Deuteronomy 5

Deuteronomy 5


MosesI convenedII allIII IsraelIV and said to them:

Notes on verse 1a

I “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
II “convened” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
III “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
IV “Israel” = Yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.

“Hear,V O Israel, the statutesVI and ordinancesVII

Notes on verse 1b

V “hear” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
VI “statutes” = choq. From chaqaq (to inscribe, carve, or decree; a lawmaker; literally, this is engraving, but it implies enacting a law because laws were carved into stone or metal). This is statute, boundary, condition, custom, limit, ordinance It is something that is prescribed or something that is owed.
VII “ordinances” = mishpat. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.

that I am addressingVIII to youIX today;X you shall learnXI them and observe them diligently.XII 

Notes on verse 1c

VIII “addressing” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
IX “you” = ozen. Literally, “in your hearing.” This is ear, hearing, audience, show. Properly, it is broadness – applied to its ear in reference to its shape.
X “today” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
XI “learn” = lamad. Properly, this refers to goading (using a pointed stick to guide or prod one’s flock). By implication, it means teaching or instructing.
XII “observe…diligently” = shamar + asah. Shamar is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something. Asah is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.

The LordXIII our GodXIV madeXV

Notes on verse 2a

XIII “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
XIV “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israel” in v1. See note IV above.
XV “made” = karat. This is to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant (idiom for making a covenant is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume.

a covenantXVI with us at Horeb.XVII Not with our ancestorsXVIII did the Lord make this covenant but with us, who are all of us here aliveXIX today. 

Notes on verses 2b-3

XVI “covenant” = berit. Perhaps from barah (to eat, choose, make clear); perhaps from bar (grain, wheat); from barar (to select, purify, cleanse, test, brighten, polish). This is a compact, covenant, alliance, treaty, or league.
XVII “Horeb” = Choreb. 17x in OT. From chareb (to devastate, desolate, or be waste). Horeb means waste or desolate.
XVIII “ancestors” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
XIX “alive” = chay. From chayah (to live or keep alive literally or figuratively). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.

The Lord spokeXX with you faceXXI to face at the mountain,XXII out ofXXIII the fire.XXIV 

Notes on verse 4

XX “spoke” = dabar. Same as “addressing” in v1. See note VIII above.
XXI “face” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XXII “mountain” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.
XXIII “out of” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
XXIV “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.

(At that timeXXV I was standingXXVI betweenXXVII the Lord andXXVIII you

Notes on verse 5a

XXV “time” = et. Probably from anah (to answer, sing, announce); from ad (forever, all, old); from adah (to pass on, advance, decorate oneself). This is a period or season. It can also mean whenever or continually.
XXVI “standing” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
XXVII “between” = bayin. From bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is among, between, interval.
XXVIII {untranslated} = bayin. Same as “between” in v5. See note XXVI above.

to declareXXIX to you the wordXXX of the Lord, for you were afraidXXXI because ofXXXII the fire and did not go upXXXIII the mountain.)

Notes on verse 5b

XXIX “declare” = nagad. This is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain.
XXX “word” = dabar. Related to “addressing” in v1. From dabar (see note VIII above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
XXXI “were afraid” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
XXXII “because of” = paneh. Same as “face” in v4. See note XXI above.
XXXIII “go up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.

And he said:

“‘I am the Lord your God, who broughtXXXIV you out of the landXXXV of Egypt,XXXVI out of the houseXXXVII of slavery;XXXVIII 

Notes on verses 5c-6

XXXIV “brought” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXV “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XXXVI “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
XXXVII “house” = bayit. Probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
XXXVIII “slavery” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.

you shall haveXXXIX no otherXL godsXLI beforeXLII me.

Notes on verse 7

XXXIX “have” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v2. See note XIII above.
XL “other” = acher. From achar (to be behind, delay, be late, procrastinate, continue). This is following, next, strange, other.
XLI “gods” = elohim. Same as “God” in v2. See note XIV above.
XLII “before” = paneh. Same as “face” in v4. See note XXI above.

“‘You shall not makeXLIII for yourself an idol,XLIV whether in the formXLV

Notes on verse 8a

XLIII “make” = asah. Same as “observe…diligently” in v1. See note XII above.
XLIV “idol” = pesel. From pasal (to hew, carve; used for wood or stone). This is an idol or image.
XLV “form” = temunah. 10x in OT. From the same as min (kind, sort, species). This is something that has been apportioned or fashioned. It can be an embodiment or shape. It can also figuratively be a favor that manifests.

of anythingXLVI that is in heavenXLVII aboveXLVIII or that is on the earthXLIX beneathL or that is in the waterLI underLII the earth. 

Notes on verse 8b

XLVI “anything” = kol. Same as “all” in v1. See note III above.
XLVII “heaven” = shamayim. Root may mean being lofty. This is sky, the air, or heaven. It is in a dual noun form so this might refer to the part of the sky where the clouds move on the one hand and the part beyond that where the sun, moon, and stars are on the other hand.
XLVIII “above” = maal. Related to “go up” in v5. From alah (see note XXXIII above). This is the upper part, forward, high above, upwards, greater, heaven, or exceedingly
XLIX “earth” = erets. Same as “land” in v6. See note XXXV above.
L “beneath” = tachat. This is underneath, below, the bottom, instead of.
LI “water” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.
LII .“under” = tachat. Same as “beneath” in v8. See note L above.

You shall not bow downLIII to them or serveLIV them, for I the Lord your God am a jealousLV God,LVI punishingLVII childrenLVIII

Notes on verse 9a

LIII “bow down” = shachah. This is to bow down, make a humble entreaty, to do homage to royalty or to God.
LIV “serve” = abad. Related to “slavery” in v6. See note XXXVIII above.
LV “jealous” = qanna. 6x in OT– all in the Torah, all referring to God as a jealous God. From the same as qinah (zeal, jealousy, envy, anger, rivalry) OR from qana (to be jealous, zealous, envious). This is jealous.
LVI “God” = El. Related to “Israel” in v1 & “God” in v2. See note IV above.
LVII “punishing” = paqad. This is to attend to or visit – can be used for a friendly or violent encounter. So, it can be to oversee, care for, avenge, or charge.
LVIII “children” = ben. Related to “house” in v6. From banah (see note XXXVII above). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.

for the iniquityLIX of parentsLX to the thirdLXI and fourthLXII generation of those who rejectLXIII me 

Notes on verse 9b

LIX “iniquity” = avon. Perhaps related to avah (to bend, twist, be amiss). This is sin, mischief, guilt, fault, punishment for iniquity, or moral evil.
LX “parents” = ab. Same as “ancestors” in v3. See note XVIII above.
LXI “third” = shillesh. 5x in OT. From the same as shalosh (three, fork, triad). This is third or relating to the third. Here, it refers to a great-grandchild.
LXII “fourth” = ribbea. 4x in OT. From the same as arba (four); from raba (to make square or be four-sided). This is fourth or related to the fourth. Here, it would be a great, great grandchild.
LXIII “reject” = sane. This is to hate, an enemy. It is a personal hatred and not an abstract one.

10 but showingLXIV steadfast loveLXV to the thousandthLXVI generation 

Notes on verse 10a

LXIV “showing” = asah. Same as “observe…diligently” in v1. See note XII above.
LXV “steadfast love” = chesed. From chasad (being good, kind, merciful; may mean bowing one’s neck as is done in the presence of an equal for courtesy’s sake; so, if one in a superior position is treating you like an equal, that is what is captured here). This is favor, goodness, kindness, loving kindness, pity, reproach, or a good deed. When done by God to humanity, this is mercy/loving kindness. When done by humanity to God, it is piety.
LXVI “thousandth” = eleph. Perhaps from the same as eleph (herd, cattle); from alaph (to learn, speak, associate with). This is thousand.

of those who loveLXVII me and keepLXVIII my commandments.LXIX

Notes on verse 10b

LXVII “love” = aheb. This is to love, beloved, friend. It is to have affection for sexually or otherwise.
LXVIII “keep” = shamar. Same as “observe…diligently” in v1. See note XII above.
LXIX “commandments” = mitsvah. From tsavah (to charge, command, order, enjoin). This is a commandment, law, ordinance obligation, or tradition. It is something commanded whether by God or by a human authority. This term is sometimes used collectively to refer to the Law.

11 “‘You shall not make wrongfulLXX useLXXI of the nameLXXII of the Lord your God,LXXIII for the Lord will not acquitLXXIV anyone who misusesLXXV his name.

Notes on verse 11

LXX “wrongful” = shav. Perhaps from the same as sho (ruin, desolation, storm; from a root that means rushing over – hence a storm and hence devastation). This is emptiness, false, worthless, deceit. It can also refer to evil, guile, idolatry, or something being in vain.
LXXI “make…use” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
LXXII “name” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
LXXIII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v2. See note XIV above.
LXXIV “acquit” = naqah. This is to be empty, cleanse, acquit, blameless, immune, innocent. It is to be clean or to make clean in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be bare in a negative sense, destroyed.
LXXV “misuses” = nasashav. Nasa is the same as “make…use” in v11. See note LXXI above. Shav is the same as “wrongful” in v11. See note LXX above.

12 “‘ObserveLXXVI the SabbathLXXVII dayLXXVIII and keep it holy,LXXIX

Notes on verse 12a

LXXVI “observe” = shamar. Same as “observe…diligently” in v1. See note XII above.
LXXVII “Sabbath” = shabbat. From shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is sabbath, literally meaning rest or intermission.
LXXVIII “day” = yom. Same as “today” in v1. See note X above.
LXXIX “keep…holy” = qadash. From qodesh (set apart and so sacred; God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart; things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy). This is set apart, consecrated, hallowed, sanctified. This is something or someone that is set apart for a holy purpose or use – ceremonially or morally clean.

as the Lord your GodLXXX commandedLXXXI you. 13 SixLXXXII days you shall laborLXXXIII and doLXXXIV all your work.LXXXV 

Notes on verses 12b-13

LXXX “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v2. See note XIV above.
LXXXI “commanded” = tsavah. Related to “commandments” in v10. See note LXIX above.
LXXXII “six” = shesh. This is six. Figuratively, it can be a surplus since it is one more than the number of fingers on the hand.
LXXXIII “labor” = abad. Same as “serve” in v9. See note LIV above.
LXXXIV “do” = asah. Same as “observe…diligently” in v1. See note XII above.
LXXXV “work” = melakah. From the same as malak (messenger, an angel, or a deputy; human messengers literally or for prophets, priests, or teachers as messengers of God; also supernatural messengers i.e. angels). Properly, this is a deputyship or some kind of work. It can also be the product that comes from labor.

14 But the seventhLXXXVI day is a Sabbath to the Lord your God;LXXXVII you shall not do anyLXXXVIII work—you, or your sonLXXXIX or your daughter,XC or your maleXCI or female slave,XCII

Notes on verse 14a

LXXXVI “seventh” = shebii. From sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness). This is seventh.
LXXXVII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v2. See note XIV above.
LXXXVIII “any” = kol. Same as “all” in v1. See note III above.
LXXXIX “son” = ben. Same as “children” in v9. See note LVIII above.
XC “daughter” = bat. Related to “house” in v6 & “children” in v9. From ben (see note LVIII above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
XCI “male” = ebed. Same as “slavery” in v6. See note XXXVIII above.
XCII “female slave” = amah. This is female servant or slave, handmaid.

or your oxXCIII or your donkey,XCIV or any of your livestock,XCV or the resident alienXCVI in your towns,XCVII so that your male and female slave may restXCVIII as well as you. 

Notes on verse 14b

XCIII “ox” = shor. Perhaps from shur (to travel, turn, journey; travelling like a prostitute or a merchant). This is bull, ox, head of cattle, cow.
XCIV “donkey” = chamor. From chamar (to be red, blush). This is a male donkey.
XCV “livestock” = behemah. This is animal or cattle. It is often used of large quadrupeds.
XCVI “resident alien” = ger. From gur (to abide or sojourn; to leave the road to lodge or for any other reason). This is sojourner, guest, stranger, foreigner.
XCVII “towns” = shaar. May be related to sha’ar (to calculate or reckon; may come from a root that means to open up or split). This is a gate, door, or other opening like a port.
XCVIII “rest” = nuach. This is to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait. It is rest and so implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense. This is perhaps the root verb of the name “Noah.”

15 RememberXCIX that you were a slaveC in the land of Egypt, and the Lord your GodCI brought you out from there with a mightyCII handCIII

Notes on verse 15a

XCIX “remember” = zakar. This is to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention.
C “slave” = ebed. Same as “slavery” in v6. See note XXXVIII above.
CI “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v2. See note XIV above.
CII “mighty” = chazaq. From chazaq (to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden). This is strong, hard, powerful, loud, bold, violent, impudent. It is usually strong in a negative sense.
CIII “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.

and an outstretchedCIV arm;CV thereforeCVI the Lord your GodCVII commanded you to keepCVIII the Sabbath day.

Notes on verse 15b

CIV “outstretched” = natah. This is to stretch or spread out, to extend, or bend. In can also imply moral deflection.
CV “arm” = zeroa. Perhaps from zara (to sow, scatter seed, conceive). This is the arm, shoulder, or foreleg of an animal. It is figuratively used for power, force, might, or help.
CVI “therefore” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
CVII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v2. See note XIV above.
CVIII “keep” = asah. Same as “observe…diligently” in v1. See note XII above.

16 “‘HonorCIX your fatherCX and your mother,CXI as the Lord your GodCXII commanded you,

Notes on verse 16a

CIX “honor” = kabad. To be heavy, weighty, or severe. It can also be positive abounding in, rich, or honorable. The Hebrew word for “glory,” kabod, is taken from this root.
CX “father” = ab. Same as “ancestors” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CXI “mother” = em. This is a mother as binding a family together or a breeding female animal. It could be mother in a literal or figurative sense.
CXII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v2. See note XIV above.

so that your days may be longCXIII and that it may go wellCXIV with you in the landCXV that the Lord your GodCXVI is givingCXVII you.

Notes on verse 16b

CXIII “be long” = arak. This is to continue, lengthen prolong, delay, or endure. It is being long or causing something to be long in a literal or figurative sense.
CXIV “go well” = yatab. This is to be good or pleasing, joyful. It can also mean doing good in an ethical sense or be beautiful, happy, successful, or right.
CXV “land” = adamah. From the same as adam (man, humankind); perhaps from ‘adom (to be red). This is ground, earth, soil as red, or land.
CXVI “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v2. See note XIV above.
CXVII “giving” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.

17 “‘You shall not murder.CXVIII

18 “‘Neither shall you commit adultery.CXIX

19 “‘Neither shall you steal.CXX

Notes on verses 17-19

CXVIII “murder” = ratsach. Properly, this is to dash something to pieces. It is to kill a person, but it is used particularly (though not exclusively) for murder.
CXIX “commit adultery” = naaph. This is to commit adultery or, figuratively, to be an apostate.
CXX “steal” = ganab. This is to steal in a stealthy way rather than through violence. It can also mean to deceive. There is a Yiddish word ganef that derives from this root. It means thief or scoundrel.

20 “‘Neither shall you bearCXXI falseCXXII witnessCXXIII against your neighbor.CXXIV

Notes on verse 20

CXXI “bear” = anah. Related to “time” in v5. See note XXV above.
CXXII “false” = shav. Same as “wrongful” in v11. See note LXX above.
CXXIII “witness” = ed. From ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is a witness, testimony, or one who records testimony. It can also refer to a prince.
CXXIV “neighbor” = rea. From raah (to associate with). This is the same as neighbor in Leviticus 19:18 “love your neighbor as yourself.” This is friend, companion, fellow, neighbor. It is someone with whom you associate, whether more or less close.

21 “‘Neither shall you covetCXXV your neighbor’s wife.CXXVI

“‘Neither shall you desireCXXVII your neighbor’s house, or field,CXXVIII or male or female slave, or ox, or donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbor.’”

Notes on verse 21

CXXV “covet” = chamad. This is to desire, covet, see something as precious, lust.
CXXVI “wife” = ishshah. From ish (man); perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is woman, wife, or female.
CXXVII “desire” = avah. This is to desire, wish for, crave, lust after, to incline.
CXXVIII “field” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.

22 “These words the Lord spoke with a loudCXXIX voiceCXXX to your wholeCXXXI assemblyCXXXII at the mountain,

Notes on verse 22a

CXXIX “loud” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
CXXX “voice” = qol. This is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.
CXXXI “whole” = kol. Same as “all” in v1. See note III above.
CXXXII “assembly” = qahal. This is an assembly, congregation, or multitude.

out of the fire, the cloud,CXXXIII and the thick darkness,CXXXIV and he added no more.CXXXV He wroteCXXXVI them on twoCXXXVII stoneCXXXVIII tabletsCXXXIX and gave them to me. 

Notes on verse 22b

CXXXIII “cloud” = anan. May be from anan (cover, cloud over; figuratively, acting in a secret way, practicing magic or soothsaying). This is a cloud as something that covers the sky.
CXXXIV “thick darkness” = araphel. 15x in OT. From araph (to droop, drip, drop). This is a cloud or deep darkness. It is gloom or gloomy as the sky being lowered.
CXXXV “added…more” = yasaph. This is to add, increase, continue, exceed.
CXXXVI “wrote” = kathab. This is to inscribe, write, record, or decree.
CXXXVII “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
CXXXVIII “stone” = eben. This is a stone, weight, or mason. It is part of the word “Ebenezer.”
CXXXIX “tablets” = luach. Root likely means glistening, so this would refer to a tablet as being polished in some sense, whether it’s made of stone, wood, or metal.

23 CXLWhen you heard the voice out of the darkness,CXLI while the mountain was burningCXLII with fire, you approachedCXLIII me, all the headsCXLIV

Notes on verse 23a

CXL {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “have” in v7. See note XXXIX above.
CXLI “darkness” = choshek. From chashak (to be or become dark). This is literal darkness is contrast to light. Figuratively, it can be obscurity, sorrow, misery, blindness, wickedness, destruction, death. It can also be hiding places. Additionally, it can mean judgment, mourning, ignorance, evil, or sin.
CXLII “burning” = baar. This is to burn, consume, heat, remove. It can also be to consume by a fire or through eating, being brutish or wasting.
CXLIII “approached” = qarab. This is to come near, offer, make ready, approach, take.
CXLIV “heads” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).

of your tribesCXLV and your elders,CXLVI 24 and you said, ‘Look,CXLVII the Lord our GodCXLVIII has shownCXLIX us

Notes on verses 23b-24a

CXLV “tribes” = shebet. This is a rod, staff, club, scepter, dart, or tribe. Literally a stick that can be used for punishing, writing, fighting, walking, ruling; thus, used figuratively for a clan.
CXLVI “elders” = zaqen. From the same as zaqan (beard or chin – the beard represents old age). This is old, aged, or elder.
CXLVII “look” = hen. This is a remark of surprise or excitement: lo! Behold! It can also mean if or though.
CXLVIII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v2. See note XIV above.
CXLIX “shown” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.

his gloryCL and greatness,CLI and we have heard his voice out of the fire. We have seen this day that GodCLII may speak to someoneCLIII and the person may still live.CLIV 

Notes on verse 24b

CL “glory” = kabod. Related to “honor” in v16. From kabad (see note CIX above). This is weighty. Figuratively, glorious, abundant, riches, honor, splendor – a reference to one’s reputation or character. This word is often used to describe God and God’s presence.
CLI “greatness” = godel. Related to “loud” in v22. 13x in OT. From gadal (see note CXXIX above). This greatness, arrogance, or magnitude. It can be used in a literal or a figurative sense.
CLII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v2. See note XIV above.
CLIII “someone” = adam. Related to “land” in v16. See note CXV above.
CLIV “live” = chayay. 17x in OT. This is to live, save life, or revive.

25 But now why should we die?CLV For this greatCLVI fire will consumeCLVII us; if we hear the voice of the Lord our GodCLVIII any longer,CLIX we shall die. 

Notes on verse 25

CLV “die” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
CLVI “great” = gadol. Same as “loud” in v22. See note CXXIX above.
CLVII “consume” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
CLVIII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v2. See note XIV above.
CLIX “any longer” = yasaphod. Yasaph is the same as “added…more” in v22. See note CXXXV above. Od is related to “witness” in v20. From ud (see note CXXIII above). This is still, yet, again, more.

26 For who is there of all fleshCLX that has heard the voice of the livingCLXI GodCLXII speaking out of the fire, as we have, and lived?CLXIII 

Notes on verse 26

CLX “flesh” = basar. From basar (being a messenger, publish, carry preach; properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news). This is flesh, the body, fat, skin, self, nakedness, humankind, or kin. It can also refer to private parts.
CLXI “living” = chay. Same as “alive” in v3. See note XIX above.
CLXII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v2. See note XIV above.
CLXIII “lived” = chayah. Related to “alive” in v3. See note XIX above.

27 Go near,CLXIV you yourself, and hear all that the Lord our GodCLXV will say. Then tellCLXVI us everythingCLXVII that the Lord our GodCLXVIII tells you, and we will listenCLXIX and do it.’

Notes on verse 27

CLXIV “go near” = qarab. Same as “approach” in v23. See note CXLIII above.
CLXV “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v2. See note XIV above.
CLXVI “tell” = dabar. Same as “addressing” in v1. See note VIII above.
CLXVII “everything” = kol. Same as “all” in v1. See note III above.
CLXVIII “God” = Elohim. Same as “all” in v1. See note III above.
CLXIX “listen” = shama. Same as “hear” in v1. See note V above.

28 “The Lord heardCLXX your words when you spoke to me, and the Lord said to me, ‘I have heardCLXXI the words of this people,CLXXII which they have spoken to you; they are rightCLXXIII in all that they have spoken. 

Notes on verse 28

CLXX {untranslated} = qol. Same as “voice” in v22. See note CXXX above.
CLXXI {untranslated} = qol. Same as “voice” in v22. See note CXXX above.
CLXXII “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
CLXXIII “are right” = yatab. Same as “go well” in v16. See note CXIV above.

29 If onlyCLXXIV they had such a mindCLXXV as this, to fearCLXXVI me and to keepCLXXVII all my commandments always,CLXXVIII so that it might go well with them and with their children forever!CLXXIX 

Notes on verse 29

CLXXIV {untranslated} = natan. Same as “giving” in v16. See note CXVII above.
CLXXV “mind” = lebab. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
CLXXVI “fear” = yare. Same as “were afraid” in v5. See note XXXI above.
CLXXVII “keep” = shamar. Same as “observe…diligently” in v1. See note XII above.
CLXXVIII “always” = kol + yom. Kol is the same as “all” in v1. See note III above. Yom is the same as “today” in v1. See note X above.
CLXXIX “forever” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).

30 GoCLXXX say to them, “ReturnCLXXXI to your tents.”CLXXXII 

Notes on verse 30

CLXXX “go” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
CLXXXI “return” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
CLXXXII “tents” = ohel. Perhaps from ahal (to shine, be clear). This is a tent, covering, home, or side pillar.

31 But you, stand here by me, and I will tell you all the commandments, the statutes and the ordinances, that you shall teachCLXXXIII them, so that they may do them in the landCLXXXIV that I am giving them to possess.’CLXXXV 

Notes on verse 31

CLXXXIII “teach” = lamad. Same as “learn” in v1. See note XI above.
CLXXXIV “land” = erets. Same as “land” in v6. See note XXXV above.
CLXXXV “possess” = yarash. This is inheriting or dispossessing. It refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them. By implication, it can mean to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish.

32 You must therefore be carefulCLXXXVI to do as the Lord your GodCLXXXVII has commanded you; you shall not turnCLXXXVIII to the rightCLXXXIX or to the left.CXC 

Notes on verse 32

CLXXXVI “be careful” = shamar. Same as “observe…diligently” in v1. See note XII above.
CLXXXVII “God” = Elohim. Same as “all” in v1. See note III above.
CLXXXVIII “turn” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
CLXXXIX “right” = yamin. May be from yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm). This can mean right hand, right side, or south. Since most people are right-handed, the metaphorical usage of this word presumes that the right hand is stronger and more agile. Thus, it is the instrument of power and action.
CXC “left” = semol. Perhaps from the same as simlah (mantle, clothes, wrapper); perhaps from semel (image, figure, likeness). This is left, left side, or north as the part that is dark.

33 You must followCXCI exactlyCXCII the pathCXCIII

Notes on verse 33a

CXCI “follow” = halak. Same as “go” in v30. See note CLXXX above.
CXCII “exactly” = kol. Same as “all” in v1. See note III above.
CXCIII “path” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.

that the Lord your GodCXCIV has commanded you, so that you may liveCXCV and that it may go wellCXCVI with you and that you may live long in the landCXCVII that you are to possess.

Notes on verse 33b

CXCIV “God” = Elohim. Same as “all” in v1. See note III above.
CXCV “live” = chayah. Same as “lived” in v26. See note CLXIII above.
CXCVI “go well” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
CXCVII “land” = erets. Same as “land” in v6. See note XXXV above.

Image credit: “Moses ~ stained glass at Beth Shalom in Elkins Park.” Photo by Wayne Stratz, 2012.

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