Ephesians 4:25-5:2

Ephesians 4:25-5:2
Ordinary B37


4:25 So then, putting awayA falsehood,B let allC of us speak the truthD to our neighbors,E for we are membersF of one another. 

Notes on verse 4:25

A “putting away” = apotithemi. 9x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to put aside, put away, renounce.
B “falsehood” = pseudos. 10x in NT. From pseudomai (to lie, deceive, falsify). This is a lie or false religion.
C “all” = hekastos. Perhaps from hekas (separate). This is each one, any, every. It is every individual as a distinct entity as opposed to those counted as a group in small sets.
D “truth” = aletheia. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic). {from a (not, without) + lanthano (unnoticed, concealed)}. Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.
E “neighbors” = plesion. 17x in NT. From pelas (near). This is near, nearby, or neighboring. As one nearby, it can also refer to a neighbor, a member of one’s country, a Christian, or a friend.
F “members” = melos. This is a limb or an organ of the body. So, it is a member of a greater whole. It is used figuratively for the body of Christ.

26 Be angryG but do not sin;H do not let the sunI go downJ on your anger,K 

Notes on verse 4:26

G “be angry” = orgizo. 8x in NT. From orge (impulse, wrath, anger, passion, punishment); from orgao (something that teems or stews; this is anger rising from prolonged personal contact that is fixed rather than an angry outburst; it can also be anger that stems from an individual’s sense of right and wrong, justice, etc.). This is being angry, enraged, exasperated. It is a fixed, sustained anger.
H “sin” = hamartano. From a (not) + meros (a part or share, portion); {from meiromai (to get one’s allotment or portion)}. This term also used of archers not hitting their targets. Literally, it means not getting your share or to miss the mark. Figuratively, it meant to do wrong or to sin.
I “sun” = helios. This is sun, which would imply light in general or the east.
J “go down” = epiduo. 1x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + duno (to enter, sink into; can also be set like the sun); {from duo (to sink)}. This is to sink or set completely. It can refer to the sunset.
K “anger” = parorgismos. Related to “be angry” in v4:26. 1x in NT. From parorgizo (to exasperate or anger; to provoke someone and get under their skin so that they’re enraged); {from para (by, beside, in the presence of) + orgizo (see note G above)}. This is being provoked to irritation or exasperation, bitterness, anger, rage. This is anger that is personal.

27 and do not makeL roomM for the devil.N 

Notes on verse 4:27

L “make” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
M “room” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
N “devil” = diabolos. From diaballo (laying a charge against someone, generally with hostility; literally, to thrust through or cast back and forth– used for slandering, accusing, or gossiping; whether or not the sentiment is true, it is spread with negative intention); {from dia (through, across, because of, thoroughly) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a properly a slanderer or someone who accuses falsely – criticizing unfairly with the intent to cause harm or damage character. This can also mean backbiter or malicious gossip. Also, the Slanderer, the Devil.

28 ThievesO must give up stealing;P, Q ratherR let them laborS

Notes on verse 4:28a

O “thieves” = klepto. 13x in NT. This is to steal by stealth – not in the open or using violence.
P “stealing” = klepto. Same as “thieves” in v4:28. See note O above.
Q Literally “the one stealing – no longer let him steal.”
R “rather” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.
S “labor” = kopiao. From kopos (labor that leads to exhaustion, depletion, weariness, fatigue; working until worn out); from kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is working with effort, whether of the body or mind, growing weary, feeling tired, working hard.

and workT honestlyU with their ownV hands,W so as to have something to shareX with the needy.Y 

Notes on verse 4:28b

T “work” = ergazomai. From ergon (work, task, action, employment). This is to work, labor, perform, toil.
U “honestly” = agathos. This is good, a benefit, or a good thing. It is good by its very nature, intrinsically good. A different word, kalos, refers to external signs of goodness.
V “own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
W “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
X “share” = metadidomi. Related to “make” in v4:27. 5x in NT. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + didomi (see note L above). This is to share, bestow, offer something to make a change.
Y “needy” = chreia. From chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary). This is the is task, business, or affair. It can also be need, want, or destitution.

29 Let no evilZ talkAA comeBB out of your mouths,CC

Notes on verse 4:29a

Z “evil” = sapros. 8x in NT. From sepo (to putrefy, cause to rot; figuratively, to perish or to make something corrupt). This is rotten, worthless, corrupt, bad, or unwholesome. It is rotten and hence of poor quality and hence not good for use and so worthless in a literal and figurative (moral) sense. This is someone who previously embodied a virtue, but has fallen into sin.
AA “talk” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
BB “come” = ekporeuomai. From ek (from, from out of) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, die; refers to transporting things from one place to another; focuses on the personal significance of the destination); {from poros (passageway)}. This is to go forth, depart from, be spoken, flow out, project. This word emphasizes the result a process or passage – how it impacts the person or thing.
CC “mouths” = stoma. Perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.

but only what is usefulDD for building up,EE as there is need, so that your words may giveFF graceGG to those who hear.HH 

Notes on verse 4:29b

DD “useful” = agathos. Same as “honestly” in v4:28. See note U above.
EE “building up” = oikodome. 18x in NT. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + doma (house, housetop; often used to refer to the roof) {from demo (to build a house)}. This is the act of building, structure, architecture, a building, upbuilding. It is a building that is used as a home. Figuratively, this refers to spiritual progress – becoming a person who is a better home in which God can reside.
FF “give” = didomi. Same as “make” in v4:27. See note L above.
GG “grace” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
HH “hear” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.

30 And do not grieveII the HolyJJ SpiritKK of God,LL with which you were marked with a sealMM for the day of redemption.NN 

Notes on verse 4:30

II “grieve” = lupeo. From lupe (pain, whether physical or mental; grief, sorrow, distress, a heavy heart). This is to be sad, grieve, distress, hurt, feel pain. It can be used for deep pain or severe sorrow as well as the pain that accompanies childbirth.
JJ “Holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
KK “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
LL “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
MM “marked with a seal” = sphragizo. 15x in NT. From sphragis (a seal, signet, or signet ring; also the impression of that seal; so, the thing attested to by that seal – proof or a signifier of privacy); perhaps from phrasso (to stop, fence in). Properly, this is sealing something with some kind of stamp that tells who the owner is, gives it authorization or validity. It shows that the owner lends their full authority or backing to the matter in question. This was the ancient world’s equivalent of a signature on a legal document to guarantee the commitments made in the document. There were also tattoos that were given to show who someone belonged to in a religious sense.
NN “redemption” = apolutrosis. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + lutroo (to redeem, liberate, release because ransom was paid in full; figuratively, returning something or someone to their rightful owner) [from lutron (ransom, the money used to free slaves; also a sacrifice of expiation; figurative for atonement); from luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld)]. This is redemption, deliverance, or release particularly with the notion of ransom paid – a buying back what had been lost.

31 Put awayOO from you all bitternessPP and wrathQQ

Notes on verse 4:31a

OO “put away” = airo. This is to lift up in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could mean to lift, carry, or raise. It could also imply lifting something in order to take it away or remove it. Figuratively, this can be used for raising the voice or level of suspense. It can mean sailing off as raising the anchor. It can also correspond to a Hebrew expression for atonement of sin (lift/remove sin).
PP “bitterness” = pikria. 4x in NT. From pikros (bitter, sharp, pungent, malignant; acrid in a literal or figurative sense); from pegnumi (to fasten, to set up a tent). This is bitterness or harshness or poison. Figuratively, it is being embittered or resentful,
QQ “wrath” = thumos. 18x in NT. From thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice). This is passion, anger, rage, wrath. It refers to actions emerging from passion or impulse. It is also used for God’s wrath.

and angerRR and wranglingSS and slander,TT together with all malice,UU 

Notes on verse 4:31b

RR “anger” = orge. Related to “be angry” and “anger” in v4:26. From orgao (see note G above). This is impulse, wrath, anger, passion, punishment. Properly, this is fixed anger from ongoing personal irritation caused by something the one getting angry sees as unjust or evil. Wrath implies punishment. Can refer to human or divine wrath.
SS “wrangling” = krauge. 6x in NT. From krazo (to cry out, scream, shriek; onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call; figuratively, this is means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt). This is a very emotional shout or cry generally or clamor against someone else. It can express alarm, trouble, or grief.
TT “slander” = blasphemia. 18x in NT. From perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (to say, declare, speak comparatively through contrasts, bring to light); from phao (to shine)}. This is slander, blasphemy, or abusive language. It is calling something wrong that is right or calling something right that is wrong – mis-identifying what is good and bad. This is particularly used for vilifying God. This is where the word “blasphemy” comes from.
UU “malice” = kakia. 11x in NT. From kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; this is evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; it is deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character). This is wickedness, evil, trouble, misfortune, inner malice, badness. It is inherent evil, depravity, causing harm.

32 and beVV kindWW to one another, tenderhearted,XX forgivingYY one another, as God in ChristZZ has forgiven you.

Notes on verse 4:32

VV “be” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
WW “kind” = chrestos. Related to “needy” in v4:28. 7x in NT. From chraomai (see note Y above). This is useful, good, well-fitted, benevolent, kind, gracious. It was also a name given to slaves in the ancient world.
XX “tenderhearted” = eusplagchnos. 2x in NT. From eu (good, well) + splagchnon (inner parts: heart, liver, bowels; used figuratively for deep feelings, compassion, sympathy, empathy) {from spleen (the spleen)}. This is literally well-compassioned, merciful, kind, sympathetic.
YY “forgiving” = charizomai. Related to “grace” in v4:29. From charis (see note GG above). This is to extend grace or favor, to grant forgiveness, to pardon or rescue.
ZZ “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

5:1 Therefore be imitatorsAAA of God, as belovedBBB children,CCC 

Notes on verse 5:1

AAA “imitators” = mimetes. 6x in NT. From mimeomai (to emulate, follow, or imitate); from mimos (a mimic). This is a follower or imitator. It is imitation in a positive sense due to admiration of a good example. This is where “mime” and “mimetic” come from.
BBB “beloved” = agapetos. From agape (love, goodwill, benevolence; God’s divine love); from agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is Beloved or very dear one. It is a title for the Messiah, but also for Christians. Properly, this is one who personally experiences God’s love.
CCC “children” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.

and liveDDD in love,EEE as Christ lovedFFF us 

Notes on verse 5:2a

DDD “live” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.
EEE “love” = agape. Related to “beloved” in v5:1. See note BBB above.
FFF “loved” = agapao. Related to “beloved” in v5:1 & “love” in v5:2. See note BBB above.

and gave himself upGGG for us, a fragrantHHH offeringIII and sacrificeJJJ to God.

Notes on verse 5:2b

GGG “gave…up” = paradidomi. Related to “make” in v4:27 & “share” in v4:28. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (see note L above). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
HHH “fragrant” = osme + euodia. Osme is 6x in NT. From ozo (to stink, emit a scent).This is a fragrance or aroma. It can be literal or figurative Euodia is related to “tender-hearted” in v4:32 & “fragrant” in v5:2. 3x in NT. From eu (see note XX above) + ozo (see above). This is a good smelling fragrance. It can also mean fragrant.
III “offering” = prosphora. 9x in NT. From prosphero (to bring up, give a gift or bring a sacrifice); {from pros (for, at, towards) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is an offering, oblation, or sacrifice.
JJJ “sacrifice” = thusia. Related to “wrath” in v4:31. From thuo (see note QQ above). This is a sacrifice or offering. It can refer to the act of sacrifice or the thig being sacrificed. Also, this is sacrifice in a literal or figurative sense.

Image credit: “Sunset” in Ashdod by lforce.

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