John 10

John 10


“Very truly,I I tellII you, anyone who does not enterIII the sheepfoldIV by the gateV

Notes on verse 1a

I “very truly” = amen + amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
II “tell” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
III “enter” = eiserchomai. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
IV “sheepfold” = aule + ho + probaton. Aule is 12x in NT. Perhaps from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is a building that has a courtyard within it – an area that has no roof, but does have walls and is open to the air. It could also imply a palace or mansion as larger buildings that would include courtyards. Probaton is probably from probaino (to go forward literally or to advance in years); {from pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + the same as basis (a step, pace, foot); {from baino (to walk, to go)}}. This is literally easily led and so a sheep or another grazing animal. Also use figuratively of people who are led easily.
V “gate” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.

but climbs inVI by another wayVII isVIII a thiefIX and a bandit.X 

Notes on verse 1b

VI “climbs in” = anabaino. Related to “sheepfold” in v1. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (see note IV above). This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
VII “another way” = allachothen. 2x in NT. From allos (other, another; another of a similar kind or type). This is neighboring, from somewhere else, another way.
VIII “is” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
IX “thief” = kleptes. 16x in NT. From klepto (to steal secretively). This is a thief that steals using stealth rather than violence. It is a thief in a literal or figurative sense.
X “bandit” = lestes. 15x in NT– 3x “you are making [my house] a den of robbers” when Jesus cleanses the temple, 3x of Jesus’ arrest “did you come for me…as though I were a bandit?”; 3x of bandits crucified on Jesus’ left and right; 2x of the man falling into the hands of robbers in the Good Samaritan parable; 2x of the Good Shepherd speech (anyone who doesn’t come in by the gate is a bandit) in John 10:1, 8; 1x of Barabbas as a bandit; and 1x Paul writes he is in danger from bandits. From leis (booty); from leizomai (to plunder). This is a bandit or thief – one who steals by violence/force out in the open as opposed to by stealth. These were part of armed gangs.

The one who enters by the gate is the shepherdXI of the sheep.XII The gatekeeperXIII opensXIV the gate for him,

Notes on verses 2-3a

XI “shepherd” = poimen. 18x in NT. This is shepherd or pastor – one who protects. It is also used figuratively to mean ruler. 
XII “sheep” = probaton. Same as “sheepfold” in v1. See note IV above. Probably from probaino (to go forward literally or to advance in years); {from pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + the same as basis (see note IV above)}. This is literally easily led and so a sheep or another grazing animal. Also use figuratively of people who are led easily.
XIII “gatekeeper” = thuroros. Related to “gate” in v1. 4x in NT. From thura (see note V above). This is gatekeeper or porter.
XIV “opens” = anoigo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open). This is to open in literal or figurative sense.

and the sheep hearXV his voice.XVI He callsXVII

Notes on verse 3b

XV “hear” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XVI “voice” = phone. Probably from phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
XVII “calls” = phoneo. Related to “voice” in v3. From phone (see note XVI above). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.

his ownXVIII sheep by nameXIX and leads them out.XX 

Notes on verse 3c

XVIII “his own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
XIX “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
XX “leads…out” = exago. 12x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide). This is to lead out or forth. It can be one being led to their death.

When he has brought outXXI allXXII his own, he goesXXIII ahead of them, and the sheep followXXIV him because they knowXXV his voice. 

Notes on verse 4

XXI “brought out” = ekballo. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
XXII “all” = pas. This is all, every.
XXIII “goes” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
XXIV “follow” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
XXV “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.

They will not follow a stranger,XXVI but they will runXXVII from him because they do not know the voice of strangers.” JesusXXVIII used this figure of speechXXIX with them, but they did not understandXXX what he was saying to them.

Notes on verses 5-6

XXVI “stranger” = allotrios. Related to “another way” in v1. 14x in NT. From allos (see note VII above). This is something or someone that belongs to others. By extension, this is another, stranger, foreign, or foreigner.
XXVII “run” = pheugo. This is to run away in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to flee, escape, shun, or vanish.
XXVIII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XXIX “figure of speech” = paroimia. 5x in NT. From paroimos (by the way); {from para (by, beside, in the presence of) + perhaps from oiomai (to think, imagine, suppose, expect); {from hoios (such as, what kind of); from ho (the)}}. This is a parable, allegory, or proverb. It is used for figurative language or an adage.
XXX “understand” = ginosko. Related to “name” in v3. See note XIX above.

So again Jesus said to them, “Very truly, I tell you, I am the gate for the sheep. All who cameXXXI before me are thieves and bandits, but the sheep did not listenXXXII to them. I am the gate. Whoever enters by me will be savedXXXIII and will come inXXXIV and go outXXXV

Notes on verses 7-9a

XXXI “came” = erchomai. Related to “enter” in v1. See note III above.
XXXII “listen” = akouo. Same as “hear” in v3. See note XV above.
XXXIII “be saved” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.
XXXIV “come in” = eiserchomai. Same as “enter” in v1. See note III above.
XXXV “go out” = exerchomai. Related to “enter” in v1 & “came” in v8. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note III above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.

and findXXXVI pasture.XXXVII 10 The thief comes only to stealXXXVIII and killXXXIX and destroy.XL

Notes on verses 9b-10a

XXXVI “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
XXXVII “pasture” = nome. 2x in NT. From the same as nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); from nemo (to parcel out, assign). This is pasture, feeding. Figuratively, it can refer to growth, as in the way gangrene spreads.
XXXVIII “steal” = klepto. Related to “thief” in v1. 13x in NT. See note IX above.
XXXIX “kill” = thuo. 14x in NT. This is to rush along, breathe violently. It can also mean to offer sacrifice, specifically by fire (in reference to the blowing smoke).
XL “destroy” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.

I came that they may haveXLI lifeXLII and have it abundantly.XLIII

11 “I am the goodXLIV shepherd. The good shepherd lays downXLV his lifeXLVI for the sheep. 

Notes on verses 10b-11

XLI “have” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
XLII “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
XLIII “abundantly” = perissos. From peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently.
XLIV “good” = kalos. This is good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy. This is external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues. A different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good.
XLV “lays down” = tithemi. This is to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense. Properly, it is placing something in a passive or horizontal position.
XLVI “life” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.

12 The hired hand,XLVII who is not the shepherd and does not own the sheep, seesXLVIII the wolfXLIX coming

Notes on verse 12a

XLVII “hired hand” = misthotos. 3x in NT– here and in Mark 1:20 of the hired men with Zebedee. From misthoo (to hire for a wage, engage); from misthos (wages, pay, salary; reward, recompense, punishment; pay for services rendered in a literal or figurative way, good or bad). This is a hired servant or someone who works for a wage.
XLVIII “sees” = theoreo. From theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
XLIX “wolf” = lukos. 6x in NT. Perhaps related to leukos (bright, white); from luke (light). This is wolf or maybe jackal. Figuratively, it means cruel, greedy, or destructive.

and leavesL the sheep and runs away, and the wolf snatchesLI them and scattersLII them. 13 The hired hand runs away because a hired hand does not careLIII for the sheep. 14 I am the good shepherd. I knowLIV my own, and my own knowLV me, 

Notes on verses 12b-14

L “leaves” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
LI “snatches” = harpazo. 14x in NT. Perhaps from haireomai (to choose, take); probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is to grab with force, seize, pluck, get through robbery, snatch up. This is taking something openly and violently – not subtly or in secret.
LII “scatters” = skorpizo. 5x in NT. This is to scatter, distribute, dissipate, waste, cause to flee.
LIII “care” = melo. 10x in NT. This is to think about something, take an interest, to pay attention. It is to care or worry about something.
LIV “know” = ginosko. Same as “understand” in v6. See note XXX above.
LV “know” = ginosko. Same as “understand” in v6. See note XXX above.

15 just as the FatherLVI knowsLVII me, and I knowLVIII the Father. And I lay down my lifeLIX for the sheep. 16 I have otherLX sheep that do not belongLXI to this fold.LXII

Notes on verses 15-16a

LVI “Father” = Pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
LVII “knows” = ginosko. Same as “understand” in v6. See note XXX above.
LVIII “know” = ginosko. Same as “understand” in v6. See note XXX above.
LIX “life” = psuche. Same as “life” in v11. See note XLVI above.
LX “other” = allos. Related to “another way” in v1 & “stranger” in v5. See note VII above.
LXI “belong” = eimi. Same as “is” in v1. See note VIII above.
LXII “fold” = aule. Same as “sheepfold” in v1. See note IV above.

I mustLXIII bringLXIV them also, and they will listen to my voice. So there will beLXV oneLXVI flock,LXVII one shepherd. 

Notes on verse 16b

LXIII “must” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
LXIV “bring” = ago. Related to “leads…out” in v3. See note XX above.
LXV “be” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
LXVI “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
LXVII “flock” = poimne. Related to “shepherd” in v2. 5x in NT. Probably from poimen (see note XI above). This is flock or fold in a literal or figurative sense – usually sheep or goats.

17 For this reason the Father lovesLXVIII me, because I lay down my lifeLXIX in order to take it upLXX again. 

Notes on verse 17

LXVIII “loves” = agapao. Perhaps from agan (much). This is love, longing for, taking pleasure in. It is divine love or human love that echoes divine love.
LXIX “life” = psuche. Same as “life” in v11. See note XLVI above.
LXX “take…up” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.

18 No one takesLXXI it from me, but I lay it down of my own accord. I have powerLXXII to lay it down, and I have power to take it up again. I have receivedLXXIII this commandLXXIV from my Father.”

Notes on verse 18

LXXI “takes” = airo. Related to “snatches” in v12. See note LI above.
LXXII “power” = exousia. Related to “is” in v1. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note VIII above)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.
LXXIII “received” = lambano. Same as “take…up” in v17. See note LXX above.
LXXIV “command” = entole. From entellomai (to charge, command, give orders or instructions) {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + tellomai (to accomplish); {from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one)}}. This is an order, command, ordinance, or law. It focuses on the purpose of the command and its end result.

19 Again the JewsLXXV were dividedLXXVI because of these words.LXXVII 

Notes on verse 19

LXXV “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
LXXVI “divided” = schisma + palin + ginomai. Literally, “division again arose.” Schisma is 8x in NT. From schizo (to split, divide, tear, sever; split in a literal or figurative sense). This is a split or a tear. Figuratively, it can refer to a schism, division, or dissension. This is where the word “schism” comes from and also “schizophrenia” (literally “split mind”). Ginomai is the same as “be” in v16. See note LXV above.
LXXVII “words” = logos. Related to “tell” in v1. From lego (see note II above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.

20 ManyLXXVIII of them were saying, “He has a demonLXXIX and is out of his mind.LXXX Why listen to him?” 

Notes on verse 20

LXXVIII “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
LXXIX “demon” = daimonion. From daimon (evil spirit, demon, fallen angel); perhaps from daio (giving out destinies). This is demon, evil spirit, god of another religion, or fallen angel.
LXXX “is out of…mind” = mainomai. 5x in NT. Perhaps from mao (long for). This is to be insane, to rage. It is behaving like one has lost their mind, but only on a temporary basis. This is where the words “maniac” and “mania” come from.

21 Others were saying, “These are not the wordsLXXXI of one who has a demon.LXXXII CanLXXXIII a demon open the eyesLXXXIV of the blind?”LXXXV

Notes on verse 21

LXXXI “words” = rhema. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
LXXXII “one who has a demon” = daimonizomai. Related to “demon” in v20. 13x in NT. From daimon (see note LXXIX above). This is being demon-possessed or under an evil spirit’s power. This root is where the word “demon” comes from.
LXXXIII “can” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
LXXXIV “eyes” = ophthalmos. From optanomai (to appear, be seen by). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.
LXXXV “blind” = tuphlos. Derivation unclear. Perhaps from tuphoo (to be conceited, foolish, puffed up, haughty; properly, to blow smoke; figuratively being muddled or cloudy in mind; poor judgment that harms spiritual clarity; also, being covered with smoke – so filled with pride); from tuphos (smoke, vanity, arrogance); from tupho (to raise smoke, smolder, slowly consume without flame). This is blind or a blind person – perhaps in the sense of smoke making things opaque and impossible to see. This is blind literally or figuratively.

22 At that time the Festival of the DedicationLXXXVI took placeLXXXVII in Jerusalem.LXXXVIII It was winter,LXXXIX 

Notes on verse 22

LXXXVI “Festival of the Dedication” = egkainia. 1x in NT. From en (in, at, by, with, among) + kainos (not new as in new versus old; new in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh). This is dedication or renewal – the festival of rededication, i.e. Hanukkah.
LXXXVII “took place” = ginomai. Same as “be” in v16. See note LXV above.
LXXXVIII “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
LXXXIX “winter” = cheimon. 6x in NT. Related to the base of chasma (chasm, gap, gulf); from chasko (to yawn)}. This is winter, storm, bad weather – winter as the rainy season.

23 and Jesus was walkingXC in the temple,XCI in the porticoXCII of Solomon.XCIII 

Notes on verse 23

XC “walking” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.
XCI “temple” = hieron. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to a god). This is the word for temple.
XCII “portico” = stoa. 4x in NT. Probably from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm). This is a portico, colonnade, or piazza.
XCIII “Solomon” = Solomon. Related to “Jerusalem” in v22. 12x in NT. From Hebrew shelomoh (Solomon, meaning “peaceful”); from shalam (see note LXXXVIII above). This is Solomon, meaning “peaceful.”

24 So the Jews gathered aroundXCIV him and said to him, “How long will you keep usXCV in suspense?XCVI If you are the Messiah,XCVII tell us plainly.”XCVIII 

Notes on verse 24

XCIV “gathered around” = kukloo. 5x in NT. From the same as kuklo (circle, surrounding); from kuklos (circle, ring). This is to encircle, surround, gather. It is where the word “cycle” comes from.
XCV “us” = ho + psuche + ego. Literally, “our soul.” Psuche is the same as “life” in v11. See note XLVI above.
XCVI “keep…in suspense” = airo. Same as “takes” in v18. See note LXXI above.
XCVII “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
XCVIII “plainly” = parresia. Related to “all” in v4 & “words” in v21.  From pas (see note XXII above) + rhesis (speech); {from rheo (see note LXXXI above)}. This is confidence, openness, boldness, outspokenness. It can imply assurance – free speech.

25 Jesus answered, “I have told you, and you do not believe.XCIX The worksC that I doCI in my Father’s name testifyCII to me, 26 but you do not believe because you do not belong to my sheep. 

Notes on verses 25-26

XCIX “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
C “works” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.
CI “do” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
CII “testify” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.

27 My sheep hear my voice. I knowCIII them, and they follow me. 28 I giveCIV them eternalCV life,CVI

Notes on verses 27-28a

CIII “know” = ginosko. Same as “understand” in v6. See note XXX above.
CIV “give” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
CV “eternal” = aionios. From aion (an age, length of time); from the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is age-long, forever, everlasting. Properly, that which lasts for an age. This is where eon comes from.
CVI “life” = zoe. Same as “life” in v10. See note XLII above.

and they will never perish.CVII, CVIII No one will snatch them out of my hand.CIX 29 My Father, in regard to what he has given me, is greaterCX than all, and no one can snatch them out of the Father’s hand. 30 The Father and I are one.”

Notes on verses 28b-30

CVII “perish” = apollumi. Same as “destroy” in v10. See note XL above.
CVIII {untranslated} = eis + ho + aion. Literally, “to the age.” Aion is related to “eternal” in v28. See note CV above.
CIX “hand” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
CX “greater” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.

31 The Jews took upCXI stonesCXII again to stoneCXIII him. 32 Jesus replied, “I have shownCXIV you many good works from the Father. For which of theseCXV are you going to stone me?” 

Notes on verses 31-32

CXI “took up” = bastazo. Related to “sheepfold” and “climbs in” in v1. Perhaps from the base of basis (see note IV above). This is to lift in a literal of figurative sense. It can also mean take up, carry, bear, or remove. Figuratively, it can mean declare, endure, or sustain.
CXII “stones” = lithos. This is stone in a literal or figurative sense.
CXIII “stone” = lithazo. Related to “stones” in v31. 9x in NT. From lithos (see note CXII above). This is to stone someone.
CXIV “shown” = deiknumi. This is to show in a literal or figurative sense so it can be to teach, bring, or point out.
CXV {untranslated} = ergon. Same as “works” in v25. See note C above.

33 The Jews answered, “It is not for a good work that we are going to stone you but for blasphemy,CXVI because you, though only a human,CXVII are makingCXVIII yourself God.”CXIX 

Notes on verse 33

CXVI “blasphemy” = blasphemia. Related to “voice” and “calls” in v3. 18x in NT. From perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (see note XVI above)}. This is slander, blasphemy, or abusive language. It is calling something wrong that is right or calling something right that is wrong – mis-identifying what is good and bad. This is particularly used for vilifying God. This is where the word “blasphemy” comes from.
CXVII “human” = anthropos. Related to “eyes” in v21. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (see note LXXXIV above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
CXVIII “making” = poieo. Same as “do” in v25. See note CI above.
CXIX “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

34 Jesus answered, “Is it not writtenCXX in your law,CXXI ‘I said, you are gods’? 35 If those to whom the wordCXXII of God cameCXXIII were called ‘gods’CXXIV—and the scriptureCXXV cannot be annulledCXXVI— 

Notes on verses 34-35

CXX “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
CXXI “law” = nomos. Related to “pasture” in v9. See note XXXVII above.
CXXII “word” = logos. Same as “words” in v19. See note LXXVII above.
CXXIII “came” = ginomai. Same as “be” in v16. See note LXV above.
CXXIV “gods” = theos. Same as “God” in v33. See note CXIX above.
CXXV “scripture” = graphe. Related to “written” in v34. From grapho (see note CXX above). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.
CXXVI “annulled” = luo. This is to loose, release, or untie. Figuratively, it can mean to break, destroy, or annul. This is releasing what had been withheld.

36 can you sayCXXVII that the one whom the Father has sanctifiedCXXVIII and sentCXXIX

Notes on verse 36a

CXXVII “say” = lego. Same as “tell” in v1. See note II above.
CXXVIII “sanctified” = hagiazo. From hagios (sacred, holy, set apart, different other; physically pure, morally blameless, or ceremonially set apart); from hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). This is to make holy, consecrate, sanctify, set apart as holy, purify, venerate.
CXXIX “sent” = apostello. Related to “portico” in v23. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (see note XCII above)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.

into the worldCXXX is blasphemingCXXXI because I said, ‘I am God’s Son’?CXXXII 37 If I am not doing the works of my Father, then do not believe me. 

Notes on verses 36b-37

CXXX “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.
CXXXI “blaspheming” = blasphemeo. Related to “voice” and “calls” in v3 & “blasphemy” in v33. From blasphemos (blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil); {from perhaps blapto (see note CXVI above) + pheme (see note CXVI above)}. This is to slander, malign, hurl abuse, speak against, blaspheme, or defame. It is speaking evil or abusive language – not acknowledging what is good or worth reverence/respect.
CXXXII “Son” = Huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.

38 But if I do them, even though you do not believe me, believe the works, so that you may knowCXXXIII and understand that the Father is in me and I am in the Father.” 39 Then they triedCXXXIV to arrestCXXXV him again, but he escapedCXXXVI from their hands.

Notes on verses 38-39

CXXXIII “know” = ginosko. Same as “understand” in v6. See note XXX above.
CXXXIV “tried” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
CXXXV “arrest” = piazo. 12x in NT. From piezo (to press down or together, to pack) OR related to biazo (to force, use power to seize); {from bia (strength, force, violence) or bios (life, livelihood, goods, wealth)}. This is to take, catch,  squeeze, capture from hunting, or arrest. This is the root of “piezoelectricity.”
CXXXVI “escaped” = exerchomai. Same as “go out” in v9. See note XXXV above.

40 He went awayCXXXVII again across the JordanCXXXVIII to the placeCXXXIX where JohnCXL

Notes on verse 40a

CXXXVII “went away” = aperchomai. Related to “enter” in v1 & “came” in v8 & “go out” in v9. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note III above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXVIII “Jordan” = Iordanes. 15x in NT. From Hebrew yarden (Jordan river, meaning “descending”); from yarad (to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense; going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy). This is the Jordan River, meaning “descending.”
CXXXIX “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
CXL “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v6. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note XXVIII above) + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”

had been baptizingCXLI earlier,CXLII and he remainedCXLIII there. 

41 Many cameCXLIV to him, and they were saying, “JohnCXLV performedCXLVI

Notes on verses 40b-41a

CXLI “baptizing” = baptizo. From bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is to submerge, wash, or immerse. Used specially for baptism.
CXLII “earlier” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
CXLIII “remained” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.
CXLIV “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v8. See note XXXI above.
CXLV {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
CXLVI “performed” = poieo. Same as “do” in v25. See note CI above.

no sign,CXLVII but everythingCXLVIII that John said about this man was true.”CXLIX 42 And many believed in him there.

Notes on verses 41b-42

CXLVII “sign” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
CXLVIII “everything” = pas. Same as “all” in v4. See note XXII above.
CXLIX “true” = alethes. From a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic.

Image credit: “Shepherds, Sheep and Sheepfolds” by David Padfield, 2015.

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