John 18

John 18


After JesusI had spoken these words, he went outII with his disciplesIII

Notes on verse 1a

I “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
II “went out” = exerchomai. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
III “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.

across the KidronIV ValleyV to a place where there wasVI a garden,VII which he and his disciples entered.VIII 

Notes on verse 1b

IV “Kidron” = Kedron. 1x in NT. From Hebrew qidron (dusky or dusky place); from qadar (to be ashy, which would be a dark color; being dark or mourning as when one sits in sackcloth and ashes). This is Kidron, the wadi, meaning dusky.
V “Valley” = cheimarros. 1x in NT. From the same as cheimazo (to be storm tossed, driven by a storm); {from cheima (winter cold) or cheimon (storm, winter, rainy season); from cheo (to pour) + rheo (to flow, overflow)}. This is a ravine that has water flowing in it in the winter/during storms.
VI “was” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
VII “garden” = kepos. 5x in NT. This is a garden or a place where trees or herbs are grown.
VIII “entered” = eiserchomai. Related to “went out” in v1. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note II above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.

Now Judas,IX who betrayedX him, also knewXI

Notes on verse 2a

IX “Judas” = Ioudas. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.
X “betrayed” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
XI “knew” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.

the placeXII because Jesus oftenXIII metXIV there with his disciples. 

Notes on verse 2b

XII “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
XIII “often” = pollakis. 18x in NT. From polus (much, many, abundant). This is often, many, frequently, again and again.
XIV “met” = sunago. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”

So Judas broughtXV a detachment of soldiersXVI together with policeXVII

Notes on verse 3a

XV “brought” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
XVI “detachment of soldiers” = speira. 7x in NT. From Latin spira (something wound up like a coil or twist, the base of a column, a hair braid, etc.); from Greek speira (a twist or wreath); from Proto-Indo-European *sper- (to twist, turn). This is a group of soldiers or military guard. Properly, this is something wound up. Figuratively, it refers to a group of men. Thus, a tenth of a legion. Also used for Levitical janitors. This is where the word “spiral” comes from. See
XVII “police” = huperetes. From huper (by, under, under the authority of another) + eresso (to row). Originally, this was a rower or someone who worked the oars on the lower deck of a boat. It is used figuratively of someone under the authority of another who follows their commands. So this could be servant, attendant, or office. It could also be someone who is a minister of the Gospel.

from the chief priestsXVIII and the Pharisees,XIX and they cameXX there

Notes on verse 3b

XVIII “chief priests” = archiereus. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
XIX “Pharisees” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
XX “came” = erchomai. Related to “went out” and “entered” in v1. See note II above.

with lanternsXXI and torchesXXII and weapons.XXIII 

Notes on verse 3c

XXI “lanterns” = phanos. 1x in NT. From phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is a torch or light.
XXII “torches” = lampas. 9x in NT. From lampo (to give light literally or figuratively). This is a torch or lantern that was hand held, perhaps made of clay with a flax wick and oil.
XXIII “weapons” = hoplon. 6x in NT. This is a tool or implement. It can also be armor or weapons in a literal or figurative sense.

Then Jesus, knowing allXXIV that was to happenXXV to him, came forwardXXVI and askedXXVII them, “Whom are you looking for?”XXVIII 

Notes on verse 4

XXIV “all” = pas. This is all or every.
XXV “happen” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v3. See note XX above.
XXVI “came forward” = exerchomai. Same as “went out” in v1. See note II above.
XXVII “asked” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XXVIII “looking for” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.

They answered, “Jesus of Nazareth.”XXIX 

Jesus replied,XXX “I am he.” Judas, who betrayed him, was standingXXXI with them. 

Notes on verse 5

XXIX “Nazareth” = Nazoraios. 13x in NT. Probably from nazara (Nazareth); perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazarene. See
XXX “replied” = lego. Same as “asked” in v4. See note XXVII above.
XXXI “standing” = histemi. This is to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast.

When Jesus said to them, “I am he,” they steppedXXXII backXXXIII and fellXXXIV to the ground.XXXV 

Notes on verse 6

XXXII “stepped” = aperchomai. Related to “went out” and “entered” in v1 & “came” in v3. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note II above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXIII “back” = opiso. From the same as opisthen (after, back, from the rear); probably from opis (back); from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear). This is back, behind, after.
XXXIV “fell” = pipto. This is to fall literally or figuratively.
XXXV “to the ground” = chamai. 2x in NT– both in John. Perhaps from chasma (gap, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn); from chao (to gape, yawn). This is on or toward the ground.

Again he askedXXXVI them, “Whom are you looking for?”

And they said, “Jesus of Nazareth.” 

Jesus answered, “I told you that I am he. So if you are looking for me, letXXXVII these people go.”XXXVIII 

Notes on verses 7-8

XXXVI “asked” = eperotao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of)}. This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.
XXXVII “let” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
XXXVIII “go” = hupago. Related to “met” in v2. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (see note XIV above). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.

This was to fulfillXXXIX the wordXL that he had spoken, “I did not loseXLI a single one of those whom you gaveXLII me.” 

Notes on verse 9

XXXIX “fulfill” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
XL “word” = logos. Related to “asked” in v4. From lego (see note XXVII above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
XLI “lose” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.
XLII “gave” = didomi. Related to “betrayed” in v2. See note X above.

10 Then SimonXLIII Peter,XLIV who hadXLV a sword,XLVI

Notes on verse 10a

XLIII “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
XLIV “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
XLV “had” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
XLVI “sword” = machaira. Perhaps from mache (fight, battle, conflict; figuratively, controversy); from machomai (to fight, strive, dispute, quarrel; to war). This is a short sword, slaughter knife, or dagger. It is a stabbing weapon. Figuratively, associated with retribution, war, or legal punishment.

drewXLVII it, struckXLVIII the high priest’sXLIX slave,L

Notes on verse 10b

XLVII “drew” = helko. 8x in NT. Perhaps from haireomai (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to pull in or draw in. It can be drag in a literal or figurative sense. This places an emphasis on the power of the attraction.
XLVIII “struck” = paio. 5x in NT. To strike or sting – a single blow.
XLIX “high priest’s” = archiereus. Same as “chief priests” in v3. See note XVIII above.
L “slave” = doulos. Perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).

and cut offLI his rightLII ear.LIII The slave’s nameLIV was Malchus.LV 

Notes on verse 10c

LI “cut off” = apokopto.6x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is to cut off or away, mutilate, amputate, emasculate.
LII “right” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
LIII “ear” = otion. 5x in NT. From ous (ear; figuratively, hearing). This is ear or it might refer to the earlobe.
LIV “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
LV “Malchus” = Malchos. 1x in NT. From Hebrew melek (Melek – a name); from the same as melek (king, kingdom, royal); perhaps from malak (to reign, be king or queen, rise to the throne, to consult). This is Malchus, meaning king or reigning.

11 Jesus said to Peter, “PutLVI your sword back into its sheath.LVII Am I not to drinkLVIII the cupLIX that the FatherLX has given me?”

Notes on verse 11

LVI “put” = ballo. This is to throw, cast, rush, place, or drop. It is throwing, but it could be with more or less velocity and with more or less force/violence.
LVII “sheath” = theke. 1x in NT. From tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is something into which something else is laid or put away. So, a case, chest, box, receptacle, or sheath.
LVIII “drink” = pino. Related to “cup” in v11. See note LIX below.
LIX “cup” = poterion. From pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is a drinking vessel. Figuratively, it can refer to one’s lot, to fate, or to what God has in store for you.
LX “Father” = Pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.

12 So the soldiers,LXI their officer,LXII and the JewishLXIII police arrestedLXIV Jesus and boundLXV him. 

Notes on verse 12

LXI “soldiers” = speira. Same as “detachment of soldiers” in v3. See note XVI above.
LXII “officer” = chiliarchos. Related to “chief priests” in v3. From chilioi (thousand literal and figurative; can mean total inclusion) + archos (chief, leader); {from archo (see note XVIII above)}. This is chiliarch – one who commands a thousand.
LXIII “Jewish” = Ioudaios. Related to “Judas” in v2. From Ioudas (see note IX above). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
LXIV “arrested” = sullambano. Related to “brought” in v16. From sun (with, together with) + lambano (see note XV above). This is to take, take part in, conceive, help. It can also be clasp or seize as to arresat or take hold of someone.
LXV “bound” = deo. Related to “slave” in v10. See note L above.

13 FirstLXVI they tookLXVII him to Annas,LXVIII who was the father-in-law of Caiaphas,LXIX the high priest that year.LXX 

Notes on verse 13

LXVI “first” = proton. From protos (what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief); from pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is firstly, before, in the beginning, formerly.
LXVII “took” = ago. Related to “met” in v2 & “go” in v8. See note XIV above.
LXVIII “Annas” = Hannas. Related to “Jesus” in v1. 4x in NT. From Hebrew chananyah (Hannaniah; “the Lord has been gracious” or “the Lord has favored); {from chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status) Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note I above)}. This is Annas, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
LXIX “Caiaphas” = Kaiaphas. 9x in NT. From Aramaic (as beautiful) OR from kefa (rock, stone) OR from Akkadian kaypha (dell, depression). This is Caiaphas. See
LXX “year” = eniautos. 14x in NT. Perhaps from enos (year). This is a year or other cycle of time.

14 Caiaphas was the one who had advisedLXXI the Jews that it was betterLXXII to have oneLXXIII

Notes on verse 14a

LXXI “advised” = sumbouleuo. 4x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + bouleuo (to plan, consider, deliberate, advise); {from boule (counsel, plan, purpose, decision; wisdom that comes from deliberation); {from boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination)}. This is people who come together to make a plan who are highly motivated to achiever their goals. It can mean deliberate, consult, or give advice.
LXXII “was better” = sumphero. 17x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to collect, bring together, or be profitable to. It is combining things such that there is gain or profit or advantage.
LXXIII “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.

personLXXIV dieLXXV for the people.LXXVI

Notes on verse 14b

LXXIV “person” = anthropos. Related to “back” in v6. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (see note XXXIII above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
LXXV “die” = apothnesko. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.
LXXVI “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.

15 Simon Peter and anotherLXXVII disciple followedLXXVIII Jesus. Since that disciple was knownLXXIX to the high priest, he went withLXXX Jesus into the courtyardLXXXI of the high priest, 

Notes on verse 15

LXXVII “another” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
LXXVIII “followed” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
LXXIX “know” = gnostos. Related to “name” in v10. 15x in NT. From ginosko (see note LIV above). This is known or acquaintance.[LXXX] “went with” = suneiserchomai. Related to “went out” and “entered” in v1 & “came” in v3 & “stepped” in v6. From sun (with, together with) + eiserchomai (see note VIII above)}. This is to enter together, embark with, go with.
LXXX “went with” = suneiserchomai. Related to “went out” and “entered” in v1 & “came” in v3 & “stepped” in v6. From sun (with, together with) + eiserchomai (see note VIII above)}. This is to enter together, embark with, go with.
LXXXI “courtyard” = aule. 12x in NT. Perhaps from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is a building that has a courtyard within it – an area that has no roof, but does have walls and is open to the air. It could also imply a palace or mansion as larger buildings that would include courtyards.

16 but Peter was standing outside at the gate.LXXXII So the otherLXXXIII disciple, who was knownLXXXIV to the high priest, went out, spoke to the woman who guarded the gate,LXXXV and brought Peter in.LXXXVI 

Notes on verse 16

LXXXII “gate” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.
LXXXIII “other” = allos. Same as “another” in v15. See note LXXVII above.
LXXXIV “known” = gnostos. Same as “known” in v15. See note LXXIX above.
LXXXV “woman who guarded the gate” = thuroros. Related to “gate” in v16. 4x in NT. From thura (see note LXXXII above). This is a doorkeeper or porter.
LXXXVI “brought…in” = eisago. Related to “met” in v2 & “go” in v8 & “took” in v13. 11x in NT. From eis (to, into, towards, among) + ago (see note XIV above). This is to lead in or introduce.

17 The womanLXXXVII, LXXXVIII saidLXXXIX to Peter, “You are not also one of this man’sXC disciples, are you?”

He said, “I am not.” 

Notes on verse 17

LXXXVII “woman” = paidiske. Related to “struck” in v10. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (see note XLVIII above). This is young girl or female slave or servant.
LXXXVIII {untranslated} = thuroros. Same as “woman who guarded the gate” in v16. See note LXXXV above.
LXXXIX “said” = lego. Same as “asked” in v4. See note XXVII above.
XC “man’s” = anthropos. Same as “person” in v14. See note LXXIV above.

18 Now the slaves and the police had madeXCI a charcoal fireXCII because it was cold,XCIII and they were standing around it and warmingXCIV themselves. Peter also was standing with them and warming himself.

Notes on verse 18

XCI “made” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XCII “charcoal fire” = anthrakia. 2x in NT – here and in Jn 21:9 when Jesus appears to the disciples and cooks fish on the shore. From anthrax (coal, a live coal). This is burning coals piled together. This is where the words “anthrax” and also “anthracite” come from.
XCIII “cold” = psuchos. 3x in NT. From psucho (to breathe, blow, breathe out, to cool or make cold). This is cold or coolness. It is connected to the root of psuche (psyche), which refers to the breathe of life and, by extension, life itself as expressed in individuality.
XCIV “warming” = thermaino. 6x in NT. From thermos (hot); from the same as theros (heat, which implies the summer); from thero (to heat). This is to warm or warm oneself. This root is where the words “thermometer” and “thermos” come from.

19 Then the high priest questionedXCV Jesus about his disciples and about his teaching.XCVI 20 Jesus answered, “I have spoken openlyXCVII to the world;XCVIII

Notes on verses 19-20a

XCV “questioned” = erotao. Related to “asked” in v7. See note XXXVI above.
XCVI “teaching” = didache. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teaching or doctrine.
XCVII “openly” = parresia. Related to “all” in v4. From pas (see note XXIV above) + rhesis (speech); {from rheo (say, speak of, command)}. This is confidence, openness, boldness, outspokenness. It can imply assurance – free speech.
XCVIII “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.

I have alwaysXCIX taughtC in synagoguesCI

Notes on verse 20b

XCIX “always” = pantote. Related to “all” in v4 & “openly” in v20. From pas (see note XXIV above) + tote (then, whether past or future); {from hote (when); from ho (the)}. This is literally every when. It is always, at all times.
C “taught” = didasko. Related to “teaching” in v19. See note XCVI above.
CI “synagogues” = sunagoge. Related to “met” in v2 & “go” in v8 & “took” in v13 & “brought…in” in v16. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note XIV above). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.

and in the temple,CII where all the Jews come together.CIII I have said nothing in secret.CIV 

Notes on verse 20c

CII “temple” = hieron. Related to “chief priests” in v3. From hieros (see note XVIII above). This is the word for temple.
CIII “come together” = sunerchomai. Related to “went out” and “entered” in v1 & “came” in v3 & “stepped” in v6 & “went with” in v15. From sun (with, together with) + erchomai (see note II above). This is to go with, assemble, leave together with, cohabit.
CIV “secret” = kruptos. 19x in NT. From krupto (to hide by covering, secret, hidden things). This is something concealed, hidden, secret, or private. It can also refer to the inner nature. This is the root of the word “cryptography.”

21 Why do you askCV me? AskCVI those who heardCVII what I said to them; CVIIIthey knowCIX what I said.” 

Notes on verse 21

CV “ask” = erotao. Same as “questioned” in v19. See note XCV above.
CVI “ask” = erotao. Same as “questioned” in v19. See note XCV above.
CVII “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
CVIII {untranslated} = idou. Related to “knew” in v2. From eido (see note XI above). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CIX “know” = eido. Same as “knew” in v2. See note XI above.

22 When he had said this, one of the police standing nearbyCX struckCXI Jesus on the face, saying, “Is that how you answer the high priest?” 

23 Jesus answered, “If I have spoken wrongly,CXII

Notes on verses 22-23a

CX “standing nearby” = paristemi. Related to “standing” in v5. From para (from beside, by) + histemi (see note XXXI above). This is literally to place by stand. It can mean to present, exhibit, appear, bring, stand by, or prove. It can also mean to be ready, to assist, to yield, or to commend.
CXI “struck” = didomi + rhapisma. Didomi is the same as “gave” in v9. See note XLII above. Rhapisma is 3x in NT. From rhapizo (to hit with a rod or to slap); from a derivation of rhabdos (staff, rod, cudgel; a staff that denotes power, royalty, or authority); from rhepo (to let fall, to rap). This is a hit from a stick or an open-handed slap.
CXII “wrongly” = kakos. 16x in NT. From kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character; can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil; also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue). This is wrongly, badly, cruelly, with bad motives, misery connected to affliction. It can be physically badly or morally badly, i.e. evilly.

testifyCXIII to the wrong.CXIV But if I have spoken rightly,CXV why do you strikeCXVI me?” 24 Then Annas sentCXVII him bound to Caiaphas the high priest.

Notes on verses 23b-24

CXIII “testify” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.
CXIV “wrong” = kakos. Related to “wrongly” in v23. See note CXII above.
CXV “rightly” = kalos. From kalos (good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy; external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues; a different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good). This is nobly, rightly, well-perceived, seen as appealing, morally pleasing, honorably.
CXVI “strike” = dero. 15x in NT. To whip, flog, scourge, beat, thrash.
CXVII “sent” = apostello. Related to “standing” in v5 & “standing nearby” in v22. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (see note XXXI above)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.

25 Now Simon Peter was standing and warming himself. They asked him, “You are not also one of his disciples, are you?”

He deniedCXVIII it and said, “I am not.” 

26 One of the slaves of the high priest, a relativeCXIX of the man whose ear Peter had cut off, asked,CXX “Did I not seeCXXI you in the garden with him?” 

Notes on verses 25-26

CXVIII “denied” = arneomai. Related to “openly” in v20. From a (not) + rheo (see note XCVII above). This is to deny, disown, refuse, repudiate someone or a previously held belief, to contradict.
CXIX “relative” = suggenes. 12x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth)}. This is relative, kinsman, offspring, or otherwise someone from the same stock. It can also be used for a fellow countryman.
CXX “asked” = lego. Same as “asked” in v4. See note XXVII above.
CXXI “see” = horao. Related to “back” in v6 & “person” in v14. See note XXXIII above.

27 Again Peter denied it, and at that momentCXXII the cockCXXIII crowed.CXXIV

Notes on verse 27

CXXII “at that moment” = eutheos. Related to “sheath” in v11. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + tithemi (see note LVII above)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
CXXIII “cock” = alektor. 12x in NT. Perhaps from aleko (to ward off). This is a cock or rooster.
CXXIV “crowed” = phoneo. Related to “lanterns” in v3. From phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (see note XXI above). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.

28 Then they took Jesus from Caiaphas to Pilate’s headquarters.CXXV It was early in the morning.CXXVI They themselves did not enter the headquarters,CXXVII

Notes on verse 28a

CXXV “Pilate’s headquarters” = praitorion. 8x in NT. From Latin praetorium (headquarters, general’s tent, villa, place where the governor lives); from prator (leader, chief, president); from pareeo (to lead, go before). This is praetorium or preatorian guard. It is the place where the governor lives or the place where the praetorian guard of Rome lived. It could also mean courtroom. See
CXXVI “early in the morning” = proi. 12x in NT. From pro (before, earlier than, ahead, prior). This is early, at dawn, during the daybreak watch.
CXXVII “headquarters” = praitorion. Same as “Pilate’s headquarters” in v28. See note CXXV above.

so as to avoid ritual defilementCXXVIII and to be able to eatCXXIX the Passover.CXXX 

Notes on verse 28b

CXXVIII “avoid ritual defilement” = me + miaino. Literally “not be defiled.” Miaino is 5x in NT. Properly, it means staining something or dyeing it. Figuratively, it refers to staining the soul as with sin. So, it is to pollute or corrupt in a ritual or moral sense.
CXXIX “eat” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.
CXXX “Passover” = Pascha. From Aramaic corresponding to Hebrew pesach (Passover or the offering for Passover); from pasach (to stop, pass over, skit over, to spare). This is Passover – used for the feast, the lamb of sacrifice, the day, and the festival itself. This is where the term “paschal” comes from as in the “paschal lamb.”

29 So PilateCXXXI went out to them and said,CXXXII “What accusationCXXXIII do you bringCXXXIV against this man?” 

Notes on verse 29

CXXXI “Pilate” = Pilatos. From Latin Pilatus (may mean one who has skill with a javelin); perhaps from pilum (javelin) OR perhaps from pileus (a soft cap made of felt that was brimless and was associated with people who were freedmen). This is Pilate. See
CXXXII “said” = phemi. Related to “crowed” in v27. See note CXXIV above.
CXXXIII “accusation” = kategoria. 3x in NT. Probably from kategoreo (to accuse, charge, or prosecute); from kategoros (prosecutor or accuser; used in legal context, but also of Satan); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + agoreuo (speaking in the assembly)} OR from kata (see above) + agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square); {from ageiro (to gather)}}. This is accusation, complaint, criminal charge, or the person being accused in the charge. This is where the word “category” comes from, but it is in the sense of applying logic and offering proof.
CXXXIV “bring” = phero. Related to “was better” in v14. See note LXXII above.

30 They answered, “If this man were not a criminal,CXXXV we would not have handed him overCXXXVI to you.” 

31 Pilate said to them, “TakeCXXXVII him yourselves and judgeCXXXVIII him according to your law.”CXXXIX

Notes on verses 30-31a

CXXXV “criminal” = kakos + poieo. Literally, “evil doing.” Kakos is the same as “wrong” in v23. See note CXII above. Poieo is the same as “made” in v18. See note XCI above.
CXXXVI “handed…over” = paradidomi. Same as “betrayed” in v2. See note X above.
CXXXVII “take” = lambano. Same as “brought” in v3. See note XV above.
CXXXVIII “judge” = krino. To judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue. This is judging whether it is done in court or in a private setting. Properly, it refers to mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty. It can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.
CXXXIX “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.

The Jews replied, “We are not permittedCXL to put anyone to death.”CXLI 32 (This was to fulfill whatCXLII Jesus had said

Notes on verses 31b-32a

CXL “permitted” = exesti. Related to “was” in v1. From ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note VI above). This is what is permitted or what is allowed under the law. It can mean what is right, what holds moral authority, or, more broadly, something that is shown out in public.
CXLI “put…to death” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.
CXLII “what” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.

when he indicatedCXLIII the kind of deathCXLIV he wasCXLV to die.)

Notes on verse 32b

CXLIII “indicated” = semaino. 6x in NT. From sema (a sign or mark). This is to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known, communicate. In John’s Gospel miracles are referred to as signs.
CXLIV “death” = thanatos. Related to “die” in v14. From thnesko (see note LXXV above). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
CXLV “was” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.

33 Then Pilate entered the headquarters again, summonedCXLVI Jesus, and asked him, “Are you the KingCXLVII of the Jews?” 

34 Jesus answered, “Do you askCXLVIII this on your own, or did others tell you about me?” 

35 Pilate replied, “I am not a Jew, am I?CXLIX Your own nationCL and the chief priests have handed you over to me. What have you done?”CLI 

Notes on verses 33-35

CXLVI “summoned” = phoneo. Same as “crowed” in v27. See note CXXIV above.
CXLVII “King” = basileus. Probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
CXLVIII “ask” = lego. Same as “asked” in v4. See note XXVII above.
CXLIX “not…am  I” = meti. 17x in NT. From me (not, neither, never; rules out conditional statements and their implications) + tis (someone, anyone, anything). This is asking a question when you expect the answer to be no. It is if not, surely no. But it also keeps a small possibility floating – but could it be?
CL “nation” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
CLI “done” = poieo. Same as “made” in v18. See note XCI above.

36 Jesus answered, “My kingdomCLII does not belong to this world. If my kingdom belonged to this world, my followersCLIII would be fightingCLIV to keep me from being handed over to the Jews. But as it is, my kingdom is not from here.” 

Notes on verse 36

CLII “kingdom” = basileia. Related to “king” in v33. From basileus (see note CXLVII above). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
CLIII “followers” = huperetes. Same as “police” in v3. See note XVII above.
CLIV “fighting” = agonizomai. Related to “met” in v2 & “go” in v8 & “took” in v13 & “brought…in” in v16 & “synagogues” in v20. 8x in NT. From agon (a gathering or contest – as an athletic competition such as a race; also conflict, struggle, opposition or a fight; used figuratively in a positive sense – as fighting the good fight of faith; used in a negative figurative sense for effort or anxiety; properly, refers to a place where people gather, which implies the game or contest); from ago (see note XIV above). This is to struggle, strive, or fight. It could be contending to win a prize or against an adversary or in war. It can also mean striving to accomplish something. This is where the word “agonize” comes from.

37 Pilate asked him, “So you are a king?”

Jesus answered, “You say that I am a king. For this I was born,CLV and for this I cameCLVI into the world, to testify to the truth.CLVII EveryoneCLVIII who belongsCLIX to the truth listensCLX to my voice.”CLXI 

Notes on verse 37

CLV “born” = gennao. Related to “relative” in v26. From genna (descent, birth); from genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note CXIX above). This is to beget, give birth to, or bring forth. Properly, it refers to procreation by the father, but was used of the mother by extension. Figuratively, this can mean to regenerate.
CLVI “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v3. See note XX above.
CLVII “truth” = aletheia. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic). {from a (not, without) + lanthano (unnoticed, concealed)}. Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.
CLVIII “everyone” = pas. Same as “all” in v4. See note XXIV above.
CLIX “belongs” = eimi. Same as “was” in v1. See note VI above.
CLX “listens” = akouo. Same as “heard” in v21. See note CVII above.
CLXI “voice” = phone. Related to “lanterns” in v3 & “crowed” in v27 & “said” in v29. See note CXXIV above.

38 Pilate askedCLXII him, “What is truth?”

After he had said this, he went out to the Jews again and toldCLXIII them, “I find no case against him.CLXIV 39 But you haveCLXV a customCLXVI

Notes on verses 38-39a

CLXII “asked” = lego. Same as “asked” in v4. See note XXVII above.
CLXIII “told” = lego. Same as “asked” in v4. See note XXVII above.
CLXIV “I find no case against him” = ego + oudeis + heurisko + en + autos + aitia. Literally, “I don’t find in him guilt (or ground).” Heurisko is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from. Aitia is from aiteo (to ask, demand, beg, desire). This is a cause or reason. It can also be a legal crime, accusation, guilt, or case.
CLXV “have” = eimi. Same as “was” in v1. See note VI above.
CLXVI “custom” = sunetheia. Related to “nation” in v35. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + ethos (see note CL above). This is a habit, custom, or practice.

that I releaseCLXVII someoneCLXVIII for you at the Passover. Do you wantCLXIX me to release for you the King of the Jews?” 

Notes on verse 39b

CLXVII “release” = apoluo. From apo (from, away from) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.
CLXVIII “someone” = heis. Same as “one” in v14. See note LXXIII above.
CLXIX “want” = boulomai. Related to “advised” in v14. See note LXXI above.

40 They shoutedCLXX in reply,CLXXI “Not this man but Barabbas!”CLXXII Now Barabbas was a rebel.CLXXIII

Notes on verse 40

CLXX “shouted” = kraugazo. 9x in NT. From krauge (a very emotional shout or cry generally or clamor against someone else; a cry of alarm, trouble, or grief); from krazo (to cry out, scream, shriek; onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call; figuratively, this is means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt). This is to cry, shout, clamor. It is a screaming or shrieking that is often impossible to understand exact words in. It is sound expressing feeling/urgency. Properly, this refers to loud animal sounds.
CLXXI “reply” = lego. Same as “asked” in v4. See note XXVII above.
CLXXII “Barabbas” = Barabbas. 11x in NT. From Aramaic bar (son literal or figurative, age); {corresponding to Hebrew ben (son literal or figurative, subject, age)} + Aramaic abba (father) {from Aramaic ab (father); corresponding to Hebrew ab (father literal or figurative – ancestor, chief, grandfather, etc.)}. This is Barabbas, meaning son of the father.
CLXXIII “rebel” = lestes. 15x in NT– 3x “you are making [my house] a den of robbers” when Jesus cleanses the temple, 3x of Jesus’ arrest “did you come for me…as though I were a bandit?”; 3x of bandits crucified on Jesus’ left and right; 2x of the man falling into the hands of robbers in the Good Samaritan parable; 2x of the Good Shepherd speech (anyone who doesn’t come in by the gate is a bandit) in John 10:1, 8; 1x of Barabbas as a bandit; and 1x Paul writes he is in danger from bandits. From leis (booty); from leizomai (to plunder). This is a bandit or thief – one who steals by violence/force out in the open as opposed to by stealth. These were part of armed gangs.

Image credit: “Peter’s Denial” by Frank Wesley.

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