John 19

John 19


Then PilateI tookII JesusIII and had him flogged.IV 

Notes on verse 1

I “Pilate” = Pilatos. From Latin Pilatus (may mean one who has skill with a javelin); perhaps from pilum (javelin) OR perhaps from pileus (a soft cap made of felt that was brimless and was associated with people who were freedmen). This is Pilate. See
II “took” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
III “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
IV “flogged” = mastigoo. 7x in NT. From mastix (a whip that had leather straps with metal bits sewn onto them; figurative for great pain, suffering, disease, or plague; a Roman whip used on criminals, the flagellum); probably from massaomai (to chew, gnaw, consume); from masso (to handle, squeeze). This is to flog or whip someone – the victim being strapped to a pole. Used figuratively for being chastised.

And the soldiersV woveVI a crownVII of thornsVIII

Notes on verse 2a

V “soldiers” = stratiotes. From stratia (army; used figuratively for large organized groups like the angels and the hosts of heaven, which is to say the stars); from the same as strateuo (to wage war, fight, serve as a soldier; used figuratively for spiritual warfare); or from the base of stronnuo (to spread, to spread out like a bed). This is a soldier in a literal or figurative sense.
VI “wove” = pleko. 3x in NT– all in Gospel parallels of soldiers mocking Jesus. This is to twist, braid, or weave together.
VII “crown” = stephanos. 18x in NT. From stepho (to twine, encircle). This is something that surrounds i.e. a crown or garland. Properly, this refers to the wreath or garland that the winner of athletic games would win. It symbolized victory and honor from skill as contrasted with a royal crown, which is diadema in Greek. This is the word used for the crown that the saints in heaven wear in, for example, Revelation 4:4.
VIII “thorns” = akantha. 14x in NT. From akmen (even now, still yet); from the same as akmazo (ripe, to be vigorous); from akme (point, edge); related to ake (a point). This is thorn or thorn bush.

and put it onIX his head,X and they dressed him inXI a purpleXII robe.XIII 

Notes on verse 2b

IX “put…on” = epitithemi. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to lay on or place on, whether in a friendly or aggressive way.
X “head” = kephale. This is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from.
XI “dressed…in” = periballo. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to thrown around, clothe, array, put on.
XII “purple” = porphurous. 4x in NT. From porphura (purple dye, cloth, or a garment from that cloth; ranged from violet to scarlet to blue; dye made from a snail; symbolized royalty, wealth, or power); perhaps from phuro (to mix something dry with something wet). This is purple, the cloth or the dye – associated with money, power, nobility, and kings.
XIII “robe” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.

They kept coming upXIV to him, saying, “Hail,XV KingXVI of the Jews!”XVII and strikingXVIII him on the face. 

Notes on verse 3

XIV “coming up” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
XV “hail” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).
XVI “King” = Basileus. Probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
XVII “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
XVIII “striking” = didomirhapisma. Didomi is to give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense. Rhapisma is 3x in NT. From rhapizo (to hit with a rod or to slap); from a derivation of rhabdos (staff, rod, cudgel; a staff that denotes power, royalty, or authority); from rhepo (to let fall, to rap). This is a hit from a stick or an open-handed slap.

Pilate wentXIX out again and saidXX to them, “Look,XXI I am bringingXXII him out to you to let you knowXXIII that I findXXIV no caseXXV against him.” 

Notes on verse 4

XIX “went” = exerchomai. Related to “coming up” in v3. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note XIV above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
XX “said” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XXI “look” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
XXII “bringing” = ago. This is lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go.
XXIII “know” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
XXIV “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
XXV “case” = aitia. From aiteo (to ask, demand, beg, desire). This is a cause or reason. It can also be a legal crime, accusation, guilt, or case.

So Jesus cameXXVI out wearingXXVII the crown of thornsXXVIII and the purple robe. Pilate said to them, “BeholdXXIX the man!”XXX 

Notes on verse 5

XXVI “came” = exerchomai. Same as “went” in v4. See note XIX above.
XXVII “wearing” = phoreo. 6x in NT. From phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to wear or bear regularly or continually. It can refer to clothing or bearing a burden.
XXVIII “of thorns” = akanthinos. Related to “thorns” in v2. 2x in NT. From akantha (see note VIII above). This is related to thorns or thorny.
XXIX “behold” = idou. Same as “look” in v4. See note XXI above.
XXX “man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.

When the chief priestsXXXI and the policeXXXII sawXXXIII him, they shouted,XXXIV “CrucifyXXXV him! Crucify him!”

Pilate said to them, “Take him yourselves and crucify him; I find no case against him.” 

Notes on verse 6

XXXI “chief priests” = archiereus. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
XXXII “police” = huperetes. From huper (by, under, under the authority of another) + eresso (to row). Originally, this was a rower or someone who worked the oars on the lower deck of a boat. It is used figuratively of someone under the authority of another who follows their commands. So this could be servant, attendant, or office. It could also be someone who is a minister of the Gospel.
XXXIII “saw” = horao. Related to “man” in v5. See note XXX above.
XXXIV “shouted” = kraugazo. 9x in NT. From krauge (a very emotional shout or cry generally or clamor against someone else; a cry of alarm, trouble, or grief); from krazo (to cry out, scream, shriek; onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call; figuratively, this is means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt). This is to cry, shout, clamor. It is a screaming or shrieking that is often impossible to understand exact words in. It is sound expressing feeling/urgency. Properly, this refers to loud animal sounds.
XXXV “crucify” = stauroo. From stauros (upright stake, cross; literally the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die); from the same as histemi (to stand, cause to stand). This can be to attach someone to a cross or fencing with stakes. In a figurative sense, it could be to destroy, mortify, or subdue passions/selfishness.

The Jews answeredXXXVI him, “We haveXXXVII a law,XXXVIII

Notes on verse 7a

XXXVI “answered” = apokrinomai. From apo (from, away from) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is to reply or respond, to draw one’s own conclusions, to speak when one is expected to.
XXXVII “have” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
XXXVIII “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.

and according to that law he oughtXXXIX to dieXL because he has claimed to beXLI the SonXLII of God.”XLIII

Notes on verse 7b

XXXIX “ought” = opheilo. Perhaps from the base of ophelos (advantage, gain, profit); from ophello (heaped together, accumulate, increase). This is to be indebted morally or legally – having an obligation one must meet. This term came from the legal world, but was then adopted in reference to morality. In the New Testament it is used for humanity’s ethical responsibility.
XL “die” = apothnesko. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.
XLI “claimed to be” = heautou + poieo. Literally, “he made himself.” Poieo is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XLII “Son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
XLIII “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

Now when Pilate heardXLIV this,XLV he was moreXLVI afraidXLVII than ever. 

Notes on verse 8

XLIV “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XLV {untranslated} = logos. Related to “said” in v4. From lego (see note XX above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
XLVI “more” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.
XLVII “afraid” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.

He enteredXLVIII his headquartersXLIX again and askedL Jesus, “Where areLI you from?” But Jesus gaveLII him no answer.LIII 

Notes on verse 9

XLVIII “entered” = eiserchomai. Related to “coming up” in v3 & “went” in v4. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note XIV above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
XLIX “headquarters” = praitorion. 8x in NT. From Latin praetorium (headquarters, general’s tent, villa, place where the governor lives); from prator (leader, chief, president); from pareeo (to lead, go before). This is praetorium or preatorian guard. It is the place where the governor lives or the place where the praetorian guard of Rome lived. It could also mean courtroom. See
L “asked” = lego. Same as “said” in v4. See note XX above.
LI “are” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
LII “gave” = didomi. Same as “striking” in v3. See note XVIII above.
LIII “answer” = apokrisis. Related to “answered” in v7. 4x in NT. From apokrinomai (see note XXXVI above). This is reply or response.

10 Pilate therefore said to him, “Do you refuse to speak to me? Do you not knowLIV that I have powerLV to releaseLVI you and power to crucify you?” 

Notes on verse 10

LIV “know” = eido. Related to “look” in v4. See note XXI above.
LV “power” = exousia. Related to “are” in v9. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note LI above)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.
LVI “release” = apoluo. From apo (from, away from) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.

11 Jesus answered him, “You would have no power over me unless it had been given you from above;LVII therefore the one who handed me overLVIII to you is guiltyLIX of a greaterLX sin.”LXI 

Notes on verse 11

LVII “from above” = anothen. 13x in NT– this is the word used in John 3:3 in the being born “from above”/“again” conversation between Jesus and Nicodemus. From ano (up, above, up to the top, things above, heaven); from ana (up, upwards, again, back, among, anew). This is from above, from the top, again, beginning, from the source. It implies anew.
LVIII “handed…over” = paradidomi. Related to “striking” in v3. See note XVIII above.
LIX “is guilty” = echo. Same as “have” in v7. See note XXXVI above.
LX “greater” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
LXI “sin” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.

12 From then on Pilate triedLXII to release him, but the Jews cried out,LXIII “If you release this man, you are no friendLXIV

Notes on verse 12a

LXII “tried” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
LXIII “cried out” = kraugazo. Same as “shouted” in v6. See note XXXIV above.
LXIV “friend” = philos. This is dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person.

of Caesar.LXV EveryoneLXVI who claims to be a king sets himself againstLXVII Caesar.”

Notes on verse 12b

LXV “Caesar” = Kaisar. From Latin (Caesar); perhaps from Punic caesai (elephant) OR from Latin a cesiis oculis (because of the blue eyes) OR from Latin a caesarie (because of the hair) OR from Latin a caeso matris utero (born by Caesarean section) OR from Latin caedo (to cut). This is Caesar, at first a last name, then taken as a title by Roman emperors. See
LXVI “everyone” = pas. This is all or every.
LXVII “sets…against” = antilego. Related to “said” in v4 & {untranslated} in v8. 11x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + lego (see note XX above). This is literally to speak against – so, to contradict, oppose, resist. It is being argumentative, especially with a hostile bent through opposition. It can indicate attempts to thwart.

13 When Pilate heard these words,LXVIII he brought Jesus outside and satLXIX on the judge’s benchLXX

Notes on verse 13a

LXVIII “words” = logos. Same as {untranslated} in v8. See note XLV above.
LXIX “sat” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.
LXX “judge’s bench” = bema. Related to “king” in v3. 12x in NT. From the same as basis (see note XVI above). This is a place that is raised and has steps such as where a tribunal would meet to mete out justice. It also refers literally to the chair from which such justice would come whether for reward or punishment. This word was borrowed into Jewish religious practice from Byzantine Greek (from the same root) to describe the raised area of the synagogue from which the Torah was proclaimed – the bima. See

at a placeLXXI calledLXXII The Stone Pavement,LXXIII or in HebrewLXXIV Gabbatha.LXXV 

Notes on verse 13b

LXXI “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
LXXII “called” = lego. Same as “said” in v4. See note XX above.
LXXIII “Stone Pavement” = lithostrotos. Related to “soldiers” in v2. 1x in NT. From lithos (stone literal or figurative – stumbling, millstone, cornerstone) + strotos (spread or covered); {from stronnumi (see note V above)}. This is paved with stone or a mosaic. It is the place where the Roman tribunal met.
LXXIV “in Hebrew” = Hebraisti. 7x in NT. From Hebrais (Hebrew language, Aramaic); from Eber (Heber); from Hebrew Eber (the region beyond; Eber, the name of several Israelites including a descendant of Shem); from abar (to pass over, pass through, or pass by; cross over or to alienate; used for transitions). This is Hebrew, perhaps meaning a descendant of Eber. This is in Hebrew or in Aramaic.
LXXV “Gabbatha” = Gabbatha. 1x in NT. From Aramaic gab (back or side); corresponding to Hebrew gab (back, rim, valut, bulwark, top, a prominent or high place). This is Gabbath, which may mean stone pavement like the Greek. It may also mean knoll or higher place.

14 Now it was the day of PreparationLXXVI for the Passover,LXXVII and it was about noon.LXXVIII He said to the Jews, “Here is your King!” 

Notes on verse 14

LXXVI “day of Preparation” = paraskeue. 6x in NT. From paraskeuazo (to prepare, get ready); {from para (from beside, by) + skeuos (vessel, tool, container, implement; also vessel in a figurative or literal sense); {from skeuazo (to prepare using a tool)}}. This is preparation or readiness. It can be used specifically to refer to preparing for the Sabbath or a festival.
LXXVII “Passover” = Pascha. From Aramaic corresponding to Hebrew pesach (Passover or the offering for Passover); from pasach (to stop, pass over, skit over, to spare). This is Passover – used for the feast, the lamb of sacrifice, the day, and the festival itself. This is where the term “paschal” comes from as in the “paschal lamb.”
LXXVIII “was about noon” = hora + eimi + hos + hektos. Literally, “the hour was about the sixth.” Hora is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from. Eimi is the same as “are” in v9. See note LI above. Hektos is 14x in NT. From hex (six). This is sixth.

15 They cried out, “AwayLXXIX with him! Away with him! Crucify him!”

Pilate asked them, “Shall I crucify your King?”

The chief priests answered, “We have no king but Caesar.” 16 Then he handed him over to them to be crucified. So they tookLXXX Jesus, 17 and carryingLXXXI the crossLXXXII by himself

Notes on verses 15-16a

LXXIX “away” = airo. This is to lift up in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could mean to lift, carry, or raise. It could also imply lifting something in order to take it away or remove it. Figuratively, this can be used for raising the voice or level of suspense. It can mean sailing off as raising the anchor. It can also correspond to a Hebrew expression for atonement of sin (lift/remove sin).
LXXX “took” = paralambano. Related to “took” in v1. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + lambano (see note II above). This is to receive, take, acknowledge, associate with. It can also mean to take on an office or to learn.
LXXXI “carrying” = bastazo. Related to “king” in v3 & “judge’s bench” in v13. Perhaps from the base of basis (see note XVI above). This is to lift in a literal of figurative sense. It can also mean take up, carry, bear, or remove. Figuratively, it can mean declare, endure, or sustain.
LXXXII “cross” = stauros. Related to “crucify” in v6. See note XXXV above.

he went outLXXXIII to what is called the Place of the Skull,LXXXIV which in Hebrew is called Golgotha.LXXXV 

Notes on verse 17b

LXXXIII “went out” = exerchomai. Same as “went” in v4. See note XIX above.
LXXXIV “Skull” = kranion. 4x in NT. From kara (the head) OR from the base of keras (horn or something horn-shaped; horn in a literal or figurative sense – that which prevails or a symbol of power). This is skull. It’s where we get the word “cranium” from.
LXXXV “Golgotha” = Golgotha. 3x in NT. From Aramaic golgolta (skull); from Hebrew gulgolet (skull, head; a census or poll that counts people by head); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Golgotha, skull. See &

18 There they crucified him and with him twoLXXXVI others,LXXXVII one on either side,LXXXVIII with Jesus betweenLXXXIX them. 

Notes on verse 18

LXXXVI “two” = duo. This is two or both.
LXXXVII “others” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
LXXXVIII “one on either side” = enteuthen + kai + enteuthen. Enteuthen is 10x in NT. Related to enthen (from here); {from en (in, on, at, by, with, within)} OR from enthade (here, within, hither); {from en (see above)}. This is from here, on this side, thereupon, on both sides.
LXXXIX “between” = mesos. Perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action). This is middle, among, center, midst.

19 Pilate also had an inscriptionXC writtenXCI and putXCII on the cross. It read,XCIII “Jesus of Nazareth,XCIV the King of the Jews.” 

Notes on verse 19

XC “inscription” = titlos. 2x in NT. From Latin titulus (“title, placard, tablet, inscription, epitaph”; probably from Etruscan). This is title, inscription, or notice. See
XCI “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
XCII “put” = tithemi. Related to “put…on” in v2. See note IX above.
XCIII “read” = grapho. Same as “written” in v19. See note XCI above.
XCIV “Nazareth” = Nazoraios. 13x in NT. Probably from nazara (Nazareth); perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazarene. See

20 ManyXCV of the Jews readXCVI this inscription because the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city,XCVII and it was written in Hebrew, in Latin,XCVIII and in Greek.XCIX 

Notes on verse 20

XCV “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
XCVI “read” = anaginosko. Related to “know” in v4. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + ginosko (see note XXIII above). This is literally to know again – to recognize, read, or discern.
XCVII “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
XCVIII “in Latin” = Rhomaisti. 1x in NT. From Rhomaios (Roman, of Rome); from Rhome (Rome); from the base of rhonnumi (to strengthen, be firm, have health; used as a salutation in letters at the end); {probably from rhoomai (to move quickly)} OR from Latin Romulus (the one who founded Rome according to legend – many scholars believe this was suggested after the fact i.e. long after Rome was called Rome) OR from Rumon or Rumen (the Tiber river); {related to Proto-Indo-European root *srew- (to flow)} OR from Etruscan ruma (teat). This means in Latin. See
XCIX “in Greek” = Hellenisti. 2x in NT. From the same as Hellenistes (a Greek person, a Hellenist, a Jew who speaks Greek); from hellenizo (to hellenize); from Hellen (Greek; used in the New Testament for a Gentile who speaks Greek); from hellas (Hellas, what Greeks called themselves); perhaps from helane (torch) OR from selene (moon). This is in Greek or Hellistically. See

21 Then the chief priests of the Jews said to Pilate, “Do not write, ‘The King of the Jews,’ but, ‘This man said, I am King of the Jews.’” 

22 Pilate answered, “What I have written I have written.” 

23 When the soldiers had crucified Jesus, they tookC his clothesCI and dividedCII them into fourCIII parts,CIV oneCV for eachCVI soldier.

Notes on verses 21-23a

C “took” = lambano. Same as “took” in v1. See note II above.
CI “clothes” = himation. Same as “robe” in v2. See note XIII above.
CII “divided” = poieo. Same as “claimed to be” in v7. See note XLI above.
CIII “four” = tessares. This is four – used figuratively for total coverage.
CIV “parts” = meros. Related to “sin” in v11. See note LXI above.
CV “one” = meros. Same as “parts” in v23. See note CIV above.
CVI “each” = hekastos. Perhaps from hekas (separate). This is each one, any, every. It is every individual as a distinct entity as opposed to those counted as a group in small sets.

They also took his tunic;CVII now the tunic was seamless,CVIII wovenCIX in one pieceCX from the top.CXI 

Notes on verse 23b

CVII “tunic” = chiton. 11x in NT. From a Semitic language – see Hebrew kethoneth (tunic). Root means to cover. This is the garment worn beneath the cloak or robe – the one that is closest to the skin.
CVIII “seamless” = arraphos. Related to “striking” in v3. 1x in NT. Related to araphos (seamless, unsewn); {from a (not, without) + rhapto (to sew) or the same as rhapis (needle); perhaps related to rhapizo (see note XVIII above)}. This is seamless or made from a single piece.
CIX “woven” = huphantos. 1x in NT. From huphaino (to weave). This is woven or knitted.
CX “one piece” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
CXI “top” = anothen. Same as “from above” in v11. See note LVII above.

24 So they said to one another, “Let us not tearCXII it but cast lotsCXIII for it to see who will getCXIV it.”

Notes on verse 24a

CXII “tear” = schizo. 11x in NT. This is to split, divide, tear, sever; split in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “schism” comes from and also “schizophrenia” (literally “split mind”).
CXIII “cast lots” = lagchano. 4x in NT. This is to choose by lot, to receive, determine.
CXIV “get” = eimi. Same as “are” in v9. See note LI above.

This was to fulfillCXV what the scriptureCXVI says,

“They dividedCXVII my clothes among themselves,

Notes on verse 24b

CXV “fulfill” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
CXVI “scripture” = graphe. Related to “written” in v19. From grapho (see note XCI above). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.
CXVII “divided” = diamerizo. Related to “sin” in v11 & “parts” in v23. 12x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + merizo (to divide, part, share, distribute, assign; figuratively, to differ); {from meros (see note LXI above)}. This is to divide up, distribute, or share. Figuratively, it can mean dissension.

    and for my clothingCXVIII they castCXIX lots.”CXX

Notes on verse 24c

CXVIII “clothing” = himatismos. Related to “robe” in v2. 6x in NT. From himatizo (to clothe, dress, give clothing); from himation (see note XIII above). This is clothing, apparel.
CXIX “cast” = ballo. Related to “dressed…in” in v2. See note XI above.
CXX “lots” = kleros. 12x in NT. Perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread). This lot, portion, heritage. It is that share assigned to you. It could also refer to a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will.

25 AndCXXI that is what the soldiers did.CXXII

Meanwhile, standingCXXIII near the cross of Jesus were his mother,CXXIV

Notes on verse 25a

CXXI {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
CXXII “did” = poieo. Same as “claimed to be” in v7. See note XLI above.
CXXIII “standing” = histemi. Related to “crucify” in v6 & “cross” in v17. See note XXXV above.
CXXIV “mother” = meter. This is mother in a literal or figurative sense.

and his mother’s sister,CXXV MaryCXXVI the wife of Clopas,CXXVII and Mary Magdalene.CXXVIII 

Notes on verse 25b

CXXV “sister” = adelphe. From adelphos (brother in a literal or figurative sense); {from a (with, sharing) + delphus (womb)}. This is sister in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXVI “Mary” = Maria. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.
CXXVII “Clopas” = Klopas. 1x in NT. From Aramaic (Clopas); from halap (to make a transition, exchange, renew). This is Clopas. See
CXXVIII “Magdalene” = Magdalene. 12x in NT. From Magdala (Magadan, a place near the Sea of Galilee); perhaps from Aramaic migdal, see also Hebrew migdal (tower); from gadal (to grow, grow up, be great). This is from Magdala.

26 When Jesus saw his mother and the discipleCXXIX whom he lovedCXXX standing besideCXXXI her, he said to his mother, “Woman,CXXXII here is your son.” 

Notes on verse 26

CXXIX “disciple” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
CXXX “loved” = agapao. Perhaps from agan (much). This is love, longing for, taking pleasure in. It is divine love or human love that echoes divine love.
CXXXI “standing beside” = peristemi. Related to “crucify” in v6 & “cross” in v17 & “standing” in v25. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + histemi (see note XXXV above). This is to stand beside, appear, be present, be ready, provide, assist.
CXXXII “woman” = gune. Perhaps from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.

27 Then he said to the disciple, “HereCXXXIII is your mother.” And from that hourCXXXIV the disciple tookCXXXV her into his own home.CXXXVI

Notes on verse 27

CXXXIII “here” = idou. Same as “look” in v4. See note XXI above.
CXXXIV “hour” = hora. Same as “was about noon” in v14. See note LXXVIII above.
CXXXV “took” = lambano. Same as “took” in v1. See note II above.
CXXXVI “his own home” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).

28 After this, when Jesus knewCXXXVII that allCXXXVIII was now finished,CXXXIX he said (in order to fulfillCXL the scripture), “I am thirsty.”CXLI 

Notes on verse 28

CXXXVII “knew” = eido. Same as “know” in v10. See note LIV above.
CXXXVIII “all” = pas. Same as “everyone” in v12. See note LXVI above.
CXXXIX “finished” = teleo. From telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one). This is to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end.
CXL “fulfill” = teleioo. Related to “finished” in v28. From teleios (going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one; reaching an end and so being complete or “perfect”; also full grown or mature); from telos (see note CXXXIX above).  This is finish, accomplish, bring to an end, complete, reach a goal, finish a race, to consummate. It refers to completing stages or phases to get to an ultimate conclusion. It can also mean consecrate or fulfill.
CXLI “am thirsty” = dipsao. 16x in NT. From dipsa (thirst); from dipsos (thirst). This is thirst in a literal or figurative sense. Can also mean keenly desire.

29 A jarCXLII fullCXLIII of sour wineCXLIV was standingCXLV there.

Notes on verse 29a

CXLII “jar” = skeuos. Related to “day of preparation” in v14. See note LXXVI above.
CXLIII “full” = mestos. 9x in NT. This is filled with in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLIV “sour wine” = oxos. Related to “thorns” in v2 & “of thorns” in v5. 6x in NT– all of the crucifixion. From oxus (sharp, eager, quick); probably related to akmen (even now, still, yet); from the same as akmazo (become ripe, reach maturity); from akme (point or edge); related to ake (point). This is sour wine or vinegar. As the lowest grade of Roman wine, it was a common drink for Roman soldiers.
CXLV “standing” = keimai. This is to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined. It is to lie down literally or figuratively.

So they putCXLVI a spongeCXLVII full of the wine on a branch of hyssopCXLVIII and heldCXLIX it to his mouth.CL 

Notes on verse 29b

CXLVI “put” = peritithemi. Related to “put…on” in v2 & “put” in v19. 8x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + tithemi (see note IX above). This is to place around i.e. to clothe. Figuratively, it can mean to bestow or to present.
CXLVII “sponge” = spoggos. 3x in NT– all during the crucifixion. Perhaps related to spoggos (sponge or tonsil) –  a “Mediterranean-Pontic Pre-Greek substrate loanword.” This is sponge. See
CXLVIII “branch of hyssop” = hussopos. 2x in NT. A Semitic word – in Hebrew ezob (hyssop). Hyssop, either a stalk or stem.
CXLIX “held” = prosphero. Related to “wearing” in v5. From pros (at, to, with, towards, advantageous for) + phero (see note XXVII above). This is to offer gifts or sacrifices, to bring up.
CL “mouth” = stoma. Perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.

30 When Jesus had receivedCLI the wine, he said, “It is finished.” Then he bowedCLII his head and gave upCLIII his spirit.CLIV

Notes on verse 30

CLI “received” = lambano. Same as “took” in v1. See note II above.
CLII “bowed” = klino. 7x in NT. This is to slant, rest, recline, approach an end, wear. It can be bend in a literal or figurative sense – to lay down, a day ending, causing an opposing army to flee.
CLIII “gave up” = paradidomi. Same as “handed…over” in v11. See note LVIII above.
CLIV “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

31 Since it was the day of Preparation, the Jews did not want the bodiesCLV leftCLVI on the cross during the Sabbath,CLVII especially because that Sabbath was a dayCLVIII of greatCLIX solemnity.

Notes on verse 31a

CLV “bodies” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
CLVI “left” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.
CLVII “Sabbath” = sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.
CLVIII “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
CLIX “great solemnity” = megas. Same as “greater” in v11. See note LX above.

So they askedCLX Pilate to have the legsCLXI of the crucified men brokenCLXII and the bodies removed.CLXIII 

Notes on verse 31b

CLX “asked” = erotao. From eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of). This is asking a question or making an earnest request. It is used between someone with whom the asker is close in some sense. So, they anticipate special consideration for their request.
CLXI “legs” = skelos. 3x in NT– all in this passage. Perhaps from skello (to parch). This is leg, beginning at the hip.
CLXII “broken” = katagnumi. 4x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + rhegnumi (to break, burst, wreak, crack, break apart). This is to crush or beak in pieces.
CLXIII “removed” = airo. Same as “away” in v15. See note LXXIX above.

32 Then the soldiers cameCLXIV andCLXV broke the legs of the firstCLXVI and of the other who had been crucified withCLXVII him. 

Notes on verse 32

CLXIV “came” = erchomai. Same as “coming up” in v3. See note XIV above.
CLXV {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v24. See note CXXI above.
CLXVI “first” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
CLXVII “crucified with” = sustauroo. Related to “crucify” in v6 & “cross” in v17 & “standing” in v25 & “standing beside” in v26. 5x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + stauroo (see note XXXV above). This is to crucify with in a literal or figurative sense.

33 But when they cameCLXVIII to Jesus and saw that he was already dead,CLXIX they did not break his legs. 34 Instead, oneCLXX of the soldiers piercedCLXXI his sideCLXXII with a spear,CLXXIII

Notes on verses 33-34a

CLXVIII “came” = erchomai. Same as “coming up” in v3. See note XIV above.
CLXIX “dead” = thnesko. Related to “die” in v7. 9x in NT. See note XL above.
CLXX “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
CLXXI “pierced” = nusso. 2x in NT. This is to prick or pierce.
CLXXII “side” = pleura. 6x in NT. This is the side or the side of the body. It is where “pleurisy” comes from.
CLXXIII “spear” = logche. This is lance or spear.

and at onceCLXXIV bloodCLXXV and waterCLXXVI came out.CLXXVII 

Notes on verse 34b

CLXXIV “at once” = eutheos. Related to “put…on” in v2 & “put” in v19 & “put” in v29. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + tithemi (see note IX above)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
CLXXV “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).
CLXXVI “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.
CLXXVII “came out” = exerchomai. Same as “went” in v4. See note XIX above.

35 (He who saw this has testifiedCLXXVIII so that you also may believe. His testimonyCLXXIX is true,CLXXX

Notes on verse 35a

CLXXVIII “testified” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXIX “testimony” = marturia. Related to “testified” in v35. From martureo (see note CLXXVIII above). This is testimony, witness, evidence, record, reputation.
CLXXX “true” = alethinos. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to the test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic); {from a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares)}. This is literally made of truth – that which is true or real, authentic. Something that is true from its source and has integrity.

and he knowsCLXXXI that he tellsCLXXXII the truth,CLXXXIII so that you also may continue to believe.)CLXXXIV 

Notes on verse 35b

CLXXXI “knows” = eido. Same as “know” in v10. See note LIV above.
CLXXXII “tells” = lego. Same as “said” in v4. See note XX above.
CLXXXIII “truth” = alethes. Related to “true” in v35. See note CLXXX above.
CLXXXIV “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

36 These things occurredCLXXXV so that the scripture might be fulfilled,CLXXXVI “None of his bonesCLXXXVII shall be broken.”CLXXXVIII 

Notes on verse 36

CLXXXV “occurred” = ginomai. Related to “woman” in v26. See note CXXXII above.
CLXXXVI “fulfilled” = pleroo. Same as “fulfill” in v24. See note CXV above.
CLXXXVII “bones” = osteon. 5x in NT. This is bone. It is one of the roots of “osteopath.”
CLXXXVIII “broken” = suntribo. 8x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + the same as tribos (worn track or path like a rut that is formed from rubbing i.e. steady use; also road or highway); {from tribo (to rub or thresh)}. This is break in pieces, bruise, shatter, or crush completely.

37 And again anotherCLXXXIX passage of scripture says, “They will lookCXC on the one whom they have pierced.”CXCI

Notes on verse 37

CLXXXIX “another” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
CXC “look” = horao. Same as “saw” in v6. See note XXXI above.
CXCI “pierced” = ekkenteo. 2x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + the same as kentron (a sting or sharp point; figuratively, poison or death); {from kenteo (to prick)}. This is to pierce or transfix.

38 After these things, JosephCXCII of Arimathea,CXCIII who was a disciple of Jesus, though a secretCXCIV one because of his fearCXCV of the Jews,

Notes on verse 38a

CXCII “Joseph” = Ioseph. From Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases.”
CXCIII “Arimathea” = Harimathaia. 4x in NT. From Hebrew compare Ramah (Ramah, height); from rum (to be high, rise, exalt self, extol, be haughty; to rise literally or figuratively). This is Arimathea, a city by Jerusalem.
CXCIV “secret” = krupto. 18x in NT. This is to hide by covering, secret, hidden things. This is the root of the word “cryptography.”
CXCV “fear” = phobos. Related to “afraid” in v8. See note XLVII above.

askedCXCVI Pilate to let him take awayCXCVII the body of Jesus. Pilate gave him permission,CXCVIII so he cameCXCIX and removed his body. 

Notes on verse 38b

CXCVI “asked” = erotao. Same as “asked” in v31. See note CLX above.
CXCVII “take away” = airo. Same as “away” in v15. See note LXXIX above.
CXCVIII “gave…permission” = epitrepo. 18x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + the same as trope (turning, change, shifting); {from trepo (to turn)}. This is to allow, permit, yield, entrust, give license.
CXCIX “came” = erchomai. Same as “coming up” in v3. See note XIV above.

39 Nicodemus,CC who had at first comeCCI to Jesus by night,CCII also came,CCIII bringingCCIV a mixtureCCV

Notes on verse 39a

CC “Nicodemus” = Nikodemos. 5x in NT. From nikos (victory, triumph – especially a conquest); {from nike (victory, conquest; figurative for what makes one successful)} + demos (district, multitude, rabble, assembly; Greeks bound by similar laws or customs); {from deo (to tie, bind, compel, declare unlawful)}. This is Nicodemus, meaning “victorious among his people.”
CCI “come” = erchomai. Same as “coming up” in v3. See note XIV above.
CCII “night” = nux. This is night in a literal or figurative sense.
CCIII “came” = erchomai. Same as “coming up” in v3. See note XIV above.
CCIV “bringing” = phero. Related to “wearing” in v5 & “held” in v29. See note XXVII above.
CCV “mixture” = migma. 1x in NT. From mignumi (to mix). This is a mixture or compound.

of myrrhCCVI and aloes,CCVII weighing about a hundredCCVIII pounds.CCIX 

Notes on verse 39b

CCVI “myrrh” = smurna. 2x in NT. Perhaps from muron (ointment, perfume, or oil for anointing); compare Arabic murr (myrrh, literally meaning bitterness) & Hebrew mo (myrrh, literally meaning bitterness). This is myrrh, used in preparing the body for burial. Can also be figurative for romantic desire. See
CCVII “aloes” = aloe. 1x in NT. This is either sap from a tree called the aquillaria agallocha, the eaglewood tree, or it could refer to proper aloe. In addition to its use for embalming, aloe is associated with love in the Song of Songs 4:14.
CCVIII “hundred” = hekaton. 17x in NT. This is hundred literal or figurative.
CCIX “pounds” = litra. 2x in NT. From Latin libra (a Roman weight – twelve ounces; also a level or set of scales); from Proto-Italic lithra (pound). This is a pound, which is about 327.5 grams. See

40 They tookCCX the body of Jesus and wrappedCCXI it with the spicesCCXII

Notes on verse 40a

CCX “took” = lambano. Same as “took” in v1. See note II above.
CCXI “wrapped” = deo. Related to “Nicodemus” in v39. See note CC above.
CCXII “spices” = aroma. Related to “away” in v15. 4x in NT– all used of bringing spices for Jesus’ body. Perhaps from airo (see note LXXIX above). This is a sweet spice, seasoning, or perfume. It is where the word “aroma” comes from.

in linen cloths,CCXIII according to the burialCCXIV customCCXV of the Jews. 

Notes on verse 40b

CCXIII “linen cloths” = othonion. 5x in NT. From othone (a cloth made of linen, a sail). This is a band of linen, a wrapping.
CCXIV “burial” = entaphiazo. 2x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + taphos (a burial place such as a grave, sepulcher, or tomb); {from thapto (to bury, hold a funeral)}. This is to prepare a body to be buried, to embalm.
CCXV “custom” = ethos. 12x in NT. From etho (custom, what is customary). This is custom habit, rite – also, doing something that the law requires. It can be an unwritten custom, acting in accordance with tradition.

41 Now there was a gardenCCXVI in the place where he was crucified, and in the garden there was a newCCXVII tombCCXVIII in which no one had ever been laid.CCXIX 42 And so, because it was the Jewish day of Preparation and the tomb was nearby, they laid Jesus there.

Notes on verses 41-42

CCXVI “garden” = kepos. 5x in NT. This is a garden or a place where trees or herbs are grown.
CCXVII “new” = kainos. This is not new as in new versus old. This is new in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh.
CCXVIII “tomb” = mnemeion. Related to “flogged” in v1 & “left” in v31. From mousikos (to remember); from mneme (memory or mention); from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is properly a memorial – a tomb, grave, monument.
CCXIX “laid” = tithemi. Same as “put” in v19. See note XCII above.

Image credit: “Piedada” of Donostia by Jose Oteiza. Photo by Ksarasola, 2022.

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