Romans 15

Romans 15


We who are strongI oughtII to put up withIII

Notes on verse 1a

I “strong” = dunatos. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is mighty or powerful. It speaks of ability of persons, possibility of things. It is what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits. The root verb is also related to miracles i.e. deeds of power.
II “ought” = opheilo. Perhaps from the base of ophelos (advantage, gain, profit); from ophello (heaped together, accumulate, increase). This is to be indebted morally or legally – having an obligation one must meet. This term came from the legal world, but was then adopted in reference to morality. In the New Testament it is used for humanity’s ethical responsibility.
III “put up with” = bastazo. Perhaps from the base of basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is to lift in a literal of figurative sense. It can also mean take up, carry, bear, or remove. Figuratively, it can mean declare, endure, or sustain.

the failingsIV of the weakV and not to pleaseVI ourselves. 

Notes on verse 1b

IV “failings” = asthenema. 1x in NT. From asthenes (not having strength or weak in a moral sense; sick); {from a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}}. This is weakness, doubt, hesitation.
V “weak” = adunatos. Related to “strong” in v1. 10x in NT. From a (not, without) + dunatos (see note I above). This is powerless, unable, impotent, or impossible. It is weak in a literal or figurative sense.
VI “please” = aresko. 17x in NT. Root means to fit together. This is to please or be agreeable. It implies voluntarily serving others, satisfying others, or making good to win their favor or approval. It is often used for moral agreement. It can mean being agreeable or trying to be agreeable. Used 9x of pleasing people in a negative way, 5x of pleasing people in a positive way, and 3x of pleasing God.

EachVII of us must please our neighborVIII for the goodIX purpose of building upX the neighbor. 

Notes on verse 2

VII “each” = hekastos. Perhaps from hekas (separate). This is each one, any, every. It is every individual as a distinct entity as opposed to those counted as a group in small sets.
VIII “neighbor” = plesion. 17x in NT. From pelas (near). This is near, nearby, or neighboring. As one nearby, it can also refer to a neighbor, a member of one’s country, a Christian, or a friend.
IX “good” = agathos. This is good, a benefit, or a good thing. It is good by its very nature, intrinsically good. A different word, kalos, refers to external signs of goodness.
X “building up” = oikodome. 18x in NT. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + doma (house, housetop; often used to refer to the roof) {from demo (to build a house)}. This is the act of building, structure, architecture, a building, upbuilding. It is a building that is used as a home. Figuratively, this refers to spiritual progress – becoming a person who is a better home in which God can reside.

For ChristXI did not please himself, but, as it is written,XII “The insultsXIII

Notes on verse 3a

XI “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
XII “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
XIII “insults” = oneidismos. 5x in NT. From oneidizo (to disgrace, insult, mock, blame, or curse someone so as to create shame; when a person or thing is considered guilty and deserving punishment; to denounce, revile, defame, or chide); from oneidos (a personal disgrace that leads to harm to one’s reputation, a taunt or reproach); perhaps from the base of onoma (name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation); perhaps from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a reproach – an unwarranted insult meant to disgrace someone.

of those who insultXIV you have fallenXV on me.” For whatever was written in former daysXVI was writtenXVII

Notes on verses 3b-4a

XIV “insult” = oneidizo. Related to “insults” in v3. 9x in NT. See note XIII above.
XV “fallen” = epipipto. 11x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is fall upon. It could be in the sense of pressing in on, being seized with fear, being embraced (as in the parable of the prodigal son in Luke 15:20), bending over, being insulted, or the Spirit falling on people. So, it is coming upon someone with more or less affection or violence.
XVI “written in former days” = prographo. Related to “written” in v3. 4x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + grapho (see note XII above). This is to write above or before, to designate earlier, to show openly, or figuratively to announce.
XVII “written” = grapho. Same as “written” in 3. See note XII above.

XVIIIfor our instruction,XIX so that by steadfastnessXX

Notes on verse 4b

XVIII {untranslated} = pas. This is all or every.
XIX “instruction” = didaskalia. From didaskalos (teacher, master); from didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teaching or instruction.
XX “steadfastness” = hupomone. From hupo (by, under, about) + meno (to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide). This is properly to remain behind or remain under. It implies endurance, patience, steadfastness, and waiting in hope.

and by the encouragementXXI of the scripturesXXII we might haveXXIII hope.XXIV 

Notes on verse 4c

XXI “encouragement” = paraklesis. From parakaleo (to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg; to exhort or admonish; to encourage, comfort, or console; has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom); {from para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}}. This is calling someone for help, a personal exhortation, comfort, encouragement, joy, entreaty, urging. This word comes from a legal setting – as bringing evidence to advocate for another in court. This word is related to the word “Advocate” or paraclete used for the Holy Spirit.
XXII “scriptures” = graphe. Related to “written” in v3 & “written in former day” in v4. From grapho (see note XII above). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.
XXIII “have” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
XXIV “hope” = elpis. From elpo (to anticipate, welcome, expect; usually to anticipate positively). This is expectation, hope, trust, confidence faith. The expectation can be abstract or concrete.

May the GodXXV of steadfastness and encouragement grantXXVI you to live in harmonyXXVII with one another, in accordance with Christ Jesus,XXVIII 

Notes on verse 5

XXV “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XXVI “grant” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
XXVII “harmony” = phroneo. From phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb). This is to think, judge, use one’s mind, have an opinion, shape one’s opinion through action. It refers to one’s insight or inner perspective expressing itself through behavior.
XXVIII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

so that togetherXXIX you may with oneXXX voiceXXXI

Notes on verse 6a

XXIX “together” = homothumadon. 11x in NT. From homou (together); {from homos (the same)} + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}}. This is having one mind or a shared passion. It is people who share the same desire.
XXX “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
XXXI “voice” = stoma. Perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.

glorifyXXXII the God and FatherXXXIII of our LordXXXIV Jesus Christ.

Notes on verse 6b

XXXII “glorify” = doxazo. From doxa (glory, opinion, praise, honor, renown; particularly used as a quality of God or manifestation of God – splendor); from dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.
XXXIII “Father” = Pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
XXXIV “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

WelcomeXXXV one another, therefore, just as Christ has welcomed you, for the gloryXXXVI of God. For I tellXXXVII you that Christ has becomeXXXVIII

Notes on verses 7-8a

XXXV “welcome” = proslambano. 12x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take aside, accept, receive, or welcome. It can be to take in a friendly or hospitable sense or to eat (i.e. take food).
XXXVI “glory” = doxa. Related to “glorify” in v6. See note XXXII above.
XXXVII “tell” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XXXVIII “become” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.

a servantXXXIX of the circumcisedXL on behalf of the truthXLI of God

Notes on verse 8b

XXXIX “servant” = diakonos. Perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute) {related to dio (put to flight)}. This is a servant, minister, waiter, or attendant. It is used for a person who performs a service, including religious service. This is the root of the word “deacon.”
XL “circumcised” = peritome. Related to “voice” in v6. From peritemno (to circumcise; literally cut around); {from peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + same as tomos or tomoteros (see note XXXI above)}. This is properly, cut around, referring to the way that foreskin is removed and so this is to circumcise. It can be used or the rite or the people who are circumcised – in a literal or figurative sense.
XLI “truth” = aletheia. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic). {from a (not, without) + lanthano (unnoticed, concealed)}. Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.

in order that he might confirmXLII the promises givenXLIII to the ancestorsXLIV 

Notes on verse 8c

XLII “confirm” = bebaioo. Related to “put up with” in v1. 8x in NT. From bebaios (properly, ground that is solid enough to walk over; firm, unshakable; figuratively, guaranteed, valid, sure, steadfast, enduring; literally and figuratively “solid footing”); from the same as basis (see note III above). This is secure, guarantee, reliable, firm, dependable. It is something that you can put your trust in.
XLIII “promises given” = epaggelia. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive)}. This is a summons, promise, or message. It is a formal promise that is officially sanctioned. In the New Testament, this usually refers to a promise made in the Old Testament.
XLIV “ancestors” = pater. Same as “Father” in v6. See note XXXIII above.

and that the gentilesXLV might glorify God for his mercy.XLVI

As it is written,XLVII

“Therefore I will confessXLVIII you among the gentiles

Notes on verse 9a

XLV “gentiles” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
XLVI “mercy” = eleos. This is mercy, pity, tender mercy, or compassion, whether from humans or from God. This is mercy, generally understood in action by word or deed. When we sing or say “kyrie eleison” (Lord, have mercy), it is related to this word.
XLVII “written” = grapho. Same as “written” in 3. See note XII above.
XLVIII “confess” = exomologeo. Related to “together” in v6 & to “tell” in v8. 10x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + homologeo (to agree, speak the same, declare, promise, praise, celebrate; to align with, express the same conclusion, endorse); {from homologos (of one mind); {from homos (see note XXIX above) + lego (see note XXXVII above)}}. This is agree, consent, or acknowledge. It can also be confess, give thanks, or praise. It includes an open, public, unabashed declaration.

    and sing praisesXLIX to your name”;L

10 and again he says,LI

“Rejoice,LII O gentiles, with his people”;LIII

Notes on verses 9b-10

XLIX “sing praises” = psallo. 5x in NT. From psao (to rub). This is to twang, play, sing psalms, pluck a stringed instrument such as a harp. Always used for songs of praise to God in the New Testament. It is where “psalm” comes from.
L “name” = onoma. Related to “insults” and “insult” in v3. See note XIII above.
LI “says” = lego. Same as “tell” in v8. See note XXXVII above.
LII “rejoice” = euphraino. Related to “harmony” in v5. 14x in NT. From eu (good, well, well done) + phren (see note XXVII above). This is to be glad, revel, feast. It is having a positive outlook, rejoicing.
LIII “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.

11 and again,

“PraiseLIV the Lord, allLV you gentiles,
    and let all the peoples praiseLVI him”;

Notes on verse 11

LIV “praise” = aineo. 8x in NT. From ainos (praise, saying, story, proverb). This is to praise.
LV “all” = pas. Same as {untranslated} in v4. See note XVIII above.
LVI “praise” = epaineo. Related to “sing praises” in v11. 6x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aineo (see note LIV above). This is to praise or laud. It is to give someone the credit that they are due.

12 and again IsaiahLVII says,

“The rootLVIII of JesseLIX shall come,LX

Notes on verse 12a

LVII “Isaiah” = Esaias. Related to “Jesus” in v5. From Hebrew Yeshayahu (Isaiah, “salvation of the Lord”); {from yasha (see note XXVIII above) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note XXVIII above)}. This is Isaiah, meaning “salvation of the Lord.”
LVIII “root” = rhiza. 17x in NT. This is a root literally or figuratively so it would be the root of what comes from it – shoot, source, descendant. This is where the word “rhizome” comes from.
LIX “Jesse” = Iessai. 5x in NT. From Hebrew yishay (Jesse); perhaps from the same as yesh (being, existence, substance). This is Jesse, perhaps meaning “God exists.” See
LX “come” = eimi. This is to be, exist.

    the one who risesLXI to ruleLXII the gentiles;
in him the gentiles shall hope.”LXIII

Notes on verse 12b

LXI “rises” = anistemi. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
LXII “rule” = archo. 2x in NT. This is to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power.
LXIII “hope” = elpizo. Related to “hope” in v4. From elpis (see note XXIV above). This is to expect, trust, hope for, or to wait in an active way.

13 May the God of hope fillLXIV you with all joyLXV and peaceLXVI

Notes on verse 13a

LXIV “fill” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
LXV “joy” = chara. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is joy, delight, gladness. Can be understood as the feeling you get when you are aware of grace.
LXVI “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)


in believing,LXVII so that you may aboundLXVIII in hope by the powerLXIX

Notes on verse 13b

LXVII “believing” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
LXVIII “abound” = perisseuo. From perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is more than what is ordinary or necessary. It is abounding, overflowing, being leftover, going above and beyond. It is super-abounding in number or quality.
LXIX “power” = dunamis. Related to “strong” and “weak” in v1. From dunamai (see note I above). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.


of the HolyLXX Spirit.LXXI

14 I myself feel confidentLXXII about you, my brothersLXXIII and sisters,

Notes on verses 13c-14a

LXX “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
LXXI “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
LXXII “feel confident” = peitho. Related to “believing” in v13. See note LXVII above.
LXXIII “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.

that you yourselves areLXXIV fullLXXV of goodness,LXXVI filledLXXVII with all knowledge,LXXVIII

Notes on verse 14b

LXXIV “are” = eimi. Same as “come” in v12. See note LX above.
LXXV “full” = mestos. 9x in NT. This is filled with in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXVI “goodness” = agathosune. Related to “good” in v2. 4x in NT. From agathos (see note IX above). This is goodness as an intrinsic quality in the sense of being kind/good-natured rather than good versus evil.
LXXVII “filled” = pleroo. Same as “fill” in v13. See note LXIV above.
LXXVIII “knowledge” = gnosis. Related to “insults” and “insult” in v3 & “name” in v9. From ginosko (see note XIII above). This is knowing, knowledge, understanding, wisdom. It is direct knowledge – working knowledge that links theory and application.

and ableLXXIX to instructLXXX one another. 15 Nevertheless, on some pointsLXXXI I have writtenLXXXII to you rather boldlyLXXXIII

Notes on verses 14c-15a

LXXIX “able” = dunamai. Related to “strong” and “weak” in v1 & “power” in v13. See note I above.
LXXX “instruct” = noutheteo. Related to “insults” and “insult” in v3 & “name” in v9 & “knowledge” in v14. 8x in NT. From nouthesia (admonition, teaching, warning; focusing one’s mind by using reasoning to reprove or warn someone); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); {from noos (mind) or from ginosko (see note XIII above)} + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position)}. This is to warn, admonish, teach. Literally, it is to set one’s mind on something – specifically in giving someone a warning using logic. It can also be a gentle reproof.
LXXXI “points” = meros. From meiromai (to get your allotment or portion). This is a part, a share, or a portion.
LXXXII “written” = grapho. Same as “written” in 3. See note XII above.
LXXXIII “boldly” = tolmeroteron. 1x in NT. From tolmeros (bold); related to tolmao (to show courage to take a risk, to venture decisively, to put it on the line for something that matters); from tolma (boldness); perhaps from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax); from tello (to start out with a definite goal in mind). This is more freely or confident – more daring.

by way of reminder,LXXXIV because of the graceLXXXV givenLXXXVI me by God 

Notes on verse 15b

LXXXIV “reminder” = epanamimnesko. Related to “steadfastness” in v4. 1x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + anamimnesko (to remind, admonish; to follow the path of memory); {from ana (up, again, among, anew) + mimnesko (to remind or remember; memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful; not incidentally or accidentally remembering); {from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure)}}. This is to remind again or in an apt way.
LXXXV “grace” = charis. Related to “joy” in v13. From chairo (see note LXV above). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
LXXXVI “given” = didomi. Same as “grant” in v5. See note XXVI above.

16 to be a ministerLXXXVII of Christ Jesus to the gentiles in the priestly serviceLXXXVIII of the gospelLXXXIX of God,

Notes on verse 16a

LXXXVII “minister” = leitourgos. Related to “people” in v10. 5x in NT. From laos (see note LIII above) + ergon (work, task, employment, action, labor; a work or worker who does or makes something); {from erdo (to do)}. This is a public servant, a minister, or other kind of servant. It can be used of priests and Levites. More broadly, it is for anyone who serves or ministers for the community’s good.
LXXXVIII “priestly service” = hierourgeo. Related to “minister” in v16. 1x in NT. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to a god) + ergon (see note LXXXVII above). This is to minister or conduct a holy rite, to work in a Temple.
LXXXIX “gospel” = euaggelion. Related to “rejoice” in v10 & to “promises given” in v8. From eu (see note LII above) + aggelos (see note XLIII above). This is literally “the good news,” used for the gospel. This is also where “evangelism” comes from.

so that the offeringXC of the gentiles may beXCI acceptable,XCII sanctifiedXCIII by the Holy Spirit. 

Notes on verse 16b

XC “offering” = prosphora. 9x in NT. From prosphero (to bring up, give a gift or bring a sacrifice); {from pros (for, at, towards) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is an offering, oblation, or sacrifice.
XCI “be” = ginomai. Same as “become” in v8. See note XXXVIII above.
XCII “acceptable” = euprosdektos. Related to “rejoice” in v10 & “gospel” in v16. 5x in NT – 2x in Romans, 2x in 2 Corinthains, & 1x in 1 Peter. From eu (see note LII above) + prosdechomai (to receive, welcome, expect, accept; reception with a warm, personal welcome or active waiting; endurance or patience); {from pros (at, to, toward, with) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is welcome, pleasing, approved.
XCIII “sanctified” = hagiazo. Related to “Holy” in v13. From hagios (see note LX above). This is to make holy, consecrate, sanctify, set apart as holy, purify, venerate.

17 In Christ Jesus, then, I have reason to boastXCIV of my workXCV for God. 18 For I will not be so boldXCVI as to speakXCVII of anything

Notes on verses 17-18a

XCIV “reason to boast” = kauchesis. 11x in NT. From kauchaomai (literally holding one’s head high – to boast proudly or to glory, joy, exult, rejoice; boasting in a positive or negative sense); {perhaps from auxen (neck)} + euchomai (to pray, wish, or will). This can be boasting, glorying, or rejoicing. It can be boasting in a positive or negative sense.
XCV “work” = ho + pros. Literally, “things pertaining to.”
XCVI “be so bold” = tolmao. Related to “boldly” in v15. 16x in NT. See note LXXXIII above.
XCVII “speak” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.

except what Christ has accomplishedXCVIII through me to win obedienceXCIX from the gentiles, by wordC and deed,CI 

Notes on verse 18b

XCVIII “accomplished” = katergazomai. Related to “minister” and “priestly service” in v16. From kata (down, against, throughout, among, daily) + ergazomai (to work, labor); {from ergon (see note LXXXVII above)}. This is working something until it is completed, working fully, accomplishing, producing, achieving, performing.
XCIX “obedience” = hupakoe. 15x in NT. From hupoakouo (to listen, to attend to, or obey; acting subordinate to one who speaks – heeding a command or authority); {from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + akouo (listen, hear, understand through hearing)}. This is obedience, submissiveness – listening attentively and acting in response.
C “word” = logos. Related to “tell” in v8 & “confess” in v9. From lego (see note XXXVII above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
CI “deed” = ergon. Related to “minister” and “priestly service” in v16 & “accomplished” in v18. See note LXXXVII above.

19 by the power of signsCII and wonders,CIII by the power of the Spirit, so that from JerusalemCIV

Notes on verse 19a

CII “signs” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
CIII “wonders” = teras. 16x in NT. This is a wonder or marvel performed to get bystanders to react. It could also be a portent or omen.
CIV “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

and as far aroundCV as IllyricumCVI I have fully proclaimedCVII the gospel of Christ. 

Notes on verse 19b

CV “around” = kuklo. 8x in NT. From kuklos (a circle). This is a ring, around, all around.
CVI “Illyricum” = Illurikon. 1x in NT. Perhaps from illo (to exclude) OR from illiggos (agitation in a circle). This is Illyricum, a Roman province, which may mean “excluded ones” or agitated ones” or “the land of the gentiles” or “the land of agitation” or “the land of the insurrection;” see
CVII “fully proclaimed” = pleroo. Same as “fill” in v13. See note LXIV above.

20 Thus I make it my ambitionCVIII to proclaim the gospel,CIX not where Christ has already been named,CX

Notes on verse 20a

CVIII “make it…ambition” = philtimeomai. 3x in NT. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; also esteem or dignity; also precious or valuables); {from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is to love, strive eagerly, aspire, have something as an ambition.
CIX “proclaim the gospel” = euaggelizo. Related to “rejoice” in v10 & “gospel” and “acceptable” in v16 & to “promises given” in v8 & “gospel” in v16. From eu (see note LII above) + aggelos (see note XLIII above). This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.
CX “named” = onomazo. Related to “insults” and “insult” in v3 & “name” in v9 & “knowledge” and “instruct” in v14. 10x in NT. From onoma (see note XIII above). This is to name – either to name someone or call out their name. More broadly, it can mean to mention or utter.

so that I do not buildCXI on someone else’sCXII foundation,CXIII 21 but as it is written,CXIV

Notes on verses 20b-21a

CXI “build” = oikodomeo. Related to “building up” in v2. From oikos (see note X above) + domeo (to build). This is to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden.
CXII “someone else’s” = allotrios. 14x in NT. From allos (other, different, another; this is one more of the same kind or a similar type). This is something or someone that belongs to others. By extension, this is another, stranger, foreign, or foreigner.
CXIII “foundation” = themelios. Related to “instruct” in v14. 16x in NT. From tithemi (see note LXXX above). This is related to a foundation, building substructure. It is a foundation in a literal or figurative sense.
CXIV “written” = grapho. Same as “written” in 3. See note XII above.

“Those who have never been toldCXV of him shall see,CXVI
    and those who have never heardCXVII of him shall understand.”CXVIII

Notes on verse 21b

CXV “told” = anaggello. Related to “promises given” in v8 & “gospel” in v16 & “proclaim the gospel” in v20. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, by, anew) + aggello (see note XLIII above). This is returning with word, reporting, declaring, announcing. It is to tell something all the way, which is to say to tell it clearly.
CXVI “see” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
CXVII “heard” = akouo. Related to “obedience” in v18. See note XCIX above.
CXVIII “understand” = suniemi. From sun (with, together with) + hiemi (to send, put). This is to put together – used figuratively to mean understand, consider, gain insight. It is bringing together facts or notions and synthesizing them into a whole. It is making a summary to arrive at a final conclusion that includes how to apply the insight to life. It can also imply acting piously or being wise.

22 This is the reason that I have so oftenCXIX been hinderedCXX from comingCXXI to you. 23 But now, with no further placeCXXII for me in these regions,CXXIII

Notes on verses 22-23a

CXIX “often” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
CXX “hindered” = egkopto. 5x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is literally to cut into. So it refers to an obstacle that impedes progress. It is to interrupt, detain, block, prevent.
CXXI “coming” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
CXXII “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
CXXIII “regions” = klima. 3x in NT. From klino (to slant, rest, recline, approach an end, wear; to bend in a literal or figurative sense – to lay down, a day ending, causing an opposing army to flee). This is a region, district, or territory. It is where the words “clime” and “climate” come from.

I desire,CXXIV as I have for manyCXXV years,CXXVI to comeCXXVII to you 

Notes on verse 23b

CXXIV “desire” = epipothia. 1x in NT. From epipotheo (to long for, greatly desire, or strain towards; doting or a desire to possess something or someone, whether legitimately or wrongfully); {from epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + potheo (to yearn)}. This is a longing, desire, yearning affection.
CXXV “many” = hikanos. From hikneomai (to reach, come to, attain). This is sufficient, suitable, adequate, competent, ample.
CXXVI “years” = etos. This is year or age.
CXXVII “come” = erchomai. Same as “coming” in v22. See note CXXI above.

24 when I goCXXVIII to Spain.CXXIX For I do hope to seeCXXX you on my journeyCXXXI

Notes on verse 24a

CXXVIII “go” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
CXXIX “Spain” = Spania. 2x in NT – both in Romans 15. Perhaps from Latin Hispania (Iberian Peninsula); perhaps from Phoenician or Punic ‘iy + spania (“land of rabbits”) OR from Phoenician ‘i + shapnia (to forge metals). This is Spain or Spania, which may mean “land of rabbits” or “land where metals are forged.” See &
CXXX “see” = theaomai. From thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit like a spectator. This is the root of the word “theatre.”
CXXXI “journey” = diaporeuomai. Related to “go” in v24. 5x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + poreuomai (see note CXXVIII above). This is to travel through, pass.

and to be sent onCXXXII by you, onceCXXXIII I have enjoyed your companyCXXXIV for a little while.CXXXV 

Notes on verse 24b

CXXXII “sent on” = propempo. 9x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + pempo (to send, put forth, or dispatch; often a temporary errand; sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from). This is to send forth, accompany, escort. It is to prepare for a journey.
CXXXIII “once” = proton. From protos (what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief); from pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is firstly, before, in the beginning, formerly.
CXXXIV “enjoyed…company” = empiplemi. Related to “often” in v22. 5x in NT– including the Magnificat in Luke 1:53 “God has filled the hungry with good things.” From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + same as pleistos (most, very great, much, very numerous); {from polus (see note CXIX above)}. This is to fill up or satisfy literally or figuratively.
CXXXV “while” = meros. Same as “points” in v15. See note LXXXI above.

25 At present, however, I am going to Jerusalem in a ministryCXXXVI to the saints,CXXXVII 26 for MacedoniaCXXXVIII and AchaiaCXXXIX

Notes on verses 25-26a

CXXXVI “ministry” = diakoneo. Related to “servant” in v8. From diakonos (see note XXXIX above). This is to wait at table, to serve generally, to minister or administer, to be in the office of deacon. To wait on someone as a slave, friend, or host.
CXXXVII “saints” = hagios. Same as “Holy” in v13. See note LXX above.
CXXXVIII “Macedonia” = Makedonia. From makedonia (Macedonia, highland); from makednos (high or tall). This is Macedonia in Greece. See
CXXXIX “Achaia” = Achaia. 10x in NT. Perhaps from achos (pain, distress, or grief). This is Achaia, perhaps meaning pain or trouble. Achaia was also a name used to refer to Demeter. See

were pleasedCXL to shareCXLI their resourcesCXLII with the poorCXLIII among the saints at Jerusalem. 

Notes on verse 26b

CXL “pleased” = eudokeo. Related to “rejoice” in v10 & “gospel” and “acceptable” in v16 & “proclaim the gospel” in v20 & to “glorify” in v6 & “glory” in v7. From eu (see note LII above) + dokeo (see note XXXII above). This is to think well of, to be pleased or resolved. Properly, this is what someone finds good or acceptable – approving of some action or generally thinking well of.
CXLI “share” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
CXLII “resources” = koinonia. 19x in NT. From koinonos (partner, companion, partaker, sharer); From koinos (common, shared, unclean, ritually profane); probably from sun (with, together with). This is sharing in common so it is fellowship, participation, communion, and aid that comes from the community.
CXLIII “poor” = ptochos. From ptosso (to crouch or cower as a beggar does). This is poor or destitute – someone who is extremely poor and bowed down because of a long struggle under poverty. Properly, it means bent over so figuratively it is someone who is deeply destitute and lacking tangible resources. This is a beggar – as extremely opposite a wealthy person as possible.

27 They were pleasedCXLIV to do this, and indeed they oweCXLV it to them, for if the gentiles have come to share inCXLVI

Notes on verse 27a

CXLIV “pleased” = eudokeo. Same as “pleased” in v26. See note CXL above.
CXLV “owe” = opheiletes + eimi. Opheiletes is related to “ought” in v1. 7x in NT. From opheilo (see note II above). This is one who owes so it is a debtor or someone under obligation. Figuratively, it is a culprit, delinquent, or a sinner. Eimi is the same as “come” in v12. See note LX above.
CXLVI “share in” = koinoneo. Related to “resources” in v26. 8x in NT. From koinonos (see note CXLII above). This is to contribute, participate, or have a share in. It can also mean to distribute.

their spiritual blessings,CXLVII they ought also to be of serviceCXLVIII to them in material things.CXLIX 

Notes on verse 27b

CXLVII “spiritual blessings” = pneumatikos. Related to “Spirit” in v13. From pneuma (see note LXXI above). This is spiritual, spiritual people, or spiritual things – that which is ethereal or divine or religious.
CXLVIII “be of service” = leitourgeo. Related to “people” in v10 & “minister” in v16 & to “minister” and “priestly service” in v16 & “accomplished” and “deed” in v18. 3x in NT. From leitourgos (see note LXXXVII above). This is to minister or serve the public in an authorized capacity. It can also be to act in a charitable capacity.
CXLIX “material things” = sarkikos. 7x in NT. From sarx (the body, human nature, being related; not always evil in scripture as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body; generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith; can mean meat from an animal, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit; can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty, physical or moral); may be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse); from sairo (to brush off). This is bodily, material, animal.

28 So, when I have completedCL this and have deliveredCLI to them what has been collected,CLII I will set outCLIII by way of you to Spain, 

Notes on verse 28

CL “completed” = epiteleo. Related to “boldly” in v15 & “be so bold” in v18. 10x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + teleo (to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end); {from telos (see note LXXXIII above)}. This is to complete or make perfect, execute, accomplish, undergo or finish.
CLI “delivered” = sphragizo. 15x in NT. From sphragis (a seal, signet, or signet ring; also the impression of that seal; so, the thing attested to by that seal – proof or a signifier of privacy); perhaps from phrasso (to stop, fence in). Properly, this is sealing something with some kind of stamp that tells who the owner is, gives it authorization or validity. It shows that the owner lends their full authority or backing to the matter in question. This was the ancient world’s equivalent of a signature on a legal document to guarantee the commitments made in the document. There were also tattoos that were given to show who someone belonged to in a religious sense.
CLII “collected” = karpos. Perhaps from harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (to choose, take). This is a fruit or vegetable, through sometimes it refers to an animal. Figuratively, it is deeds, results, profits, or gain.
CLIII “set out” = aperchomai. Related to “coming” in v22. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note CXXI above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.

29 and I knowCLIV that when I comeCLV to you I will comeCLVI in the fullnessCLVII of the blessingCLVIII of Christ.

Notes on verse 29

CLIV “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
CLV “come” = erchomai. Same as “coming” in v22. See note CXXI above.
CLVI “come” = erchomai. Same as “coming” in v22. See note CXXI above.
CLVII “fullness” = pleroma. Related to “fill” in v13. 18x in NT. From pleroo (see note LXIV above). This is fullness, supply, completion, superabundance, or multitude.
CLVIII “blessing” = eulogia. Related to “rejoice” in v10 & “gospel” and “acceptable” in v16 & “proclaim the gospel” in v20 & “pleased” in v26 & to “tell” in v8 & “confess” in v9 & “word” in v18. 16x in NT. From eulogeo (speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited; praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing); {from eu (see note LII above) + logos (see note C above)}. This is praise, blessing, eloquent speaking, eulogy, consecration, gift.

30 I appealCLIX to you, brothers and sisters, by our Lord Jesus Christ and by the loveCLX of the Spirit, to join me in earnestCLXI prayerCLXII to God on my behalf, 

Notes on verse 30

CLIX “appeal” = parakaleo. Related to “encouragement” in v4. See note XXI above.
CLX “love” = agape. From agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is love, goodwill, benevolence. It is God’s divine love or human love that mirrors God’s love.
CLXI “join…earnest” = sunagonizomai. Related to “promises given” in v8 & “gospel” in v16 & “proclaim the gospel” in v20 & “told” in v21. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + agonizomai (to struggle, strive, or fight; contending to win a prize or against an adversary or in war; striving to accomplish something); {from agon (a gathering or contest – as an athletic competition such as a race; also conflict, struggle, opposition or a fight; used figuratively in a positive sense – as fighting the good fight of faith; used in a negative figurative sense for effort or anxiety; properly, refers to a place where people gather, which implies the game or contest); from ago (see note XLIII above)}. This is to struggle or strive together as in a contest. It can also mean someone who helps or assists.
CLXII “prayer” = proseuche. Related to “reason to boast” in v17. From proseuchomai (to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate; more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s); {from pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (see note XCIV above)}. This is prayer, worship, or a place where one prays.

31 that I may be rescuedCLXIII from the unbelieversCLXIV in JudeaCLXV and that my ministryCLXVI to Jerusalem may beCLXVII acceptable to the saints, 

Notes on verse 31

CLXIII “rescued” = rhuomai. 18x in NT– including from the Lord’s prayer “deliver us from evil”. Related to eruo (to draw or drag) OR related to rheo (to flow, overflow). This is to rescue or set free. It is to deliver from danger, to snatch up.
CLXIV “unbelievers” = apeitheo. Related to “believing” in v13 & “feel confident” in v14. 14x in NT. From apeithes (unbelieving, disobedient, spiritually rebellious); {from a (not, without) + peitho (see note LXVII above)}. This is to disobey or rebel. It refers to those who refuse to be convinced of something – willful disbelief.
CLXV “Judea” = Ioudaia. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.
CLXVI “ministry” = diakonia. Related to “servant” in v8 & “ministry” in v25. Perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (see note XXXIX above) OR from dioko (see note XXXIX above). This is service, ministry, attending someone, service. It can mean serving someone at a table or otherwise as their servant/slave. It is also used for people who serve/minister in temples, as well as the work of Christian ministry. Figuratively, this word can mean money given for charity. This shares a root with “deacon” and is where the word “diaconate” comes from.
CLXVII “be” = ginomai. Same as “become” in v8. See note XXXVIII above.

32 so that by God’s willCLXVIII I may comeCLXIX to you with joy and be refreshed in your company.CLXX 33 The God of peace be with all of you. Amen.CLXXI

Notes on verses 32-33

CLXVIII “will” = thelema. From thelo (to desire, wise, will, intend). This is the act of will, choice, purpose, or decree.
CLXIX “come” = erchomai. Same as “coming” in v22. See note CXXI above.
CLXX “refreshed in…company” = sunanapauomai. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + anapauo (a break from work, which implies being refreshed; denotes that rest that one gets once a necessary task is finished); {from ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + pauo (to stop, refrain, pause, restrain, quit, come to an end)}. This is to rest or refresh with – to pause in someone else’s company.
CLXXI “amen” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.

Image credit: “Appear weak when you are strong, and strong when you are weak. اظهر ضعيفا حينما تكون قويا واظهر قويا حينما تكون ضعيفا” by حكمة اليوم (“the wisdom of the day”), 2021.

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