Galatians 1:13-17; 2:11-21

Galatians 1:13-17; 2:11-21
Narrative Lectionary 344


1:13 You have heard,I no doubt, of my earlier lifeII in Judaism.III

Notes on verse 1:13a

I “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
II “life” = anastrophe. 13x in NT. From anastrepho (to turn back, return, or overturn; can also imply busying oneself and so to remain, dwell, behave, or live somewhere); {from ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is behavior, conduct, life, or manner of life. It is behavior drawn from core beliefs.
III “Judaism” = Ioudaismos. 2x in NT. From Ioudaios (Jewish, a Jew, Judea); from Ioudas (Judah, Juadas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judaism.

I was violentlyIV persecutingV the churchVI of GodVII and was trying to destroyVIII it. 

Notes on verse 1:13b

IV “violently” = kata + huperbole. Literally “beyond measure.” Huperbole is 8x in NT. From huperballo (to surpass, exceed, excel; properly, to throw beyond or run beyond; transcendent, eminent, surpassing); {from huper (over, above, beyond) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, rush, drop)}. This is literally throwing beyond. It can mean beyond measure, surpassing, or abundance. It is where the word “hyperbole” comes from.
V “persecuting” = dioko. From dio (put to flight). This is chase or pursue in an aggressive fashion. By implication, it is persecute. It can also be used positively for eagerly pursuing something.
VI “church” = ekklesia. From ek (from, out from) + kaleo to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is properly a calling out or an assembly. It was used to refer to a church.
VII “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
VIII “trying to destroy” = portheo. 3x in NT – all in reference to Paul persecuting the church. From pertho (to ravage or sack). This is to destroy or harass.

14 I advancedIX in Judaism beyond many among my peopleX of the same age,XI

Notes on verse 1:14a

IX “advanced” = prokopto. 6x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is to advance, lead, proceed. It is to trailblaze while moving forward. It can also mean other forms of advancing like time passing or profit increasing.
X “people” = genos. From ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense.
XI “same age” = sunelikiotes. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + helikia (maturity, stature, life span, being of suitable age; a maturity from years or size); {from the same as helikos (of what size, how much; properly, full grown, an adult); from helix (mature, adult, of the same age)}. This is someone who shares the same age, one’s contemporary or equal.

for I wasXII far moreXIII zealousXIV for the traditionsXV of my ancestors.XVI 

Notes on verse 1:14b

XII “was” = huparcho. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.
XIII “more” = perissos. 17x in NT. From perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is abundantly, exceedingly, far more, or all the more. This is going beyond what is anticipated or past the upper limit.
XIV “zealous” = zelotes. 8x in NT. From zeloo (jealous, eager for, burning with zeal, deeply committed, envy); from zelos (eagerness or zeal on the one hand or rivalry and jealousy on the other; burning anger or burning love) perhaps from from zeo (to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow; used figuratively for being fervent or earnest). This is zealous or a zealot – someone eagerly devoted to someone or something. This is where the word “zealot” comes from.
XV “traditions” = paradosis. 13x in NT. From paradidomi (literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement); {from para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is something handed down or handed over. So, it could be some kind of instruction, ordinance, or tradition. It can be used to refer to the tradition of the elders within Judaism.
XVI “ancestors” = patrikos. 1x in NT. From pater (father in a literal or figurative sense). This is ancestral or paternal.

15 But when God, who had set me apartXVII before I was bornXVIII and calledXIX me through his grace,XX was pleasedXXI 

Notes on verse 1:15

XVII “set…apart” = aphorizo. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + horizo (to determine, set boundaries, appoint, designate, pre-determined; literally, this is setting horizons); {from the same as horion (boundary, territory); from horos (limit, boundary)}. This is to set off by a boundary – to divide, separate, exclude. It can also mean ostracize or keep aloof.
XVIII “before I was born” = ek + koilia + meter + ego. Literally “from my mother’s womb.” Koilia is from koilos (hollow). This is belly or organs in the abdomen. So, it could be stomach, womb, or heart. Figuratively, this refers to one’s inner self.
XIX “called” = kaleo. Related to “church” in v1:13. See note VI above.
XX “grace” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
XXI “was pleased” = eudokeo. From eu (good, well, well done) + dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is to think well of, to be pleased or resolved. Properly, this is what someone finds good or acceptable – approving of some action or generally thinking well of.

16 to revealXXII his Son to me, so that I might proclaimXXIII him among the Gentiles,XXIV I did not conferXXV with any human being,XXVI 

Notes on verse 1:16

XXII “reveal” = apokalupto. From apo (from, away from) + kalupto (to cover, hide, conceal; figuratively, to keep hidden or secret); {related to kalube (hut, cabin)}. This is properly to uncover so it means revealing something that was hidden or obstructed. It particularly refers to revealing the essence of something. This is to make plain or manifest. This is the root verb that “apocalypse” comes from.
XXIII “proclaim” = euaggelizo. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel); {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (to bring, lead, carry, guide)}. This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.
XXIV “Gentiles” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
XXV “confer” = prosantithemi. Related to “at once” in v1:17 below. 2x in NT. From pros (at, towards, for) + anatithemi (to set up or fort, communicate, submit, declare); {from ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + tithemi (see note XXIX below)}. This is to confer, communicate, consult, contribute.
XXVI “human being” = sarx + haima. Literally “flesh and blood.” Sarx may be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral). Haima is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).

17 nor did I go up to JerusalemXXVII to those who were already apostlesXXVIII before me, but I went away at onceXXIX into Arabia,XXX and afterwards I returnedXXXI to Damascus.XXXII

Notes on verse 1:17

XXVII “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalem (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
XXVIII “apostles” = apostolos. From apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for)}. This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.
XXIX “at once” = eutheos. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + tithemi (to place, lay, set, establish).}. This is directly, soon, at once.
XXX “Arabia” = Arabia. 2x in NT. From Hebrew Arab (Arab, “a desert plateau”) OR from Arabic ‘arab (declare, Arabicize); from ‘-r-b (to do business, declare). This is Arabia. See
XXXI “returned” = hupostrepho. Related to “life” in v1:13. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + strepho (see note II above). This is to return or turn back in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXII “Damascus” = Damaskos. 15x in NT. From Hebrew Dammeseq (Damascus is Aram/Syria – foreign origin unclear). This is Damascus in Syria.

2:11 But when CephasXXXIII came to Antioch,XXXIV I opposedXXXV him to his face,XXXVI because he stoodXXXVII self-condemned;XXXVIII 

Notes on verse 2:11

XXXIII “Cephas” = Kephas. 9x in NT. From Aramaic kepha (stone or rock). This is Cephas, the Aramaic translation of Peter’s name.
XXXIV “Antioch” = Antiocheia. 18x in NT. From Antiochos (Antiochus, a proper name common to kings of Syria); {perhaps from anti (opposite, instead of, against) + echo (to have, hold, possess)}. This is Antioch or Antiochia, two cities in the Bible have this name. It means “resistant” or “set against.” See
XXXV “opposed” = anthistemi. 14x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + histemi (to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast). This is to stand against, to take an entirely opposite stance, resist, oppose, or withstand. Figuratively, it is publicly holding your ground. It has its roots as a military term for resisting one’s enemy.
XXXVI “face” = prosopon. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (eye, face) {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
XXXVII “stood” = eimi. Literally “was.”
XXXVIII “self-condemned” = kataginosko. 3x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is to blame, find fault, or condemn. It is a arriving at a guilty verdict based on personal knowledge of the facts.

12 for until certain people came from James,XXXIX he used to eat with the Gentiles. But after they came, he drew backXL and kept himself separateXLI for fear ofXLII the circumcisionXLIII faction. 

Notes on verse 2:12

XXXIX “James” = Iakob. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
XL “drew back” = hupostello. Related to “apostles” in v1:17. 4x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + stello (see note XXVIII above). This is to draw back, withdraw, shun, withdraw to retreat, go back. It can also mean to draw back as a compromise, to conceal, to cower.
XLI “kept…separate” = aphorizo. Same as “set…apart” in v1:15. See note XVII above.
XLII “for fear of” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.
XLIII “circumcision” = peritome. From peritemno (to circumcise; literally cut around); {from peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + same as tomos or tomoteros (sharp or keener); from temno (to cut as with a single slice)}. This is properly, cut around, referring to the way that foreskin is removed and so this is to circumcise. It can be used or the rite or the people who are circumcised – in a literal or figurative sense.

13 And the otherXLIV JewsXLV joined him in this hypocrisy,XLVI so that even BarnabasXLVII was led astrayXLVIII by their hypocrisy.XLIX 

Notes on verse 2:13

XLIV “other” = loipos. From leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue.
XLV “Jews” = Ioudaios. Related to “Judaism” in v1:13. See note III above.
XLVI “joined…hypocrisy” = sunupokrinomai. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + hupokrinomai (to answer, pretend, respond as an actor on stage; figuratively, to lie) {from hupo (by, under, about) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging)}. This is to play a part in, to behave in a hypocritical way, to dissemble together with others.
XLVII “Barnabas” = Barnabas. Probably from Aramaic Barnabas (Barnabas); {from bar (son) + nabi (prophet, prophecy, speaker; someone inspired)}. This is Barnabas, meaning “son of prophecy” or “representative.” See
XLVIII “led astray” = sunapago. Related to “proclaim” in v1:16. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + apago (to lead away, take away, or bring; figuratively, to be led astray or put to death); {from apo (from, away from) + ago (see note XXIII above)}. This is to be carried away, to associate, to lead away. It can have a positive sense of traveling in a group or a negative sense of being seduced.
XLIX “hypocrisy” = hupokrisis. Related to “joined…hypocrisy” in v2:13. 6x in NT. From hupokrinomai (see note XLVI above). This is an answer, deceit, condemnation, or hypocrisy. It is where the word “hypocrisy” comes from.

14 But when I sawL that they were not acting consistentlyLI with the truthLII of the gospel,LIII

Notes on verse 2:14a

L “saw” = horao. Related to “face” in v2:11. See note XXXVI above.
LI “acting consistently” = orthopodeo. 1x in NT. From orthos (straight, direct, morally upright) + pous (foot literal or figurative). This is to walk uprightly i.e. straight and so in a straightforward way. It is to follow God’s path.
LII “truth” = aletheia. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic). {from a (not, without) + lanthano (unnoticed, concealed)}. Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.
LIII “gospel” = euaggelion. Related to “proclaim” in v1:16 & “led astray” in v2:13. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (see note XXIII above). This is literally “the good news,” used for the gospel. This is also where “evangelism” comes from.

I said to Cephas before them all, “If you, though a Jew, live like a GentileLIV and not like a Jew,LV how can you compelLVI the Gentiles to live like Jews?”LVII

Notes on verse 2:14b

LIV “like a Gentile” = ethnikos. Related to “Gentiles” in v1:16. 1x in NT. From ethnikos (ethnic, national, foreign, or referring to a Gentile); from ethnos (see note XXIV above). This is like a Gentile.
LV “like a Jew” = Ioudaikos. Related to “Judaism” in v1:13 & “Jews” in v2:13. 1x in NT. From Ioudaikos (Jewish, Judaic); from Ioudaios (see note III above). This is like a Jew.
LVI “compel” = anagkazo. 9x in NT. From anagke (necessity – something that happens that requires an immediate response; generally associated with pain or distress.); {from ana (up, again, anew) + agcho (to press tightly, compress)} or {from ana (up, again, anew) + agkale (the arm, particularly one that is bent to carry a load); {from agkos (a bend)}}. This is to urge, compel, or force.
LVII “live like Jews” = Ioudaizo. Related to “Judaism” in v1:13 & “Jews” in v2:13 & “like a Jew” in v2:14. 1x in NT. From Ioudaios (see note III above). This is to Judaize, i.e. like in the way that Jews do.

15 We ourselves are Jews by birthLVIII and not Gentile sinners;LIX 16 yet we knowLX that a personLXI is justifiedLXII 

Notes on verses 2:15-16a

LVIII “by birth” = phusis. 14x in NT. From phuo (to produce, spring up, grow, germinate; perhaps originally meaning puff or blow). This is inherent nature, origin, species, growth, descent, natural disposition, condition. It shares a root with the word “physical.”
LIX “sinners” = hamartolos. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. This is sinning, sinful, sinner. It referred to missing the mark or falling short. The term was also used in archery for missing the target.
LX “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
LXI “person” = anthropos. Related to “face” in v2:11. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (see note XXXVI above). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
LXII “justified” = dikaioo. From dikaios (correct, righteous – implies innocent; this is that which conforms to God’s notion of justice, uprightness); From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is to be righteous, plead the cause of, justify, acquit. Properly, it is being approved, particularly carrying the weight of a legal judgment. It is upright, render just, or innocent.

not by the worksLXIII of the lawLXIV but through faithLXV in JesusLXVI Christ.LXVII 

Notes on verse 2:16b

LXIII “works” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.
LXIV “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.
LXV “faith” = pistis. Literally “faith of Christ Jesus.” From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.
LXVI “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
LXVII “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

And we have come to believeLXVIII in Christ Jesus, so that we might be justified by faith in Christ,LXIX and not by doing the works of the law, because no oneLXX will be justified by the works of the law. 

Notes on verse 2:16c

LXVIII “come to believe” = pisteuo. Related to “faith” in v2:16. From peitho (see note LXV above). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
LXIX Literally “faith of Christ.”
LXX “one” = sarx. Same as “human being” in v1:16. See note XXVI above.

17 But if, in our effortLXXI to be justified in Christ, we ourselves have been foundLXXII to be sinners, is Christ then a servantLXXIII of sin?LXXIV Certainly not!LXXV 

Notes on verse 2:17

LXXI “effort” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
LXXII “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
LXXIII “servant” = diakonos. Perhaps related to “persecution” in v1:13. Perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (see note V above). This is a servant, minister, waiter, or attendant. It is used for a person who performs a service, including religious service. This is the root of the word “deacon.”
LXXIV “sin” = hamartia. Related to “sinners” in v2:15 From hamartano (see note LIX above). Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.
LXXV “certainly not” = me + ginomai. Ginomai is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.

18 But if I build upLXXVI again the very things that I once tore down,LXXVII then I demonstrateLXXVIII that I am a transgressor.LXXIX 

Notes on verse 2:18

LXXVI “build up” = oikodomeo. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + domeo (to build). This is to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden.
LXXVII “tore down” = kataluo. 17x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). Literally, this means thoroughly loosening. It can mean unharnessing or unyoking animals and so to lodge somewhere for a night. It can also mean to disintegrate or demolish in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be destroy, overthrow, abolish, or tear down.
LXXVIII “demonstrate” = sunistemi. Related to “opposed” in v2:11. 16x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + histemi (see note XXXV above). This is to establish, exhibit, demonstrate, stand together, prove.
LXXIX “transgressor” = parabates. 5x in NT. From parabaino (literally to go past; to violate, break, or transgress; intentionally stepping across a boundary that one is aware of; to turn aside or depart); {from para (beside, by, in the presence of) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (to walk, to go)}}. This is transgressor – someone who intentionally crosses the line.

19 For through the law I diedLXXX to the law, so that I might live to God. I have been crucified withLXXXI Christ; 20 and it is no longer I who live, but it is Christ who lives in me. And the life I now live in the fleshLXXXII I live by faith in the Son of God, who lovedLXXXIII me and gaveLXXXIV himself for me. 

Notes on verses 2:19-20

LXXX “died” = apothnesko. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.
LXXXI “crucified with” = sustauroo. Related to “opposed” in v2:11 & “demonstrate” in v2:18. 5x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + stauroo (to attach someone to a cross or fencing with stakes; figuratively, to destroy, mortify, or subdue passions/selfishness); {from stauros (upright stake, cross; literally the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die); from the same as histemi (see note XXXV above)}. This is to crucify together in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXII “flesh” = sarx. Same as “human being” in v1:16. See note XXVI above.
LXXXIII “loved” = agapao. Perhaps from agan (much). This is love, longing for, taking pleasure in. It is divine love or human love that echoes divine love.
LXXXIV “gave” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.

21 I do not nullifyLXXXV the grace of God; for if justificationLXXXVI comes through the law, then Christ died for nothing.LXXXVII

Notes on verse 2:21

LXXXV “nullify” = atheteo. Related to “at once” and “confer” in v1:16. 16x in NT. From athetos (not having position or place); {from a (not) + tithemi (see note XXV above)}. This is setting something aside, ignoring or nullifying it, refusing or rejecting. It can also mean to annul or cancel out the effect of something. Literally, this is to un-place. It can also be rejecting something, despising it, or considering something invalid.
LXXXVI “justification” = dikaiosune. Related to “justified” in v2:16. From dikaios (see note LXII above). This is judicial or divine approval of character or action. This is righteousness, justice, justness, divine righteousness.
LXXXVII “for nothing” = dorean. Related to “traditions” in v1:14. From dorea (a free gift given voluntarily and not received by merit or entitlement; emphasizes the benevolence of the giver); from doron (gift, offering, sacrifice; emphasizes that the gift is given freely, voluntarily); from didomi (see note XV above). This is freely, without purpose, a free gift, unearned not for merit or obligation. It is freely in a literal or figurative sense.

Image credit: “Fresco of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, Ribnjak Monastery” in Montenegro.

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