John 1

John 1


In the beginningI wasII the Word,III and the Word was with God,IV and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. 

Notes on verses 1-2

I “beginning” = arche. From archomai (to begin or rule); from archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). Properly, this is what is first. In a temporal sense, that is beginning or origin. It can also refer to the one who ranks first, i.e. king or ruler. So, it can also be magistrate, power, or principality. It can be used more generally for what is preeminent.
II “was” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
III “Word” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
IV “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

All thingsV came into beingVI through him, and withoutVII him not oneVIII thing came into being.

Notes on verse 3a

V “all things” = pas. This is all or every.
VI “came into being” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
VII “without” = choris. From chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is apart from, separate from
VIII “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.

What has come into being in him was life,IX and the life was the lightX of all people.XI 

Notes on verses 3b-4

IX “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
X “light” = phos. From phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is light, a source of light, fire, or radiance. This is light with specific reference to what it reveals. It is luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative.
XI “people” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.

The light shinesXII in the darkness,XIII and the darkness did not overtakeXIV it.

Notes on verse 5

XII “shines” = phaino. Related to “light” in v4. See note X above.
XIII “darkness” = skotia. 16x in NT. From skotos (darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it; obscurity); from skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness or dimness. Figuratively, it can be a spiritual darkness. This is obscurity in a literal or figurative sense.
XIV “overtake” = katalambano. 15x in NT. From kata (down, against, among, throughout) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take hold of something with great intention for one’s own interest. It can be seize or arrest – grasping forcefully. Figuratively, it can also mean to comprehend, to win, to surprise, or to possess.

There wasXV a manXVI sentXVII from God whose nameXVIII was John.XIX 

Notes on verse 6

XV “was” = ginomai. Same as “came into being” in v3. See note VI above.
XVI “man” = anthropos. Same as “people” in v4. See note XI above.
XVII “sent” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
XVIII “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
XIX “John” = Ioannes. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel); {from havah (to become); from hayah (to be, exist, happen)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”

He cameXX as a witnessXXI to testifyXXII to the light, so that all might believeXXIII through him. He himself was not the light, but he came to testify to the light. 

Notes on verses 7-8

XX “came” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
XXI “witness” = marturia. From martureo (to bear witness, testify, give evidence; to testify in a literal or figurative sense); from martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is testimony, witness, evidence, record, reputation.
XXII “testify” = martureo. Related to “witness” in v7. From martus (see note XXI above). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.
XXIII “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

The trueXXIV light, which enlightensXXV everyone,XXVI was comingXXVII into the world.XXVIII

Notes on verse 9

XXIV “true” = alethinos. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to the test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic); {from a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares)}. This is literally made of truth – that which is true or real, authentic. Something that is true from its source and has integrity.
XXV “enlightens” = photizo. Related to “light” in v4 & “shines” in v5. 11x in NT. From phos (see note X above). This is to shine or give light, illumine or reveal. Properly, it is to enlighten in a literal or figurative sense. It can mean to brighten up or to make one see.
XXVI “everyone” = pas + anthropos. Pas is the same as “all things” in v3. See note V above. Anthropos is the same as “people” in v4. See note XI above.
XXVII “coming” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v7. See note XX above.
XXVIII “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.

10 He was in the world, and the world came into beingXXIX through him, yet the world did not knowXXX him. 11 He cameXXXI to what was his own,XXXII and his own people did not acceptXXXIII him. 

Notes on verses 10-11

XXIX “came into being” = ginomai. Same as “came into being” in v3. See note VI above.
XXX “know” = ginosko. Related to “name” in v6. See note XVIII above.
XXXI “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v7. See note XX above.
XXXII “own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
XXXIII “accept” = paralambano. Related to “overtake” in v5. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + lambano (see note XIV above). This is to receive, take, acknowledge, associate with. It can also mean to take on an office or to learn.

12 But to allXXXIV who receivedXXXV him, who believed in his name, he gaveXXXVI powerXXXVII to becomeXXXVIII childrenXXXIX of God, 

Notes on verse 12

XXXIV “all” = hosos. From hos (which, that, also). This is how many, as many as.
XXXV “received” = lambano. Related to “overtake” in v5 & “accept” in v11. See note XIV above.
XXXVI “gave” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXVII “power” = exousia. Related to “was” in v1. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note II above)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.
XXXVIII “become” = ginomai. Same as “came into being” in v3. See note VI above.
XXXIX “children” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.

13 who were born,XL not of bloodXLI or of the willXLII of the fleshXLIII or of the will of man,XLIV but of God.

Notes on verse 13

XL “born” = gennao. Related to “came into being” in v3. From genna (descent, birth); from genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note VI above). This is to beget, give birth to, or bring forth. Properly, it refers to procreation by the father, but was used of the mother by extension. Figuratively, this can mean to regenerate.
XLI “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).
XLII “will” = thelema. From thelo (to desire, wise, will, intend). This is the act of will, choice, purpose, or decree.
XLIII “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).
XLIV “man” = aner. Related to “people” in v4. See note XI above.

14 And the Word became flesh and livedXLV among us, and we have seenXLVI his glory,XLVII

Notes on verse 14a

XLV “lived” = skenoo. 5x in NT– 1x in John 1 & 4x in Revelation. From skenos (tent, tabernacle; used figuratively for the body as the home of the spirit; this is generally a hut or temporary home); from skene (a tent, booth, tabernacle, dwelling – in a literal or figurative sense). This is to encamp, dwell, have or pitch a tent.
XLVI “seen” = theaomai. From thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit like a spectator. This is the root of the word “theatre.”
XLVII “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.

the glory as of a father’sXLVIII onlyXLIX son, fullL of graceLI and truth.LII 

Notes on verse 14b

XLVIII “father’s” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
XLIX “only” = monogenes. Related to “came into being” in v3 & “born” in v13. 9x in NT. From monos (alone, only, solitary, sole, mere, desolate); {probably from meno (to stay, remain, wait, continue, endure)} + genos (see note XL above). This is only begotten, unique, one and only, one of a kind.
L “full” = pleres. 16x in NT. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is to be full, complete, abounding in, or occupied with.
LI “grace” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
LII “truth” = aletheia. Related to “true” in v9. From alethes (see note XXIV above)}. Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.

15 (John testified to him and cried out,LIII, LIV “This was he of whom I said, ‘He who comesLV afterLVI me ranksLVII ahead of me because he was beforeLVIII me.’”) 

Notes on verse 15

LIII “cried out” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.
LIV {untranslated} = lego. Related to “Word” in v1. See note III above.
LV “comes” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v7. See note XX above.
LVI “after” = opiso. Related to “people” in v4. From the same as opisthen (after, back, from the rear); probably from opis (back); from optanomai (see note XI above). This is back, behind, after.
LVII “ranks” = ginomai. Same as “came into being” in v3. See note VI above.
LVIII “before” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.

16 From his fullnessLIX we have all received, grace upon grace. 17 The lawLX indeed was given through Moses;LXI

Notes on verses 16-17a

LIX “fullness” = pleroma. Related to “full” in v14. 18x in NT. From pleroo (to fill, make full or complete; properly, filling something up to the maximum extent or induvial capacity; used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill); from pleres (see note L above). This is fullness, supply, completion, superabundance, or multitude.
LX “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.
LXI “Moses” = Mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.

grace and truth cameLXII through JesusLXIII Christ.LXIV 

Notes on verse 17b

LXII “came” = ginomai. Same as “came into being” in v3. See note VI above.
LXIII “Jesus” = Iesous. Related to “John” in v6. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (see note XIX above) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
LXIV “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

18 No one has ever seenLXV God. It is the only Son, himself God, who is close to the Father’s heart,LXVI who has made him known.LXVII

Notes on verse 18

LXV “seen” = horao. Related to “people” in v4 & “after” in v15. See note XI above.
LXVI “heart” = kolpos. 6x in NT. It is bosom (as in the bosom of Abraham from Like 16:22-23). It is also chest, where their garments would fold over. Reclining in this position connoted intimacy and union.
LXVII “made…known” = exegeomai. 6x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + hegeomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); {from ago (lead, bring, carry, drive, go)}. This is to lead the way, bring forth. Figuratively, it is to unfold or explain something thoroughly to show what is most important. This is where the word “exegesis” comes from.

19 This is the testimonyLXVIII given by John when the JewsLXIX sent priestsLXX

Notes on verse 19a

LXVIII “testimony” = marturia. Same as “witness” in v7. See note XXI above.
LXIX “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
LXX “priests” = hiereus. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god). This is a priest, used for Jewish and Gentile priests.

and LevitesLXXI from JerusalemLXXII to askLXXIII him, “Who are you?” 

Notes on verse 19b

LXXI “Levites” = Leuites. 3x in NT. From Leui (Levi, the tribe or a name); from Hebrew Levi (Levi, or the tribe of Levi). This is someone descended from Levi who assists priests.
LXXII “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
LXXIII “ask” = erotao. From eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of). This is asking a question or making an earnest request. It is used between someone with whom the asker is close in some sense. So, they anticipate special consideration for their request.

20 He confessedLXXIV and did not denyLXXV it, but he confessed, “I am not the Messiah.”LXXVI 

Notes on verse 20

LXXIV “confessed” = homologeo. Related to “Word” in v1 & {untranslated} in v15. From homologos (of one mind); {from homos (the same) + lego (see note III above)}. This is to agree, speak the same, declare, promise, praise, celebrate. It can mean to align with, express the same conclusion, endorse.
LXXV “deny” = arneomai. From a (not) + rheo (say, speak of). This is to deny, disown, refuse, repudiate someone or a previously held belief, to contradict.
LXXVI “Messiah” = Christos. Same as “Christ” in v17. See note LXIV above.

21 And they asked him, “What then? Are you Elijah?”LXXVII

He said, “I am not.”

“Are you the prophet?”LXXVIII

He answered,LXXIX “No.” 

Notes on verse 21

LXXVII “Elijah” = Elias. Related to “John” in v6 & “Jesus” in v17. From Hebrew Eliyyah (Elijah) {from el (God, god) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note XIX above)}. This is Elijah, “The Lord is God.”
LXXVIII “prophet” = prophetes. Related to “light” in v4 & “shines” in v5 & “enlightens” in v9. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (see note X above) or phaino (see note X above)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
LXXIX “answered” = apokrinomai. From apo (from, away from) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is to reply or respond, to draw one’s own conclusions, to speak when one is expected to.

22 Then they said to him, “Who are you? Let us haveLXXX an answerLXXXI for those who sentLXXXII us. What do you say about yourself?” 

Notes on verse 22

LXXX “have” = didomi. Same as “gave” in v12. See note XXXVI above.
LXXXI “answer” = apokrisis. Related to “answered” in v21. 4x in NT. From apokrinomai (see note LXXIX above). This is answering or a response.
LXXXII “sent” = pempo. This is to send, put forth, or dispatch. This often refers to a temporary errand. It is sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from. By contrast, another Greek word, hiemi, emphasizes the destination and yet another word, stello, focuses on the motion that goes with the sending.

23 He said,LXXXIII

“I am the voiceLXXXIV of one crying outLXXXV in the wilderness,LXXXVI

Notes on verse 23a

LXXXIII “said” = phemi. Related to “light” in v4 & “shines” in v5 & “enlightens” in v9 & “prophet” in v21. See note LXXVIII above.
LXXXIV “voice” = phone. Related to “light” in v4 & “shines” in v5 & “enlightens” in v9 & “prophet” in v21 & “said” in v23. Probably from phemi (see note LXXVIII above). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
LXXXV “crying out” = boao. 12x in NT. From boe (a cry or shout). This is cry out, make a distress call, ask for desperately need assistance.
LXXXVI “wilderness” = eremos. Properly, a place that is not settled or farmed, not populated. It could be a deserted area or a desert place. It could be seen as secluded, solitary, or lonesome. Any kind of vegetation is sparse, but so are people generally.

‘Make straightLXXXVII the wayLXXXVIII of the Lord,’”LXXXIX

as the prophet IsaiahXC said.

Notes on verse 23b

LXXXVII “make straight” = euthuno. 2x in NT. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + tithemi (to place, lay, set, establish)}. This is to guide, steer, make a straight direction.
LXXXVIII “way” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
LXXXIX “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XC “Isaiah” = Esaias. Related to “John” in v6 & “Jesus” in v17 & “Elijah” in v21. From Hebrew Yeshayahu (Isaiah, “salvation of the Lord”); {from yasha (see note LXIII above) + Yah (see note LXXVII above)}. This is Isaiah, meaning “salvation of the Lord.”

24 Now they had been sentXCI from the Pharisees.XCII 25 They asked him, “Why, then, are you baptizingXCIII if you are neither the Messiah, nor Elijah, nor the prophet?” 

Notes on verses 24-25

XCI “sent” = apostello. Same as “sent” in v6. See note XVII above.
XCII “Pharisees” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
XCIII “baptizing” = baptizo. From bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is to submerge, wash, or immerse. Used specially for baptism.

26 John answered them, “I baptize with water.XCIV AmongXCV you standsXCVI one whom you do not know,XCVII 

Notes on verse 26

XCIV “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.
XCV “among” = mesos. Perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action). This is middle, among, center, midst.
XCVI “stands” = histemi. Related to “sent” in v6. See note XVII above.
XCVII “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.

27 the one who is comingXCVIII after me; I am not worthyXCIX to untieC the strapCI of his sandal.”CII 

Notes on verse 27

XCVIII “coming” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v7. See note XX above.
XCIX “worthy” = axios. Related to “made…known” in v18. From ago (see note LXVII above). This is related to weight or worth – deserving, suitable, corresponding, due reward.
C “untie” = luo. This is to loose, release, or untie. Figuratively, it can mean to break, destroy, or annul. This is releasing what had been withheld.
CI “strap” = himas. 4x in NT. Perhaps from the same as hama (at one, together with, early). This is a thong like a part of a sandal or a strap that is part of a scourge.
CII “sandal” = hupodema. 10x in NT. From hupodeo (to bind under wear on the feet); {from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited)}. This is a sandal – something bound under the sole.

28 This took placeCIII in BethanyCIV across the JordanCV where John was baptizing.

29 The next day he sawCVI Jesus comingCVII toward him and declared,CVIII

Notes on verses 28-29a

CIII “took place” = ginomai. Same as “came into being” in v3. See note VI above.
CIV “Bethany” = Bethania. 12x in NT. From Aramaic beth anya (house of affliction, misery, wretchedness). This is Bethany.
CV “Jordan” = Iordanes. 15x in NT. From Hebrew yarden (Jordan river, meaning “descending”); from yarad (to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense; going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy). This is the Jordan River, meaning “descending.”
CVI “saw” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
CVII “coming” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v7. See note XX above.
CVIII “declared” = lego. Same as {untranslated} in v15. See note LIV above.

“HereCIX is the LambCX of God who takes awayCXI the sinCXII of the world! 

Notes on verse 29b

CIX “here” = idou. Related to “know” in v26. From eido (see note XCVII above). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CX “Lamb” = amnos. 4x in NT. This is lamb, used figuratively for innocence or in reference to its sacrificial use. Usually, it refers to a lamb that is one year old.
CXI “takes away” = airo. This is to lift up in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could mean to lift, carry, or raise. It could also imply lifting something in order to take it away or remove it. Figuratively, this can be used for raising the voice or level of suspense. It can mean sailing off as raising the anchor. It can also correspond to a Hebrew expression for atonement of sin (lift/remove sin).
CXII “sin” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.

30 This is he of whom I said, ‘After me comesCXIII a manCXIV who ranks ahead of me because he was before me.’ 31 I myself did not knowCXV him, but I cameCXVI baptizing with water for this reason, that he might be revealedCXVII to Israel.”CXVIII 

Notes on verses 30-31

CXIII “comes” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v7. See note XX above.
CXIV “man” = aner. Same as “man” in v13. See note XLIV above.
CXV “know” = eido. Same as “know” in v26. See note XCVII above.
CXVI “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v7. See note XX above.
CXVII “revealed” = phaneroo. Related to “light” in v4 & “shines” in v5 & “enlightens” in v9 & “voice” in v23. From phaneros (visible, apparent, clear, shining); from phos (see note X above). This is to make visible or clear, to make known. Properly, it is to illumine and so to make apparent or bring into open view.
CXVIII “Israel” = Israel. Related to “Elijah” in v21. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (see note LXXVII above)}. This is Israel the people and the land.

32 And John testified, “I sawCXIX the SpiritCXX descendingCXXI

Notes on verse 32a

CXIX “saw” = theaomai. Same as “seen” in v14. See note XLVI above.
CXX “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
CXXI “descending” = katabaino. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (to walk, go). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.

from heavenCXXII like a dove,CXXIII and it remainedCXXIV on him. 33 I myself did not knowCXXV him, but the one who sentCXXVI me to baptize with water said to me, ‘He on whom you seeCXXVII the Spirit descend

Notes on verses 32b-33a

CXXII “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill); probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
CXXIII “dove” = peristera. 10x in NT. This is dove or pigeon.
CXXIV “remained” = meno. Related to “only” in v14. See note XLIX above.
CXXV “know” = eido. Same as “know” in v26. See note XCVII above.
CXXVI “sent” = pempo. Same as “sent” in v22. See note LXXXII above.
CXXVII “see” = horao. Same as “seen” in v18. See note LXV above.

and remain is the one who baptizes with the HolyCXXVIII Spirit.’ 34 And I myself have seenCXXIX and have testified that this is the Chosen One.”CXXX

Notes on verses 33b-34

CXXVIII “Holy” = Hagios.  From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
CXXIX “seen” = horao. Same as “seen” in v18. See note LXV above.
CXXX “Chosen One” = huis + ho + Theos. In some manuscripts, “Son of God.” Huis is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship. Theos is from Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

35 The next day John again was standing with twoCXXXI of his disciples,CXXXII 36 and as he watchedCXXXIII Jesus walk byCXXXIV

Notes on verses 35-36a

CXXXI “two” = duo. This is two or both.
CXXXII “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
CXXXIII “watched” = emblepo. Related to “saw” in v29. 12x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + blepo (see note CVI above). This is to look at, gaze, consider, stare, see clearly, look with particular interest.
CXXXIV “walk by” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.

he exclaimed,CXXXV “Look,CXXXVI here is the Lamb of God!” 37 The two disciples heardCXXXVII him say this, and they followedCXXXVIII Jesus. 

Notes on verses 36b-37

CXXXV “exclaimed” = lego. Same as {untranslated} in v15. See note LIV above.
CXXXVI “look” = idou. Same as “here” in v29. See note CIX above.
CXXXVII “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
CXXXVIII “followed” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.

38 When Jesus turnedCXXXIX and sawCXL them following, he said to them, “What are you looking for?”CXLI

Notes on verse 38a

CXXXIX “turned” = strepho. From trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn). This is to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one.
CXL “saw” = theaomai. Same as “seen” in v14. See note XLVI above.
CXLI “looking for” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.

They said to him, “Rabbi”CXLII (which translatedCXLIII meansCXLIV Teacher),CXLV “where are you staying?”CXLVI 

Notes on verse 38b

CXLII “Rabbi” = Rhabbi. 15x in NT– 8x in the Gospel of John. From Hebrew rab (chief); from rabab (to be many, increase, multiply). This is a title of respect for a teacher-scholar. Literally, it means great one or honorable sir. It can also be understood as my master or my teacher.
CXLIII “translated” = methermeneuo. 8x in NT. From meta (with, among, beyond) + hermeneuo (to interpret, translate, explain the meaning of); {perhaps from Hermes, the god of language and a proper name}. This is to explain beyond i.e. to translate or interpret.
CXLIV “means” = lego. Same as {untranslated} in v15. See note LIV above.
CXLV “Teacher” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
CXLVI “staying” = meno. Same as “remained” in v32. See note CXXIV above.

39 He said to them, “ComeCXLVII and see.”CXLVIII They cameCXLIX and sawCL where he was staying, and they remained with him that day.CLI It was about four o’clock in the afternoon.CLII 

Notes on verse 39

CXLVII “come” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v7. See note XX above.
CXLVIII “see” = horao. Same as “seen” in v18. See note LXV above.
CXLIX “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v7. See note XX above.
CL “saw” = horao. Same as “seen” in v18. See note LXV above.
CLI “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
CLII “four o’clock in the afternoon” = hora + eimi + hos + dekatos. Literally, “the hour was about the tenth.” Hora is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from. Eimi is the same as “was” in v1. See note II above. Dekatos is 3x in NT. Form deka (ten). This is tenth.

40 One of the two who heard John speak and followed him was Andrew,CLIII SimonCLIV Peter’sCLV brother.CLVI 

Notes on verse 40

CLIII “Andrew” = Andreas. Related to “people” in v4 & “man” in v13. 13x in NT. From aner (see note XI above). This is Andrew, meaning manly.
CLIV “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
CLV “Peter’s” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
CLVI “brother” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.

41 He firstCLVII foundCLVIII hisCLIX brother Simon and said to him, “We have found the Messiah”CLX (which is translated Anointed).CLXI 

Notes on verse 41

CLVII “first” = protos. Related to “before” in v15. From protos (see note LVIII above). This is first or formerly. It could be first in a row, most important, or first relative to timing.
CLVIII “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
CLIX “his” = idios. Same as “own” in v11. See note XXXII above.
CLX “Messiah” = Messias. 2x in NT– both in John. From Hebrew mashiach (the anointed or consecrated one; a king, priest, or saint); from mashach (to smear or anoint; to run oil on, to consecrate).  This is Messiah or Anointed One.
CLXI “Anointed” = Christos. Same as “Christ” in v17. See note LXIV above.

42 He broughtCLXII Simon to Jesus, who lookedCLXIII at him and said, “You are Simon son of John. You are to be calledCLXIV Cephas”CLXV (which is translatedCLXVI Peter).

Notes on verse 42

CLXII “brought” = ago. Related to “made…known” in v18 & “worthy” in v27. See note LXVII above.
CLXIII “looked” = emblepo. Same as “watched” in v36. See note CXXXIII above.
CLXIV “called” = kaleo. Related to “followed” in v37. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
CLXV “Cephas” = Kephas. 9x in NT. From Aramaic kepha (stone or rock). This is Cephas, the Aramaic translation of Peter’s name.
CLXVI “translated” = hermeneuo. Related to “translated” in v38. 3x in NT. See note CXLIII above.

43 The next day Jesus decidedCLXVII to goCLXVIII to Galilee.CLXIX He found PhilipCLXX and said to him, “Follow me.” 

Notes on verse 43

CLXVII “decided” = thelo. Related to “will” in v13. See note XLII above.
CLXVIII “go” = exerchomai. Related to “came” in v7. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note XX above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
CLXIX “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.
CLXX “Philip” = Philippos. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + hippos (horse). This is Philip, meaning one who loves horses or is fond of horses.

44 Now Philip was from Bethsaida,CLXXI the cityCLXXII of Andrew and Peter. 45 Philip found NathanaelCLXXIII

Notes on verses 44-45a

CLXXI “Bethsaida” = Bethsaida. Related to “Bethany” in v28. 7x in NT. From Aramaic bet (house) + tsaida (hunting); related to Hebrew bayit (house, family); {from banah (to build)} + tsayid (hunting, catch, the chase); {from tsud (to hunt, to lie in wait in order to catch an animal; used figuratively for capturing people)} OR from Aramaic bet (house) + chasda (grace); related to Hebrew chesed (favor, goodness, kindness, loving kindness, pity, reproach, or a good deed; when done by humanity to God, it is piety); {from chasad (being good, kind, merciful; may mean bowing one’s neck as is done in the presence of an equal for courtesy’s sake; so, if one in a superior position is treating you like an equal, that is what is captured here)}. This is Bethsaida, meaning either house of fish or house of grace.
CLXXII “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
CLXXIII “Nathanael” = Nathanael. Related to “Elijah” in v21 & “Israel” in v31. 6x in NT. From Hebrew nethanel (Nethanel, “given of God”); {from natan (to give, put, set, offer; to give literally or figuratively) + el (see note LXXVII above)}. This is Nathanael, meaning “given of God.”

and said to him, “We have found him about whom Moses in the Law and also the Prophets wrote,CLXXIV Jesus son of JosephCLXXV from Nazareth.”CLXXVI 

Notes on verse 45b

CLXXIV “wrote” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
CLXXV “Joseph” = Ioseph. From Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases.”
CLXXVI “Nazareth” = Nazareth. 12x in NT. Perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazareth, meaning perhaps branch or protected. It is a city in Galilee. See

46 Nathanael said to him, “CanCLXXVII anything goodCLXXVIII come out ofCLXXIX Nazareth?”

Philip said to him, “ComeCLXXX and see.”CLXXXI 

Notes on verse 46

CLXXVII “can” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
CLXXVIII “good” = agathos. This is good, a benefit, or a good thing. It is good by its very nature, intrinsically good. A different word, kalos, refers to external signs of goodness.
CLXXIX “come out of” = eimi. Same as “was” in v1. See note II above.
CLXXX “come” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v7. See note XX above.
CLXXXI “see” = idou. Same as “here” in v29. See note CIX above.

47 When Jesus sawCLXXXII Nathanael comingCLXXXIII toward him, he said of him, “Here is trulyCLXXXIV an IsraeliteCLXXXV in whom there is no deceit!”CLXXXVI 

Notes on verse 47

CLXXXII “saw” = horao. Same as “seen” in v18. See note LXV above.
CLXXXIII “coming” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v7. See note XX above.
CLXXXIV “truly” = alethos. Related to “true” in v9 & “truth” in v14. 18x in NT. From alethes (see note XXIV above). This is truly, really, surely, truthfully, indeed. Properly, this is saying “in accordance with fact…” – what one is about to say can be proven and is true to reality.
CLXXXV “Israelite” = Israelites. Related to “Elijah” in v21 & “Israel” in v31 & “Nathanael” in v45. 9x in NT. From Israel (Israel, the people and land); from Hebrew Yisrael (see note CLXVIII above). This is Israel the people and the land. This is Israelite in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXXVI “deceit” = dolos. 11x in NT. From dello (probably to decoy). This is literally bait, but used figuratively for treachery, stealth, guile, or deceit.

48 Nathanael askedCLXXXVII him, “Where did you get to knowCLXXXVIII me?”

Jesus answered, “I sawCLXXXIX you under the fig tree before Philip calledCXC you.” 

Notes on verse 48

CLXXXVII “asked” = lego. Same as {untranslated} in v15. See note LIV above.
CLXXXVIII “get to know” = ginosko. Same as “know” in v10. See note XXX above.
CLXXXIX “saw” = horao. Same as “seen” in v18. See note LXV above.
CXC “called” = phoneo. Related to “light” in v4 & “shines” in v5 & “enlightens” in v9 & “prophet” in v21 & “said” in v23 & “voice” in v23 & “revealed” in v31. From phone (see note LXXXIV above). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.

49 Nathanael replied, “Rabbi, you are the Son of God! You are the KingCXCI of Israel!” 

50 Jesus answered, “Do you believe because I told you that I sawCXCII you under the fig tree? You will seeCXCIII greater thingsCXCIV than these.” 

Notes on verses 49-50

CXCI “King” = basileus. Probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (see note CXXI above). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
CXCII “saw” = horao. Same as “seen” in v18. See note LXV above.
CXCIII “see” = horao. Same as “seen” in v18. See note LXV above.
CXCIV “greater things” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.

51 And he said to him, “Very truly,CXCV I tellCXCVI you, you will seeCXCVII heaven openedCXCVIII

Notes on verse 51a

CXCV “very truly” = amen + amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
CXCVI “tell” = lego. Same as {untranslated} in v15. See note LIV above.
CXCVII “see” = horao. Same as “seen” in v18. See note LXV above.
CXCVIII “opened” = anoigo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open). This is to open in literal or figurative sense.

and the angelsCXCIX of God ascendingCC and descending upon the Son of Man.”CCI

Notes on verse 51b

CXCIX “angels” = aggelos. Related to “made…known” in v18 & “worthy” in v27 & “brought” in v42. Probably from ago (see note LXVII above) + agele (flock, herd, drove); {also from ago (see above)}. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.
CC “ascending” = anabaino. Related to “descending” in v32 & “King” in v49. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (see note CXXI above)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
CCI “Man” = anthropos. Same as “people” in v4. See note XI above.

Image credit: “Creation of the World (III)” by Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis.

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