” = chus + ayin. Chus is properly to cover. In a figurative sense it means looking with compassion, pitying, regarding, or sparing someone. Ayin is the same as “sight” in v3. See note XXXI above.

13 “You shall not have in your bagCII two kinds of weights,CIII largeCIV and small.CV 

Notes on verse 13

CII “bag” = kis. 6x in OT. Perhaps from kos (a cup or an owl since their eyes look similar to cups). This is bag, purse, or cup.
CIII “weights” = eben + eben. Literally “weight and weight.” This is a stone, weight, or mason. It is part of the word “Ebenezer.”
CIV “large” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
CV “small” = qatan. From quwt (grieved, cut off, to detest). This is least, small, young, little one. It is literally smaller whether in amount or size. Figuratively it is smaller in the sense of younger or less important.

14 You shall not have in your house two kinds of measures,CVI large and small. 15 You shall have only a fullCVII and honestCVIII weight;

Notes on verses 14-15a

CVI “measures” = ephah + ephah. Literally “measure and measure.” Perhaps from Egyptian ipet (“a dry measure of volume equivalent to…about 19.2 litres”). This is an ephah – specifically, a measure for flour or grain. It can also be used ore generally to refer to a measure. See
CVII “full” = shalem. From shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is safe, blameless, perfect, at peace, whole, friendly. It is complete in a literal or a figurative sense.
CVIII “honest” = tsedeq. Related to “declaring” and “right” in v1. See note VIII above.

you shall have only a full and honest measure, so that your daysCIX may be longCX in the landCXI

Notes on verse 15b

CIX “days” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
CX “be long” = arak. This is to continue, lengthen prolong, delay, or endure. It is being long or causing something to be long in a literal or figurative sense.
CXI “land” = adamah. From the same as adam (man, humankind); perhaps from ‘adom (to be red). This is ground, earth, soil as red, or land.

that the LordCXII your GodCXIII is givingCXIV you. 

Notes on verse 15c

CXII “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “have” in v1. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (see note III above). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
CXIII “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israel” in v6. From Eloah (God, a god); from El (see note LIX above). This is most commonly used as a name for God. Technically, it’s in the plural, i.e. gods. It can also mean great, mighty, judge, or ruler.
CXIV “giving” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.

16 For allCXV who do such things, all who actCXVI dishonestly,CXVII are abhorrentCXVIII to the Lord your God.

Notes on verse 16

CXV “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
CXVI “act” = asah. Same as “done” in v9. See note LXXXII above.
CXVII “dishonestly” = evel. Perhaps from aval (to deal unjustly, act in a wrongful way, a wrongdoer). This is injustice, wrong, moral evil, acts of violence, or unrighteousness.
CXVIII “abhorrent” = toebah. Perhaps from ta’ab (to abhor or morally detest). This is something that instills one with moral contempt or disgust. It can mean abhorrence and is often in reference to idolatry or idols.

17 “RememberCXIX what AmalekCXX did to you on your journeyCXXI out of Egypt,CXXII 

Notes on verse 17

CXIX “remember” = zakar. This is to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention.
CXX “Amalek” = Amaleq. Perhaps from amal (to work – hard labor) OR from am (people or nation; a tribe, troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals); {from amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together)} + laqaq (to lap, lick) OR from am (see above) + malaq (to wring, nip; to remove a bird’s head). This is Amalek or Amalekite. It may mean “people that wring,” “people that lap,” “nippers,” or “lickers.” See &
CXXI “journey” = derek + yatsa. Derek is from darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life. Yatsa is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXII “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.

18 how he attackedCXXIII you on the way,CXXIV when you were faintCXXV and weary,CXXVI and struck downCXXVII

Notes on verse 18a

CXXIII “attacked” = qarah. This is to encounter, usually unintentionally. It can also mean to happen or to lay wood for a floor or roof.
CXXIV “way” = derek. Same as “journey” in v17. See note CXXI above.
CXXV “faint” = ayeph. 17x in OT. From iph (to be faint or weary, to languish). This is faint, languid, weary, or thirsty.
CXXVI “weary” = yagea. 3x in OT. From yaga (to work, become weary, to gasp or be exhausted). This is weary – tired from working.
CXXVII “struck down” = zinneb. 2x in OT. From zanab (a tail or stub – in a literal or figurative sense); perhaps from zanab (to curtail, cut a tail off, attack from behind; perhaps from a word meaning to wag). This is to cut off, attack, curtail, wag.

all who laggedCXXVIII behindCXXIX you; he did not fearCXXX God. 19 ThereforeCXXXI when the Lord your God has given you restCXXXII

Notes on verses 18b-19a

CXXVIII “lagged” = chashal. 1x in OT. This is to shatter, be unsteady, be a straggler, be weak.
CXXIX “behind” = achar. From achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.
CXXX “fear” = yare. From the same as yare (to fear, be afraid, dreadful; also fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect). This is fearful or morally reverent.
CXXXI {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “have” in v1. See note III above.
CXXXII “given…rest” = nuach. This is to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait. It is rest and so implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense. This is perhaps the root verb of the name “Noah.”

from all your enemiesCXXXIII on every hand,CXXXIV in the landCXXXV that the Lord your God is givingCXXXVI you

Notes on verse 19b

CXXXIII “enemies” = oyeb. From ayab (to hate or be hostile to). This is a foe or enemy as one that you are hostile to.
CXXXIV “on every hand” = sabib. From sabab (turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch; to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense). This is a circuit or a circle. It could refer to an environment, one’s neighbors, or a circular path round about.
CXXXV “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
CXXXVI “giving” = natan. Same as “giving” in v15. See note CXIV above.

as an inheritanceCXXXVII to possess,CXXXVIII you shall blot out the remembranceCXXXIX of Amalek

Notes on verse 19c

CXXXVII “inheritance” = nachalah. Related to nachal (to inherit, occupy, distribute, take as heritage). This is properly something that was inherited. It can mean occupancy generally or, more particularly, an heirloom or an estate. This can be an inheritance, gift, possession, or portion.
CXXXVIII “possess” = yarash. This is inheriting or dispossessing. It refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them. By implication, it can mean to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish.
CXXXIX “remembrance” = zeker. Related to “remember” in v17. From zakar (see note CXIX above). This is remembrance, renown, memento, recollection, or commemoration.

from underCXL heaven;CXLI do not forget.CXLII

Notes on verse 19d

CXL “under” = tachat. This is underneath, below, the bottom, instead of.
CXLI “heaven” = shamayim. Root may mean being lofty. This is sky, the air, or heaven. It is in a dual noun form so this might refer to the part of the sky where the clouds move on the one hand and the part beyond that where the sun, moon, and stars are on the other hand.
CXLII “forget” = shakach. This is to forget because of not remembering something or not paying attention to it. It can also mean to mislay.

Image credit: “Pressing Grain – Outside Lumbini – Terai – Nepal” by Adam Jones, 2014.

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