John 14

John 14


“Do not let your heartsI be troubled.II BelieveIII in God;IV believe also in me. 

Notes on verse 1

I “hearts” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
II “troubled” = tarasso. 18x in NT. This is trouble, agitate, stir up. It is motion back and forth, creating inner turmoil or confusion, roiling water.
III “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
IV “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

In my Father’sV houseVI there are manyVII dwelling places.VIII

Notes on verse 2a

V “Father’s” = Pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
VI “house” = oikia. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
VII “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
VIII “dwelling places” = mone. 2x in NT. From meno (to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure; to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition; to continue with hope and expectation). This is an abode, lodging, or residence. It is the act of abiding or the place in which one abides.

If it were not so, would I have told you that I goIX to prepareX a placeXI for you? 

Notes on verse 2b

IX “go” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
X “prepare” = hetoimazo. From hetoimos (make ready, be ready because of being prepared, standing by, adjusted; ready to meet some opportunity or challenge). This is to prepare or provide.
XI “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.

And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will comeXII again and will takeXIII you to myself, so that where I am, there you may be also. And you knowXIV the wayXV to the place where I am going.”XVI 

Notes on verses 3-4

XII “come” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
XIII “take” = paralambano. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to receive, take, acknowledge, associate with. It can also mean to take on an office or to learn.
XIV “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
XV “way” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
XVI “going” = hupago. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (lead, bring, guide, spend, drive, carry). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.

ThomasXVII saidXVIII to him, “Lord,XIX we do not know where you are going.XX How canXXI we know the way?” 

Notes on verse 5

XVII “Thomas” = Thomas. 11x in NT. From Hebrew toam (twin). This is Thomas, meaning twin.
XVIII “said” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XIX “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XX “going” = hupago. Same as “going” in v4. See note XVI above.
XXI “can” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.

JesusXXII said to him, “I am the way and the truthXXIII and the life.XXIV No one comes to the Father except through me. 

Notes on verse 6

XXII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XXIII “truth” = aletheia. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic). {from a (not, without) + lanthano (unnoticed, concealed)}. Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.
XXIV “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

If you knowXXV me, you will knowXXVI my Father also. From now on you do knowXXVII him and have seenXXVIII him.”

Notes on verse 7

XXV “know” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
XXVI “know” = eido. Same as “know” in v4. See note XIV above.
XXVII “know” = ginosko. Same as “know” in v7. See note XXV above.
XXVIII “seen” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.

PhilipXXIX said to him, “Lord, showXXX us the Father, and we will be satisfied.”XXXI 

Jesus said to him, “Have I been with you all this time,XXXII Philip, and you still do not knowXXXIII me? Whoever has seen me has seen the Father. How can you say, ‘Show us the Father’? 10 Do you not believe that I am in the Father and the Father is in me? The wordsXXXIV that I say to you I do not speak on my own,

Notes on verses 8-10a

XXIX “Philip” = Philippos. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + hippos (horse). This is Philip, meaning one who loves horses or is fond of horses.
XXX “show” = deiknumi. This is to show in a literal or figurative sense so it can be to teach, bring, or point out.
XXXI “be satisfied” = arkeo. Literally, “it is enough for us.” Arkeo is 8x in NT. This is to be content or satisfied. It can also mean to ward off.
XXXII “time” = chronos. Time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time.
XXXIII “know” = ginosko. Same as “know” in v7. See note XXV above.
XXXIV “words” = rhema. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.

but the Father who dwellsXXXV in me doesXXXVI his works.XXXVII 11 Believe me that I am in the Father and the Father is in me, but if you do not, then believe because of the works themselves. 12 Very truly,XXXVIII I tellXXXIX you, the one who believes in me will also do the works that I do

Notes on verses 10b-12a

XXXV “dwells” = meno. Related to “dwelling places” in v2. See note VIII above.
XXXVI “does” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XXXVII “works” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.
XXXVIII “very truly” = amen + amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
XXXIX “tell” = lego. Same as “said” in v5. See note XVIII above.

and, in fact, will do greaterXL works than these, because I am goingXLI to the Father. 13 I will do whatever you askXLII in my name,XLIII so that the Father may be glorifiedXLIV in the Son.XLV 14 If in my name you ask me for anything, I will do it.

Notes on verses 12b-14

XL “greater” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
XLI “going” = poreuomai. Same as “go” in v2. See note IX above.
XLII “ask” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.
XLIII “name” = onoma. Related to “know” in v7. May be from ginosko (see note XXVII above). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
XLIV “be glorified” = doxazo. From doxa (glory, opinion, praise, honor, renown; particularly used as a quality of God or manifestation of God – splendor); from dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.
XLV “Son” = Huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.

15 “If you loveXLVI me, you will keepXLVII my commandments.XLVIII 

Notes on verse 15

XLVI “love” = agapao. Perhaps from agan (much). This is love, longing for, taking pleasure in. It is divine love or human love that echoes divine love.
XLVII “keep” = tereo. From teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve. It can also be used f iguratively for spiritual watchfulness. It is guarding something from being lost or harmed – keeping an eye on it. Contrast the Greek phulasso, which is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape. Also contrast koustodia, which generally denotes a fortress or military presence. This word can mean fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining. It can also figuratively mean to remain unmarried.
XLVIII “commandments” = entole. From entellomai (to charge, command, give orders or instructions) {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + tellomai (to accomplish); {from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one)}}. This is an order, command, ordinance, or law. It focuses on the purpose of the command and its end result.

16 And I will askXLIX the Father, and he will giveL you anotherLI Advocate,LII to be with you forever.LIII 

Notes on verse 16

XLIX “ask” = erotao. Related to “words” in v10. From eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (see note XXXIV above). This is asking a question or making an earnest request. It is used between someone with whom the asker is close in some sense. So, they anticipate special consideration for their request.
L “give” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
LI “another” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
LII “Advocate” = parakletos. 5x in NT. From parakaleo (to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg; to exhort or admonish; to encourage, comfort, or console; has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom); {from para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}}. This is someone who is called for aid or assistance. Properly, it refers to a a legal advocate who is close to the situation and speaks in court. This is advocate, helper, comforter, helper, or intercessor. It is also used as a technical term for the Holy Spirit – the Paraclete.
LIII “forever” = eis + ho + aion. Literally, “to the age.” Aion is from the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.

17 This is the SpiritLIV of truth, whom the worldLV cannot receiveLVI

Notes on verse 17a

LIV “Spirt” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
LV “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.
LVI “receive” = lambano. Related to “take” in v3. See note XIII above.

because it neither seesLVII him nor knowsLVIII him. You knowLIX him because he abidesLX with you, and he will be in you.

Notes on verse 17b

LVII “sees” = theoreo. Related to “keep” in v15. See note XLVII above.
LVIII “knows” = ginosko. Same as “know” in v7. See note XXV above.
LIX “know” = ginosko. Same as “know” in v7. See note XXV above.
LX “abides” = meno. Same as “dwells” in v10. See note XXXV above.

18 “I will not leaveLXI you orphaned;LXII I am coming to you. 19 In a little whileLXIII the world will no longer seeLXIV me, but you will seeLXV me; because I live,LXVI you also will live. 

Notes on verses 18-19

LXI “leave” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
LXII “orphaned” = orphanos. 2x in NT. This is an orphan, more specifically one without a father. Figuratively, it can refer to anyone who is bereaved or beyond being comforted. It is where the word “orphan” comes from.
LXIII “little while” = mikros. This is small in reference to a size or the number of something, least or less. Figuratively, it can refer to little dignity.
LXIV “see” = theoreo. Same as “sees” in v17. See note LVII above.
LXV “see” = theoreo. Same as “sees” in v17. See note LVII above.
LXVI “live” = zao. Related to “life” in v6. See note XXIV above.

20 On that dayLXVII you will knowLXVIII that I am in my Father, and you in me, and I in you. 21 They who have my commandments and keep them are those who love me, and those who love me will be loved by my Father, and I will love them and revealLXIX myself to them.” 

Notes on verses 20-21

LXVII “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
LXVIII “know” = ginosko. Same as “know” in v7. See note XXV above.
LXIX “reveal” = emphanizo. 10x in NT. From emphanes (visible, apparent, openly, understood); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is to declare, make visible, or exhibit in person. It can also be to report against or notify.

22 JudasLXX (not Iscariot)LXXI said to him, “Lord, how isLXXII it that you willLXXIII reveal yourself to us and not to the world?” 

Notes on verse 22

LXX “Judas” = Ioudas. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.
LXXI “Iscariot” = Iskariotes. 11x in NT. From Hebrew probably ish (man, husband); {perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be frail, feeble)} + qirya (city); {Aramaic corresponding to qiryah (city, building); from qarah (to happen, meet, bring about)}. Iscariot means person from Kerioth.
LXXII “is” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
LXXIII “will” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.

23 Jesus answered him, “Those who love me will keep my word,LXXIV and my Father will love them, and we will come to them and makeLXXV our homeLXXVI with them. 

Notes on verse 23

LXXIV “word” = logos. Related to “said” in v5. From lego (see note XVIII above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
LXXV “make” = poieo. Same as “does” in v10. See note XXXVI above.
LXXVI “home” = mone. Same as “dwelling places” in v2. See note VIII above.

24 Whoever does not love me does not keep my words,LXXVII and the wordLXXVIII that you hearLXXIX is not mine but is from the Father who sentLXXX me.

Notes on verse 24

LXXVII “words” = logos. Same as “word” in v23. See note LXXIV above.
LXXVIII “word” = logos. Same as “word” in v23. See note LXXIV above.
LXXIX “hear” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
LXXX “sent” = pempo. This is to send, put forth, or dispatch. This often refers to a temporary errand. It is sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from. By contrast, another Greek word, hiemi, emphasizes the destination and yet another word, stello, focuses on the motion that goes with the sending.

25 “I have said these things to you while I am stillLXXXI with you. 26 But the Advocate, the HolyLXXXII Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teachLXXXIII you

Notes on verses 25-26a

LXXXI “am still” = meno. Same as “dwells” in v10. See note XXXV above.
LXXXII “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
LXXXIII “teach” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.

everythingLXXXIV and remindLXXXV you of allLXXXVI that I have said to you. 

Notes on verse 26b

LXXXIV “everything” = pas. This is all or every.
LXXXV “remind” = hupomimnesko. Related to “dwelling places” in v2 & “dwells” in v10. 7x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + mimnesko (to remind or remember; memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful; not incidentally or accidentally remembering); {from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (see note VIII above)}. This is to remind, call attention to.
LXXXVI “all” = pas. Same as “everything” in v26. See note LXXXIV above.

27 PeaceLXXXVII I leave with you; my peace I give to you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled, and do not let them be afraid.LXXXVIII 28 You heard me say to you, ‘I am going away,LXXXIX and I am coming to you.’ If you loved me, you would rejoiceXC that I am goingXCI to the Father, because the Father is greater than I. 

Notes on verses 27-28

LXXXVII “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)
LXXXVIII “be afraid” = deiliao. 1x in NT. From deilia (cowardice, reticence); from deilos (fearful, timid, faithless, fear of losing); {from deos (fear, reverence) or deido (to fear)}. This is to live in fear, be timid. It is living with an intense fear of consequences.
LXXXIX “going away” = hupago. Same as “going” in v4. See note XVI above.
XC “rejoice” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).
XCI “going” = poreuomai. Same as “go” in v2. See note IX above.

29 And now I have toldXCII you this before it occurs, so that when it does occurXCIII you may believe. 30 I will no longer talk muchXCIV with you, for the rulerXCV of this world is coming. He has no power over me,XCVI 

Notes on verses 29-30

XCII “told” = ereo. Related to “words” in v10 & “ask” in v16. See note XXXIV above.
XCIII “occurs” = ginomai. Same as “is” in v22. See note LXXII above.
XCIV “much” = polus. Same as “many” in v2. See note VII above.
XCV “ruler” = archon. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is ruler, leader, magistrate, official, prince, chief.
XCVI “he has no power over me” = en + ego + ou + echo + oudeis. Literally, “in me he has nothing.”

31 but I do as the Father has commandedXCVII, XCVIII me, so that the world may knowXCIX that I love the Father. Rise,C let us be on our way.CI

Notes on verse 31

XCVII “commanded” = entellomai. Related to “commandments” in v15. 15x in NT. See note XLVIII above.
XCVIII {untranslated} = didomi. Same as “give” in v16. See note L above.
XCIX “know” = ginosko. Same as “know” in v7. See note XXV above.
C “rise” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
CI “be on our way” = ago + enteuthen. Ago is related to “going” in v4. See note XVI above. Enteuthen is 10x in NT. Related to enthen (from here); {from en (in, on, at, by, with, within)} OR from enthade (here, within, hither); {from en (see above)}. This is from here, on this side, thereupon, on both sides.

Image credit: Jesus at the Sumela Monastery in Turkey. Photo by Vladimer Shioshvili, 2006.

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