John 13

John 13


Now before the festivalI of the Passover,II JesusIII knewIV

Notes on verse 1a

I “festival” = heorte. This is a holiday or feast.
II “Passover” = Pascha. From Aramaic corresponding to Hebrew pesach (Passover or the offering for Passover); from pasach (to stop, pass over, skit over, to spare). This is Passover – used for the feast, the lamb of sacrifice, the day, and the festival itself. This is where the term “paschal” comes from as in the “paschal lamb.”
III “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
IV “knew” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.

that his hourV had comeVI to departVII from this worldVIII

Notes on verse 1b

V “hour” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
VI “come” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
VII “depart” = metabaino. 12x in NT. From meta (with, among, behind, beyond) + baino (to walk, to go). This is to pass over, leave, remove, change place.
VIII “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.

and go to the Father.IX Having lovedX his ownXI who were in the world, he loved them to the end.XII 

Notes on verse 1c

IX “Father” = Pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
X “loved” = agapao. Perhaps from agan (much). This is love, longing for, taking pleasure in. It is divine love or human love that echoes divine love.
XI “his own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
XII “end” = telos. From tel– (to reach a goal or aim); This is an end, aim, purpose, completion, goal, consummation, or tax. It is completing a stage of something and everything that results from that completion. It can be literal or figurative.

The devilXIII had already decidedXIV that JudasXV

Notes on verse 2a

XIII “devil” = diabolos. From diaballo (laying a charge against someone, generally with hostility; literally, to thrust through or cast back and forth– used for slandering, accusing, or gossiping; whether or not the sentiment is true, it is spread with negative intention); {from dia (through, across, because of, thoroughly) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a properly a slanderer or someone who accuses falsely – criticizing unfairly with the intent to cause harm or damage character. This can also mean backbiter or malicious gossip. Also, the Slanderer, the Devil.
XIV “decided” = ballo + eis + ho + kardia. Literally, “put into the heart.” Ballo is related to “devil” in v2. See note XIII above. Kardia is literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
XV “Judas” = Ioudas. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.

son of SimonXVI IscariotXVII would betrayXVIII Jesus.

Notes on verse 2b

XVI “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
XVII “Iscariot” = Iskariotes. 11x in NT. From Hebrew probably ish (man, husband); {perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be frail, feeble)} + qirya (city); {Aramaic corresponding to qiryah (city, building); from qarah (to happen, meet, bring about)}. Iscariot means person from Kerioth.
XVIII “betray” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.

And duringXIX supperXX Jesus, knowing that the Father had givenXXI all thingsXXII

Notes on verses 2c-3a

XIX “during” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
XX “supper” = deipnon. 16x in NT. From the same as dapane (cost or expense); from dapto (to devour). This is a dinner or a feast – a meal in the afternoon or, more commonly, the evening.
XXI “given” = didomi. Related to “betray” in v2. See note XVIII above.
XXII “all things” = pas. This is all or every.

into his handsXXIII and that he had comeXXIV from GodXXV and was goingXXVI to God, 

Notes on verse 3b

XXIII “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
XXIV “come” = exerchomai. Related to “come” in v1. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note VI above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
XXV “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XXVI “going” = hupago. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (lead, bring, guide, spend, drive, carry). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.

got upXXVII from supper, took offXXVIII his outer robe,XXIX

Notes on verse 4a

XXVII “got up” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
XXVIII “took off” = tithemi. This is to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense. Properly, it is placing something in a passive or horizontal position.
XXIX “outer robe” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.

andXXX tied a towelXXXI aroundXXXII himself. 

Notes on verse 4b

XXX {untranslated} = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
XXXI “towel” = lention. 2x in NT– both in this story. From Latin linteum (linen cloth; can also be a sail or awning); from linteus (linen). This is a linen cloth broadly, but can also be a towel or apron.
XXXII “tied…around” = diazonnumi. 3x in NT. From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + zonnumi (to gird, prepare for an active task; to gird up your loins so that you are able to move fast); {perhaps from zone (belt, waistband, purse); probably related to zugos (yoke, set of scales; what unites people in shared work; servitude or obligation); from zeugnumi (to yoke)}. This is to tie or gird around.

Then he pouredXXXIII waterXXXIV into a basinXXXV and beganXXXVI to washXXXVII

Notes on verse 5a

XXXIII “poured” = ballo. Same as “decided” in v2. See note XIV above.
XXXIV “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.
XXXV “basin” = nipter. 1x in NT. From nipto (to wash, particularly hands, feet, or face; can also mean ritual cleansing, ablution); from nizo (to cleanse). This is a basin to assist with washing hands or feet.
XXXVI “began” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
XXXVII “wash” = nipto. Related to “basin” in v5. 17x in NT. See note XXXV above.

the disciples’XXXVIII feetXXXIX and to wipeXL them with the towel that wasXLI tied around him. 

Notes on verse 5b

XXXVIII “disciples’” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
XXXIX “feet” = pous. This is foot in a literal or figurative sense.
XL “wipe” = ekmasso. 5x in NT– 4x related to Jesus being anointed by the woman & 1x of Jesus washing the disciples’ feet. From ek (from, from out of) + massaomai (to chew, gnaw); {from masso (to knead, squeeze)}. This is to knead something out, which figuratively indicates wiping something off or wiping it dry.
XLI “was” = eimi. This is to be, exist.

He cameXLII to Simon Peter,XLIII who saidXLIV to him, “Lord,XLV are you going to wash my feet?” 

Notes on verse 6

XLII “came” = erchomai. Same as “come” in v1. See note VI above.
XLIII “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
XLIV “said” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XLV “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

Jesus answered, “You doXLVI not know now what I am doing, but later you will understand.”XLVII 

Peter said to him, “You will never wash my feet.”XLVIII

Jesus answered, “Unless I wash you, you haveXLIX no shareL with me.” 

Simon Peter said to him, “Lord, not my feet onlyLI but also my hands and my head!”LII 

Notes on verses 7-9

XLVI “do” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XLVII “understand” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
XLVIII {untranslated} = eis + ho + aion. Literally, “to the age.” Aion is from the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.
XLIX “have” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
L “share” = meros. From meiromai (to get your allotment or portion). This is a part, a share, or a portion.
LI “only” = monon. From monos (alone, single, remaining, mere, desolate); from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is merely, only, simply, sole. It can imply alone.
LII “head” = kephale. This is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from.

10 Jesus said to him, “One who has bathedLIII does not needLIV to wash, except for the feet, but is entirelyLV clean.LVI And you are clean, though not allLVII of you.” 11 For he knew who was to betray him; for this reason he said, “Not all of you are clean.”

Notes on verses 10-11

LIII “bathed” = louo. 5x in NT. This is bathing and washing. It can be literal or ritual cleansing, but refers particularly to the whole body.
LIV “need” = echo + chreia. Echo is the same as “have” in v8. See note XLIX above. Chreia is from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary). This is the is task, business, or affair. It can also be need, want, or destitution.
LV “entirely” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
LVI “clean” = katharos. This is clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying.
LVII “all” = pas. Same as “all things” in v3. See note XXII above.

12 After he had washed their feet, had put onLVIII his robe, and had reclinedLIX again, he said to them, “Do you knowLX what I have done to you? 

Notes on verse 12

LVIII “put on” = lambano. Same as {untranslated} in v4. See note XXX above.
LIX “reclined” = anapipto.12x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + pipto (to fall literally or figuratively). This is to fall back, recline, lie down. One reclined at the dinner table.
LX “know” = ginosko. Same as “understand” in v7. See note XLVII above.

13 You callLXI me TeacherLXII and Lord, and you are right,LXIII for that is what I am. 

Notes on verse 13

LXI “call” = phoneo. From phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.
LXII “Teacher” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
LXIII “are right” = kalos + lego. Literally, “rightly you say.” Kalos is from kalos (good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy; external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues; a different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good). This is nobly, rightly, well-perceived, seen as appealing, morally pleasing, honorably. Lego is the same as “said” in v6. See note XLIV above.

14 So if I, your Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet, you also oughtLXIV to wash one another’s feet. 15 For I have setLXV you an example,LXVI that you also should do as I have done to you. 

Notes on verses 14-15

LXIV “ought” = opheilo. Perhaps from the base of ophelos (advantage, gain, profit); from ophello (heaped together, accumulate, increase). This is to be indebted morally or legally – having an obligation one must meet. This term came from the legal world, but was then adopted in reference to morality. In the New Testament it is used for humanity’s ethical responsibility.
LXV “set” = didomi. Same as “given” in v3. See note XXI above.
LXVI “example” = hupodeigma. 6x in NT. From hupodeiknumi (to teach, indicate, suggest, prove, exhibit, to show secretly, admonish); {from hupo (by, under, about, under someone’s authority) + deiknumi (to show, demonstrate, teach, make known)}. This is a copy or example, either to imitate or as a cautionary tale. It can be used of a specimen or sketch.

16 Very truly,LXVII I tellLXVIII you, slavesLXIX

Notes on verse 16a

LXVII “very truly” = amen + amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
LXVIII “tell” = lego. Same as “said” in v6. See note LXIV above.
LXIX “slaves” = doulos. Perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).

are not greater thanLXX their master,LXXI nor are messengersLXXII greater than the one who sentLXXIII them. 

Notes on verse 16b

LXX “greater than” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
LXXI “master” = kurios. Same as “Lord” in v6. See note XLV above.
LXXII “messengers” = apostolos. From apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {probably from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm)}}. This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.
LXXIII “sent” = pempo. This is to send, put forth, or dispatch. This often refers to a temporary errand. It is sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from. By contrast, another Greek word, hiemi, emphasizes the destination and yet another word, stello, focuses on the motion that goes with the sending.

17 If you knowLXXIV these things, you are blessedLXXV if you do them. 18 I am not speakingLXXVI of all of you; I knowLXXVII whom I have chosen.LXXVIII

Notes on verses 17-18a

LXXIV “know” = eido. Same as “knew” in v1. See note IV above.
LXXV “blessed” = makarios. From makar (happy); from mak– (to become long or large). This is blessed, happy, fortunate. It is when God’s grace/abundance is extended.
LXXVI “speaking” = lego. Same as “said” in v6. See note LXIV above.
LXXVII “know” = eido. Same as “knew” in v1. See note IV above.
LXXVIII “chosen” = eklego. Related to “said” in v6. From ek (from, from out of) + lego (see note XLIV above). This is to choose, select.

But it is to fulfillLXXIX the scripture,LXXX

‘The one who ateLXXXI my breadLXXXII has liftedLXXXIII his heelLXXXIV against me.’ 

Notes on verse 18b

LXXIX “fulfill” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. This is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
LXXX “scripture” = graphe. From grapho (to write). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.
LXXXI “ate” = trogo. 6x in NT. This is gnaw, crunch, eat, eat a meal.
LXXXII “bread” = artos. Perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.
LXXXIII “lifted” = epairo. Related to “bread” in v18. 19x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + airo (see note LXXXII above). This is to lift up or raise in a literal or figurative sense. Figuratively, it could mean to exalt oneself.
LXXXIV “heel” = pterna. 1x in NT. This is heel in a literal or figurative sense.

19 I tell you this now, before it occurs,LXXXV so that when it does occur you may believeLXXXVI that I am he. 20 Very truly, I tell you, whoever receivesLXXXVII one whom I send receives me, and whoever receives me receives him who sent me.”

Notes on verses 19-20

LXXXV “occurs” = ginomai. Same as “during” in v2. See note XIX above.
LXXXVI “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
LXXXVII “receives” = lambano. Same as {untranslated} in v4. See note XXX above.

21 After saying this Jesus was troubledLXXXVIII in spiritLXXXIX and declared,XC “Very truly, I tell you, oneXCI of you will betray me.” 

Notes on verse 21

LXXXVIII “troubled” = tarasso. 18x in NT. This is trouble, agitate, stir up. It is motion back and forth, creating inner turmoil or confusion, roiling water.
LXXXIX “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
XC “declared” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.
XCI “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.

22 The disciples lookedXCII at one another, uncertainXCIII of whom he was speaking. 23 One of his disciples—the one whom Jesus loved—was recliningXCIV close to his heart;XCV 

Notes on verses 22-23

XCII “looked” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
XCIII “uncertain” = aporeo. 6x in NT. From a (not) + poros (way, resource, passageway); {related to poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, or die; transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination)}. This is feeling like you have no way out, being perplexed or doubting.
XCIV “reclining” = anakeimai. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + keimai (to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined; to lie down literally or figuratively). This is to recline, particularly as one does for dinner. It can also be reclining as a corpse.
XCV “close to his heart” = en + ho + kolpos + ho + Iesous. Literally, “in Jesus’s breast.” Kolpos is 6x in NT. It is bosom (as in the bosom of Abraham from Like 16:22-23). It is also chest, where their garments would fold over. Reclining in this position connoted intimacy and union. Iesous is the same as “Jesus” in v1. See note III above.

24 Simon Peter therefore motionedXCVI to him to askXCVII Jesus of whom he was speaking. 25 So while reclining next toXCVIII Jesus, he askedXCIX him, “Lord, who is it?” 

Notes on verses 24-25

XCVI “motioned” = neuo. 2x in NT. This is to motion towards someone, to nod or make a gesture.
XCVII “ask” = punthanomai. 12x in NT. This is to ask in order to learn. It is not to ask a favor (erotao in Greek), to demand something felt to be owed (aiteo), to search for a hidden thing (zeteo), or to ask for urgent help (deomai). This is to figure something out through questions.
XCVIII “next to” = epi + ho + stethos. Literally, “on the chest of.” Stethos is related to “messengers” in v16. 5x in NT. Perhaps from histemi (see note LXXII above). This is the breast or chest.
XCIX “asked” = lego. Same as “said” in v6. See note LXIV above.

26 Jesus answered, “It is the one to whom I give this piece of breadC when I have dippedCI it in the dish.” So when he had dipped the piece of bread, heCII gave it to Judas son of Simon Iscariot. 

27 After he received the piece of bread, SatanCIII enteredCIV into him. Jesus said to him, “Do quicklyCV what you are going to do.” 

Notes on verses 26-27

C “piece of bread” = psomion. 4x in NT. From psomos (fragment, morsel) or from psocho (to rub as rubbing kernels from their husks or rub to pieces); from psallo (to twang, play, sing psalms, pluck a stringed instrument such as a harp); {from psao (to rub).. This is a crumb, morsel, or mouthful.
CI “dipped” = bapto. 4x in NT. This is to dip, dye, or submerge in liquid. It is the root of the word “baptism.”
CII {untranslated} = lambano. Same as {untranslated} in v4. See note XXX above.
CIII “Satan” = Satanas. From Hebrew satan (adversary, Satan); from satan (to be an adversary, attack, accuse, resist). This is Satan, the adversary, or an adversary.
CIV “entered” = eiserchomai. Related to “come” in v1 & “came” in v3. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note VI above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
CV “quickly” = tachion. 4x in NT. From tachus (quickly, promptly; without unreasonable delay). This is more rapidly, more swiftly, without unnecessary delay.

28 Now no oneCVI knewCVII why he said this to him. 29 Some thoughtCVIII that, because Judas had the common purse,CIX

Notes on verses 28-29a

CVI {untranslated} = ho + anakeimai. Literally, “of those reclining.” Anakeimai is the same as “reclining” in v23. See note XCIV above.
CVII “knew” = ginosko. Same as “understand” in v7. See note XLVII above.
CVIII “thought” = dokeo. From dokos (opinion). This is to have an opinion, seem, appear, think, suppose. It deals with a personal judgment. This is the root of the word “doxology.”
CIX “common purse” = glossokomon. Related to “world” in v1. 2x in NT. From glossa (tongue, language – a nation identified by the language they share; speaking) + the same as komizo (see note VIII above). This is bag, purse, chest. It could refer to a case for mouthpieces, a casket, or a money bag.

Jesus was telling him, “BuyCX what we need for the festival,” or that he should give something to the poor.CXI 

30 So, after receiving the piece of bread, he immediatelyCXII went out.CXIII And it was night.CXIV

Notes on verses 29b-30

CX “buy” = agorazo. From agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare); from ageiro (to gather). This is to go and buy something at market with a focus on goods being transferred. It can also mean to purchase or redeem.
CXI “poor” = ptochos. From ptosso (to crouch or cower as a beggar does). This is poor or destitute – someone who is extremely poor and bowed down because of a long struggle under poverty. Properly, it means bent over so figuratively it is someone who is deeply destitute and lacking tangible resources. This is a beggar – as extremely opposite a wealthy person as possible.
CXII “immediately” = eutheos. Related to “took off” in v4. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + tithemi (see note XXVIII above)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
CXIII “went out” = exerchomai. Same as “come” in v3. See note XXIV above.
CXIV “night” = nux. This is night or nighttime in a literal or figurative sense.

31 When he had gone out, Jesus said, “Now the SonCXV of ManCXVI has been glorified,CXVII and God has been glorified in him. 

Notes on verse 31

CXV “Son” = Huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
CXVI “Man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
CXVII “glorified” = doxazo. Related to “thought” in v29. From doxa (glory, opinion, praise, honor, renown; particularly used as a quality of God or manifestation of God – splendor); from dokeo (see note CVIII above). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.

32 If God has been glorified in him, God will also glorify him in himself and will glorify him at once.CXVIII 33 Little children,CXIX I am with you only a little longer.CXX You will look forCXXI me,

Notes on verses 32-33a

CXVIII “at once” = eutheos. Same as “immediately” in v30. See note CXII above.
CXIX “little children” = teknion. 8x in NT– 1x in John and 7x in 1 John. From teknon (child, descendant, or inhabitant); from tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is the diminutive of teknon, so little child. Figuratively, it refers to someone who is loved, endeared, a darling. It is also used for Christian converts.
CXX “little longer” = mikros. This is small in reference to a size or the number of something, least or less. Figuratively, it can refer to little dignity.
CXXI “look for” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.

and as I said to the JewsCXXII so now I say to you, ‘Where I am going,CXXIII you cannotCXXIV come.’CXXV 

Notes on verse 33b

CXXII “Jews” = Ioudaios. Related to “Judas” in v2. From Ioudas (see note XV above). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
CXXIII “going” = hupago. Same as “going” in v3. See note XXVI above.
CXXIV “cannot” = ou + dunamai. Dunamai is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
CXXV “come” = erchomai. Same as “come” in v1. See note VI above.

34 I give you a newCXXVI commandment,CXXVII that you love one another. Just as I have loved you, you also should love one another. 35 By this everyoneCXXVIII will knowCXXIX that you are my disciples, if you have loveCXXX for one another.”

Notes on verses 34-35

CXXVI “new” = kainos. This is not new as in new versus old. This is new in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh.
CXXVII “commandment” = entole. Related to “end” in v1. From entellomai (to charge, command, give orders or instructions) {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + tellomai (to accomplish); {from telos (see note XII above)}}. This is an order, command, ordinance, or law. It focuses on the purpose of the command and its end result.
CXXVIII “everyone” = pas. Same as “all things” in v3. See note XXII above.
CXXIX “know” = ginosko. Same as “understand” in v7. See note XLVII above.
CXXX “love” = agape. Related to “loved” in v1. From agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is love, goodwill, benevolence. It is God’s divine love or human love that mirrors God’s love.

36 Simon Peter said to him, “Lord, where are you going?”CXXXI

Jesus answered, “Where I am going,CXXXII you cannot followCXXXIII me now, but you will follow afterward.”CXXXIV 

Notes on verse 36

CXXXI “going” = hupago. Same as “going” in v3. See note XXVI above.
CXXXII “going” = hupago. Same as “going” in v3. See note XXVI above.
CXXXIII “follow” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
CXXXIV “afterward” = husteron. 11x in NT. From husteros (last, later); from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to). This is afterwards, eventually, lastly.

37 Peter said to him, “Lord, why can I not follow you now? I will lay downCXXXV my lifeCXXXVI for you.” 

38 Jesus answered, “Will you lay down your life for me? Very truly, I tell you, before the cockCXXXVII crows,CXXXVIII you will have deniedCXXXIX me three times.CXL

Notes on verses 37-38

CXXXV “lay down” = tithemi. Same as “took off” in v4. See note XXVIII above.
CXXXVI “life” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
CXXXVII “cock” = alektor. 12x in NT. Perhaps from aleko (to ward off). This is a cock or rooster.
CXXXVIII “crows” = phoneo. Same as “call” in v13. See note LXI above.
CXXXIX “denied” = arneomai. From a (not) + rheo (say, speak of). This is to deny, disown, refuse, repudiate someone or a previously held belief, to contradict.
CXL “three times” = tris. 12x in NT. From treis (three). This is three times.

Image credit: “Last Supper” a mural in Keur Moussa, Senegal by Father George Saget, 1963. Photo by Robert Harding.

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