John 4:5-42

John 4:5-42
Third Sunday in Lent A


So he cameI to a SamaritanII cityIII calledIV Sychar,V

Notes on verse 5a

I “came” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
II “Samaritan” = Samareia. 11x in NT. From Hebrew Shomron (capital of the northern kingdom of Israel); from shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is Samaria, meaning watch station.
III “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
IV “called” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
V “Sychar” = Suchar. 1x in NT. From Hebrew shekar (strong wine, strong drink); from shakar (to become drunk or tipsy, be merry, satiate with alcoholic beverage; figuratively, to influence). This is Sychar, perhaps meaning drunkard.

nearVI the plot of groundVII that JacobVIII

Notes on verse 5b

VI “near” = plesion. 17x in NT. From pelas (near). This is near, nearby, or neighboring. As one nearby, it can also refer to a neighbor, a member of one’s country, a Christian, or a friend.
VII “plot of ground” = chorion. 10x in NT. From chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is place, estate, possession, piece of ground, property.
VIII “Jacob” = Iakob. From Hebrew Yaaqob (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.

had givenIX to his sonX Joseph.XI 6 Jacob’s wellXII wasXIII there, and Jesus,XIV

Notes on verses 5c-6a

IX “given” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
X “son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
XI “Joseph” = Ioseph. From Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases.”
XII “well” = pege. 11x in NT. This is a fount in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could be a spring of water, a fountain, or a well. It is also used for a flow of blood. It can mean more generally the source of something: water, blood, fun.
XIII “was” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
XIV “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

tired outXV by his journey,XVI was sittingXVII by the well. It was about noon.XVIII

Notes on verse 6b

XV “tired out” = kopiao. From kopos (labor that leads to exhaustion, depletion, weariness, fatigue; working until worn out); from kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is working with effort, whether of the body or mind, growing weary, feeling tired, working hard.
XVI “journey” = hodoiporia. 2x in NT. From hodoiporos (traveler); {from hodos (way, road, journey) + poreuomai (to travel, transport, journey, die; emphasizes the personal significance in reaching the destination); from poros (passageway, ford)}. This is journeying or travel.
XVII “sitting” = kathezomai. 7x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base).  This is to sit down or be sitting.
XVIII Literally “hour was about six” = hora + eimi + hos + hektos. Hora is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from. Eimi is the same as “was” in v6. See note XIII above. Hektos is 14x in NT. From hex (six). This is sixth.

A Samaritan womanXIX came to drawXX water,XXI and Jesus saidXXII to her, “Give me a drink.”XXIII 

Notes on verse 7

XIX “woman” = gune. Perhaps from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
XX “draw” = antleo. 4x in NT. – all in the wedding at Cana (John 2) & the Samaritan woman at the well (John 4). From antlos (ship’s hold; waste water in a ship’s hold). This is to bail out, draw water from a well with a bucket or pitcher.
XXI “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.
XXII “said” = lego. Same as “called” in v5. See note IV above.
XXIII “drink” = pino. This is to drink, literally or figuratively.

(His disciplesXXIV had goneXXV to the city to buyXXVI food.)XXVII 

Notes on verse 8

XXIV “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
XXV “gone” = aperchomai. Related to “came” in v5. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note I above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
XXVI “buy” = agorazo. From agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare); from ageiro (to gather). This is to go and buy something at market with a focus on goods being transferred. It can also mean to purchase or redeem.
XXVII “food” = trophe. 16x in NT. Perhaps from trepho (to bring up, rear, nourish, fatten, nurse; properly, to enlarge through proper nourishment). This is nourishment in a literal or figurative sense. By implication, it can be ration or wages.

The SamaritanXXVIII woman said to him, “How is it that you, a Jew,XXIX askXXX a drink of me, a woman of Samaria?” (Jews do not share things in commonXXXI with Samaritans.)XXXII 

Notes on verse 9

XXVIII “Samaritan” = Samaritis. Related to “Samaritan” in v5. 2x in NT. From Samarites (Samaritan); from Samareia (see note II above). This is Samaritan or a Samaritan woman.
XXIX “Jew” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
XXX “ask” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.
XXXI “share things in common” = sugchraomai. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with; closely identified) + chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request). This is dealing with or using something jointly. Figuratively, it can refer to associating with someone or something.
XXXII “Samaritans” = Samarites. Related to “Samaritan” in v5 & “Samaritan” in v9. See note XXVIII above.

10 Jesus answered her, “If you knewXXXIII the giftXXXIV of GodXXXV and who it is that is saying to you, ‘Give me a drink,’ you would have asked him, and he would have given you livingXXXVI water.” 

Notes on verse 10

XXXIII “knew” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
XXXIV “gift” = dorea. Related to “given” in v5. 11x in NT. From doron (gift, offering, sacrifice; emphasizes that the gift is given freely, voluntarily); from didomi (see note IX above). This is a free gift given voluntarily and not received by merit or entitlement. It emphasizes the benevolence of the giver.
XXXV “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XXXVI “living” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

11 The woman said to him, “Sir,XXXVII you haveXXXVIII no bucket,XXXIX and the wellXL is deep.XLI Where do you getXLII that living water? 

Notes on verse 11

XXXVII “sir” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XXXVIII “have” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
XXXIX “bucket” = antlema. Related to “draw” in v7. 1x in NT. From antleo (see note XX above). This is a vessel one uses to draw water – a bucket.
XL “well” = phrear. 7x in NT. This is a well, pit, or cistern. Figuratively it is used to refer to the pit in Revelation 9.
XLI “deep” = bathus. 4x in NT. Perhaps rom the same root as basis (step, foot); from baino (to walk, go). This is deep or profound in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean very early.
XLII “get” = echo. Same as “have” in v11. See note XXXVIII above.

12 Are you greaterXLIII than our ancestorXLIV Jacob, who gave us the wellXLV and with his sons and his flocksXLVI drank from it?” 

Notes on verse 12

XLIII “greater” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
XLIV “ancestor” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
XLV “well” = phrear. Same as “well” in v11. See note XL above.
XLVI “flocks” = thremma. Related to “food” in v8. 1x in NT. From trepho (see note XXVII above). This is literally a nursling, but used for cattle or flocks.

13 Jesus said to her, “EveryoneXLVII who drinks of this water will be thirstyXLVIII again, 14 but those who drink of the water that I will give them will never be thirsty.XLIX The water that I will give will becomeL in them

Notes on verses 13-14a

XLVII “everyone” = pas. This is all or every.
XLVIII “be thirsty” = dipsao. 16x in NT. From dipsa (thirst); from dipsos (thirst). This is thirst in a literal or figurative sense. Can also mean keenly desire.
XLIX {untranslated} = eis + ho + aion. Literally, “to the age.” Aion is from the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.
L “become” = ginomai. Related to “woman” in v7. See note XIX above.

a springLI of water gushing upLII to eternalLIII life.”LIV 

15 The woman said to him, “Sir, give me this water, so that I may never be thirsty or have to keep comingLV here to draw water.”

Notes on verses 14b-15

LI “spring” = pege. Same as “well” in v6. See note XII above.
LII “gushing up” = hallomai. 3x in NT. This is to leap or bubble up.
LIII “eternal” = aionios. Related to {untranslated} in v14. From aion (see note XLIX above). This is age-long, forever, everlasting. Properly, that which lasts for an age. This is where eon comes from.
LIV “life” = zoe. Related to “living” in v10. From zao (see note XXXVI above). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
LV “coming” = dierchomai. Related to “came” in v5 & “gone” in v8. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (see note I above). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.

16 Jesus said to her, “Go,LVI callLVII your husband,LVIII and comeLIX back.” 

Notes on verse 16

LVI “go” = hupago. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (lead, bring, guide, spend, drive, carry). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
LVII “call” = phoneo. From phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.
LVIII “husband” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
LIX “come” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note I above.

17 The woman answered him, “I have no husband.”

Jesus said to her, “You are rightLX in saying, ‘I have no husband,’ 18 for you have had fiveLXI husbands, and the one you have now is not your husband. What you have saidLXII is true!”LXIII 

Notes on verses 17-18

LX “right” = kalos. From kalos (good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy; external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues; a different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good). This is nobly, rightly, well-perceived, seen as appealing, morally pleasing, honorably.
LXI “five” = pente. This is five. It may be symbolically associated with the Temple or redemption.
LXII “said” = ereo. Perhaps from rheo (to say, speak of, command). This is to say, tell, speak, mean, command.
LXIII “true” = alethes. From a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic.

19 The woman said to him, “Sir, I seeLXIV that you are a prophet.LXV 20 Our ancestors worshipedLXVI

Notes on verses 19-20a

LXIV “see” = theoreo. From theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
LXV “prophet” = prophetes. Related to “call” in v16. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note LVII above). This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
LXVI “worshiped” = proskuneo. From pros (advantageous for, at, to, toward, with) + kuneo (to kiss); {may be related to kuno (dog)}. This is to do reverence, kneel, to prostrate oneself in homage, to worship.

on this mountain,LXVII but you say that the placeLXVIII where people mustLXIX worship is in Jerusalem.”LXX 

Notes on verse 20b

LXVII “mountain” = oros. Perhaps from oro (to rise); perhaps akin to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is mountain or hill.
LXVIII “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
LXIX “must” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
LXX “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

21 Jesus said to her, “Woman, believeLXXI me, the hourLXXII is comingLXXIII when you will worship the FatherLXXIV neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem. 

Notes on verse 21

LXXI “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
LXXII “hour” = hora. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note XVIII above.
LXXIII “coming” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note I above.
LXXIV “Father” = pater. Same as “ancestor” in v12. See note XLIV above.

22 You worship what you do not know; we worship what we know, for salvationLXXV is from the Jews. 23 But the hour is comingLXXVI and is now here when the trueLXXVII worshipersLXXVIII

Notes on verses 22-23a

LXXV “salvation” = soteria. From soter (a savior, deliverer); from sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue; taking someone from danger to safety; delivering or protecting literally or figuratively); from sos (safe, rescued, well). This is deliverance, salvation, preservation, welfare, prosperity, safety.
LXXVI “coming” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note I above.
LXXVII “true” = alethinos. Related to “true” in v18. From alethes (see note LXIII above). This is literally made of truth – that which is true or real, authentic. Something that is true from its source and has integrity.
LXXVIII “worshipers” = proskunetes. Related to “worshiped” in v20. 1x in NT. From proskuneo (see note LXVI above). This is worshiper or adorer.

will worship the Father in spiritLXXIX and truth,LXXX for the Father seeksLXXXI such as these to worship him. 24 God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth.” 

Notes on verses 23b-24

LXXIX “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
LXXX “truth” = aletheia. Related to “true” in v18 & “true” in v23. From alethes (see note LXIII above). Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.
LXXXI “seeks” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.

25 The woman said to him, “I know that MessiahLXXXII is coming”LXXXIII (who is calledLXXXIV Christ).LXXXV

Notes on verse 25a

LXXXII “Messiah” = Messias. 2x in NT– both in John. From Hebrew mashiach (the anointed or consecrated one; a king, priest, or saint); from mashach (to smear or anoint; to run oil on, to consecrate).  This is Messiah or Anointed One.
LXXXIII “coming” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note I above.
LXXXIV “called” = lego. Same as “called” in v5. See note IV above.
LXXXV “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

“When he comes,LXXXVI he will proclaimLXXXVII all thingsLXXXVIII to us.” 

Notes on verse 25b

LXXXVI “comes” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note I above.
LXXXVII “proclaim” = anaggello. Related to “go” in v16. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, by, anew) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (angel, messenger – supernatural or human envoy of God); probably from ago (see note LVI above)}. This is returning with word, reporting, declaring, announcing. It is to tell something all the way, which is to say to tell it clearly.
LXXXVIII “all things” = hapas. Related to “everyone” in v13. From hama (at once, together with) + pas (see note XLVII above) OR from a (with) + pas (see above). This is all; every part working together as a unit.

26 Jesus said to her, “I am he, the one who is speakingLXXXIX to you.”

27 Just then his disciples came.XC They were astonishedXCI that he was speaking with a woman, butXCII no one said, “What do you want?”XCIII or, “Why are you speaking with her?” 

Notes on verses 26-27

LXXXIX “speaking” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.
XC “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note I above.
XCI “astonished” = thaumazo. Related to “see” in v19. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (see note LXIV above). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
XCII “but” = mentoi. 8x in NT. From men (truly, indeed, even, in fact; often, not translated, but used for affirmation) + toi (therefore). This is yet, however, indeed.
XCIII “want” = zeteo. Same as “seeks” in v23. See note LXXXI above.

28 Then the woman leftXCIV her water jarXCV and went backXCVI to the city. She said to the people,XCVII 

Notes on verse 28

XCIV “left” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
XCV “water jar” = hudria. Related to “water” in v7. 3x in NT. From hudor (see note XXI above). This is a large vessel for carrying enough water for a family. So, a pot, jar, or pitcher.
XCVI “went back” = aperchomai. Same as “gone” in v8. See note XXV above.
XCVII “people” = anthropos. Related to “husband” in v16. Probably from aner (see note LVIII above) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.

29 “ComeXCVIII and seeXCIX a manC who told me everythingCI I have ever done!CII

Notes on verse 29a

XCVIII “come” = deute. 12x in NT. From deuro (come here, hither, hence, now, until now). This is come, follow – as an exclamatory mood.
XCIX “see” = horao. Related to “people” in v28. See note XCVII above.
C “man” = anthropos. Same as “people” in v28. See note XCVII above.
CI “everything” = pas. Same as “everyone” in v13. See note XLVII above.
CII “done” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.

He cannotCIII be the Messiah,CIV can he?” 30 They leftCV the city and were on their wayCVI to him.

Notes on verses 29b-30

CIII “cannot” = meti. 17x in NT. From me (not, neither, never; rules out conditional statements and their implications) + tis (someone, anyone, anything). This is asking a question when you expect the answer to be no. It is if not, surely no. But it also keeps a small possibility floating – but could it be?
CIV “Messiah” = Christos. Same as “Christ” in v25. See note LXXXV above.
CV “left” = exerchomai. Related to “came” in v5 & “gone” in v8 & “coming” in v15. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note I above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
CVI “were on…way” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note I above.

31 Meanwhile the disciples were urgingCVII him, “Rabbi,CVIII eatCIX something.” 

32 But he said to them, “I have foodCX to eat that you do not know about.” 

33 So the disciples said to one another, “Surely no one has broughtCXI him something to eat?” 

Notes on verses 31-33

CVII “urging” = erotao. Related to “said” in v18. From eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (see note LXII above). This is asking a question or making an earnest request. It is used between someone with whom the asker is close in some sense. So, they anticipate special consideration for their request.
CVIII “Rabbi” = Rhabbi. 15x in NT– 8x in the Gospel of John. From Hebrew rab (chief); from rabab (to be many, increase, multiply). This is a title of respect for a teacher-scholar. Literally, it means great one or honorable sir. It can also be understood as my master or my teacher.
CIX “eat” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.
CX “food” = brosis. 11x in NT. From bibrosko (to eat). This is food and the act of eating. It is eating in a literal or figurative sense.
CXI “brought” = phero. This is to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly. It is to carry in a literal or figurative sense.

34 Jesus said to them, “My foodCXII is to do the willCXIII of him who sentCXIV me and to completeCXV his work.CXVI 

Notes on verse 34

CXII “food” = broma. Related to “food” in v32. 17x in NT. From bibrosko (see note CX above). This is any kind of food in a literal or figurative sense.
CXIII “will” = thelema. From thelo (to desire, wise, will, intend). This is the act of will, choice, purpose, or decree.
CXIV “sent” = pempo. This is to send, put forth, or dispatch. This often refers to a temporary errand. It is sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from. By contrast, another Greek word, hiemi, emphasizes the destination and yet another word, stello, focuses on the motion that goes with the sending.
CXV “complete” = teleioo. From teleios (going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one; reaching an end and so being complete or “perfect”; also full grown or mature); from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax).  This is finish, accomplish, bring to an end, complete, reach a goal, finish a race, to consummate. It refers to completing stages or phases to get to an ultimate conclusion. It can also mean consecrate or fulfill.
CXVI “work” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.

35 Do you not say, ‘Four monthsCXVII more, then comesCXVIII the harvest’?CXIX

Notes on verse 35a

CXVII “four months” = tetramenos. 1x in NT. From tessares (four; figuratively, total coverage) + men (a month). This is a span of four months.
CXVIII “comes” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note I above.
CXIX “harvest” = therismos. 13x in NT. From therizo (to reap, gather, harvest); from theros (summer; the heat, which implies summer); from thero (to heat). This is harvesting or reaping. By implication, it is the crop that was harvested.

ButCXX I tell you, look around you,CXXI and seeCXXII how the fieldsCXXIII are ripeCXXIV for harvesting. 

Notes on verse 35b

CXX {untranslated} = idou. Related to “knew” in v10. From eido (see note XXXIII above). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CXXI “look around you” = epairo + ho + ophthalmos. Literally, “lift up your eyes.” Epairo is related to “mountain” in v20. 19x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + airo (see note LXVII above). This is to lift up or raise in a literal or figurative sense. Figuratively, it could mean to exalt oneself. Ophthalmos is from optanomai (see note XCVII above). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.
CXXII “see” = theaomai. Related to “see” in v19 & “astonished” in v27. See note LXIV above.
CXXIII “fields” = chora. Related to “plot of ground” in v5. See note VII above.
CXXIV “ripe” = leukos. Related to luke (light). This is bright, white, or brilliant.

36 The reaperCXXV is already receivingCXXVI wagesCXXVII

Notes on verse 36a

CXXV “reaper” = therizo. Related to “harvest” in v35. See note CXIX above.
CXXVI “receiving” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
CXXVII “wages” = misthos. This is wages, pay, or salary. It can also be reward, recompense, or punishment. It is pay for services rendered in a literal or figurative way, either good or bad.

and is gatheringCXXVIII fruitCXXIX for eternal life, so that sowerCXXX and reaper may rejoiceCXXXI together. 

Notes on verse 36b

CXXVIII “gathering” = sunago. Related to “go” in v16 & perhaps “proclaim” in v25. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note LVI above). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
CXXIX “fruit” = karpos. Perhaps from harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (to choose, take). This is a fruit or vegetable, through sometimes it refers to an animal. Figuratively, it is deeds, results, profits, or gain.
CXXX “sower” = speiro. Probably from spao (to pull or draw like one draws a sword). This is sowing a seed or scattering. It is sowing in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXI “rejoice” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).

37 For here the sayingCXXXII holdsCXXXIII true,CXXXIV ‘OneCXXXV sows and anotherCXXXVI reaps.’ 

Notes on verse 37

CXXXII “saying” = logos. Related to “called” in v5. From lego (see note IV above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
CXXXIII “holds” = eimi. Same as “was” in v6. See note XIII above.
CXXXIV “true” = alethinos. Same as “true” in v23. See note LXXVII above.
CXXXV “one” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
CXXXVI “another” = allos. Same as “one” in v37. See note CXXXV above.

38 I sentCXXXVII you to reap that for which you did not labor.CXXXVIII OthersCXXXIX have labored, and you have enteredCXL into their labor.”CXLI

Notes on verse 38

CXXXVII “sent” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
CXXXVIII “labor” = kopiao. Same as “tired out” in v6. See note XV above.
CXXXIX “others” = allos. Same as “one” in v37. See note CXXXV above.
CXL “entered” = eiserchomai. Related to “came” in v5 & “gone” in v8 & “coming” in v15 & “left” in v30. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note I above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLI “labor” = kopos. Related to “tired out” in v6. 18x in NT. See note XV above.

39 ManyCXLII Samaritans from that city believed in him because of the woman’s testimony,CXLIII “He told me everything I have ever done.” 40 So when the Samaritans cameCXLIV to him, they askedCXLV him

Notes on verses 39-40a

CXLII “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
CXLIII “woman’s testimony” = ho + logos + ho + gune + martureo. Literally, “the word of the woman testifying.” Logos is the same as “saying” in v37. See note CXXXII above. Gune is same as “woman” in v7. See note XIX above. Martureo is from martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLIV “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note I above.
CXLV “asked” = erotao. Same as “urging” in v31. See note CVII above.

to stayCXLVI with them, and he stayed there twoCXLVII days.CXLVIII 41 And many moreCXLIX believed because of his word.CL 

Notes on verses 40b-41

CXLVI “stay” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.
CXLVII “two” = duo. This is two or both.
CXLVIII “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
CXLIX “more” = pleion. Related to “many” in v39. From polus (see note CXLII above). This is many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent.
CL “word” = logos. Same as “saying” in v37. See note CXXXII above.

42 They said to the woman, “It is no longer because of what you saidCLI that we believe, for we have heardCLII for ourselves, and we know that this is trulyCLIII the SaviorCLIV of the world.”CLV

Notes on verse 42

CLI “said” = lalia. Related to “speaking” in v26. 4x in NT. From laleo (see note LXXXIX above). This is talk, saying, the way one talks, a dialect.
CLII “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
CLIII “truly” = alethos. Related to “true” in v18 & “true” in v23 & “truth” in v23. 18x in NT. From alethes (see note LXIII above). This is truly, really, surely, truthfully, indeed. Properly, this is saying “in accordance with fact…” – what one is about to say can be proven and is true to reality.
CLIV “Savior” = soter. Related to “salvation” in v22. See note LXXV above.
CLV “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.

Image credit: “Water Feature at the Maraxel Kish Resort in Kish, Azerbaijan” by Matti Blume, 2019.

You May Also Like

Leave a Reply