John 12

John 12


SixI daysII before the PassoverIII

Notes on verse 1a

I “six” = hex. 13x in NT. This is six. It is part of where “hexagon” comes from.
II “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
III “Passover” = Pascha. From Aramaic corresponding to Hebrew pesach (Passover or the offering for Passover); from pasach (to stop, pass over, skit over, to spare). This is Passover – used for the feast, the lamb of sacrifice, the day, and the festival itself. This is where the term “paschal” comes from as in the “paschal lamb.”

JesusIV cameV to Bethany,VI

Notes on verse 1b

IV “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
V “came” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
VI “Bethany” = Bethania. 12x in NT. From Aramaic beth anya (house of affliction, misery, wretchedness). This is Bethany.

the home of Lazarus,VII whom he had raisedVIII from the dead.IX 

Notes on verse 1c

VII “Lazarus” = Lazaros. 15x in NT. From Hebrew Elazar (God has helped or God is helper); {from el (God, a god) + azar (to help, protect, support, ally; properly, to surround so as to provide aid)}. This is Lazarus or Eliezer, meaning “God has helped” or “God is helper.”
VIII “raised” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
IX “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.

There they gaveX a dinnerXI for him. MarthaXII

Notes on verse 2a

X “gave” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XI “dinner” = deipnon. 16x in NT. From the same as dapane (cost or expense); from dapto (to devour). This is a dinner or a feast – a meal in the afternoon or, more commonly, the evening.
XII “Martha” = Martha. 13x in NT. From Aramaic marta (mistress, lady); from mar (master). This is Martha. See also (

served,XIII and Lazarus was oneXIV of those recliningXV with him. 

Notes on verse 2b

XIII “served” = diakoneo. From diakonos (servant, minister, waiter, or attendant; a person who performs a service, including religious service); {perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute); {related to dio (put to flight)}}. This is to wait at table, to serve generally, to minister or administer, to be in the office of deacon. To wait on someone as a slave, friend, or host.
XIV “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
XV “reclining” = anakeimai. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + keimai (to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined; to lie down literally or figuratively). This is to recline, particularly as one does for dinner. It can also be reclining as a corpse.

MaryXVI tookXVII a poundXVIII

Notes on verse 3a

XVI “Mary” = Maria. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.
XVII “took” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
XVIII “pound” = litra. 2x in NT. From Latin libra (a Roman weight – twelve ounces; also a level or set of scales); from Proto-Italic lithra (pound). This is a pound, which is about 327.5 grams. See

of costlyXIX perfumeXX made of pureXXI nard,XXII

Notes on verse 3b

XIX “costly” = polutimos. 3x in NT– including the pearl of great price in Matthew 13:46. From polus (much, many, abundant) + time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; also esteem or dignity; also precious or valuables); {From tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is very precious, valuable, or costly.
XX “perfume” = muron. 14x in NT. This is ointment, perfume, or anointing oil. Probably olive oil mixed with spices and scents such as myrrh.
XXI “pure” = pistikos. 2x in NT– both in the anointing of Jesus. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is trustworthy – as in, it can be trusted to be genuine or unadulterated.
XXII “nard” = nardos. 2x in NT– both in the anointing of Jesus. From Akkadian ardu; from Arabic rand; perhaps from Sanskrit nalada (all referring to nard). This is a fragrant Indian plant that was used to make perfume. See

anointedXXIII Jesus’s feet,XXIV and wipedXXV them with her hair.XXVI

Notes on verse 3c

XXIII “anointed” = aleipho. 9x in NT. From a (with) + liparos (oil, fatty; something luxurious); {from lipos (fat, grease)}. This is to anoint whether for medical reasons, as part of hospitality, for a dead body, for a celebration or festival, or to show respect.
XXIV “feet” = pous. This is foot in a literal or figurative sense.
XXV “wiped” = ekmasso. 5x in NT– 4x related to Jesus being anointed by the woman & 1x of Jesus washing the disciples’ feet. From ek (from, from out of) + massaomai (to chew, gnaw); {from masso (to knead, squeeze)}. This is to knead something out, which figuratively indicates wiping something off or wiping it dry.
XXVI “hair” = thrix. 15x in NT. This is hair, whether human or animal.

The houseXXVII was filledXXVIII with the fragranceXXIX of the perfume. 

Notes on verse 3d

XXVII “house” = oikia. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
XXVIII “filled” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
XXIX “fragrance” = osme. 6x in NT. From ozo (to stink, to emit a scent – generally an unpleasant one). This is an aroma or fragrance. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.

But JudasXXX Iscariot,XXXI one of his disciplesXXXII

Notes on verse 4a

XXX “Judas” = Ioudas. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.
XXXI “Iscariot” = Iskariotes. 11x in NT. From Hebrew probably ish (man, husband); {perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be frail, feeble)} + qirya (city); {Aramaic corresponding to qiryah (city, building); from qarah (to happen, meet, bring about)}. Iscariot means person from Kerioth.
XXXII “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.

(the one who was about toXXXIII betrayXXXIV him), said,XXXV 

Notes on verse 4b

XXXIII “was about to” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
XXXIV “betray” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
XXXV “said” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.

“Why was this perfume not soldXXXVI for three hundredXXXVII denariiXXXVIII and the money givenXXXIX to the poor?”XL 

Notes on verse 5

XXXVI “sold” = piprasko. 9x in NT. From pernemi (to sell by export). This is to sell with travel involved. It can also mean to sell into slavery or to be devoted to.
XXXVII “three hundred” = triakosioi. 2x in NT. From treis (three) + hekaton (a hundred, a hundred times). This is three hundred.
XXXVIII “denarii” = denarion. 16x in NT. From Latin deni (ten each) + arius (belonging to). This is a silver Roman coin.
XXXIX “given” = didomi. Related to “betray” in v4. See note XXXIV above.
XL “poor” = ptochos. From ptosso (to crouch or cower as a beggar does). This is poor or destitute – someone who is extremely poor and bowed down because of a long struggle under poverty. Properly, it means bent over so figuratively it is someone who is deeply destitute and lacking tangible resources. This is a beggar – as extremely opposite a wealthy person as possible.

(He said this not because he caredXLI about the poor but because he was a thief;XLII he keptXLIII the common purseXLIV and used to stealXLV what was put intoXLVI it.) 

Notes on verse 6

XLI “cared” = melo. Related to “was about to” in v4. 10x in NT. See note XXXIII above.
XLII “thief” = kleptes. 16x in NT. From klepto (to steal secretively). This is a thief that steals using stealth rather than violence. It is a thief in a literal or figurative sense.
XLIII “kept” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
XLIV “common purse” = glossokomon. 2x in NT. From glossa (tongue, language – a nation identified by the language they share; speaking) + the same as komizo (to carry, convey, recover); {from komeo (to take care of)}. This is bag, purse, chest. It could refer to a case for mouthpieces, a casket, or a money bag.
XLV “steal” = bastazo. Perhaps from the base of basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is to lift in a literal of figurative sense. It can also mean take up, carry, bear, or remove. Figuratively, it can mean declare, endure, or sustain.
XLVI “put into” = ballo. This is to throw, cast, rush, place, or drop. It is throwing, but it could be with more or less velocity and with more or less force/violence.

Jesus said, “Leave her alone.XLVII She bought it so that she might keepXLVIII it for the day of my burial.XLIX You alwaysL haveLI the poor with you, but you do not always have me.”

Notes on verses 7-8

XLVII “leave…alone” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
XLVIII “keep” = tereo. From teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve. It can also be used f iguratively for spiritual watchfulness. It is guarding something from being lost or harmed – keeping an eye on it. Contrast the Greek phulasso, which is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape. Also contrast koustodia, which generally denotes a fortress or military presence. This word can mean fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining. It can also figuratively mean to remain unmarried.
XLIX “burial” = entaphiasmos. 2x in NT. From entaphiazo (to prepare a body to be buried, to embalm); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + taphos (a burial place such as a grave, sepulcher, or tomb); {from thapto (to bury, hold a funeral)}}. This is embalming or burial.
L “always” = pantote. From pas (all, every, each) + tote (then, whether past or future); {from hote (when); from ho (the)}. This is literally every when. It is always, at all times.
LI “have” = echo. Same as “kept” in v6. See note XLIII above.

When the greatLII crowdLIII of the JewsLIV learnedLV that he was there, they came not onlyLVI because of Jesus but also to seeLVII Lazarus, whom he had raised from the dead. 

Notes on verse 9

LII “great” = polus. Related to “costly” in v3. See note XIX above.
LIII “crowd” = ochlos. Related to “kept” in v6. Perhaps from echo (see note XLIII above). This is a crowd, the common people, a rabble. Figuratively, it can refer to a riot.
LIV “Jews” = Ioudaios. Related to “Judas” in v4. From Ioudas (see note XXX above). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
LV “learned” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
LVI “only” = monon. From monos (alone, single, remaining, mere, desolate); from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is merely, only, simply, sole. It can also imply alone.
LVII “see” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.

10 So the chief priestsLVIII plannedLIX to put Lazarus to deathLX as well, 

Notes on verse 10

LVIII “chief priests” = archiereus. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
LIX “planned” = bouleuo. 6x in NT. From boule (counsel, plan, purpose, decision; wisdom that comes from deliberation); from boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination). This is to deliberate, consider, plan together, advise, or resolve to do something.
LX “put…to death” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.

11 since it was on account of him that manyLXI of the Jews were desertingLXII and were believingLXIII in Jesus.

Notes on verse 11

LXI “many” = polus. Same as “great” in v9. See note LII above.
LXII “deserting” = hupago. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (lead, bring, guide, spend, drive, carry). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
LXIII “believing” = pisteuo. Related to “pure” in v3. From pistis (see note XXI above). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

12 The next dayLXIV the great crowd that had come to the festivalLXV heardLXVI that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem.LXVII 

Notes on verse 12

LXIV “next day” = epaurion. 17x in NT. From epi (on, upon, something fitting) + aurion (tomorrow); {from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow)}. This is tomorrow, the next day.
LXV “festival” = heorte. This is a holiday or feast.
LXVI “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
LXVII “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

13 So they took branchesLXVIII of palm treesLXIX and went outLXX to meetLXXI him, shouting,LXXII

Notes on verse 13a

LXVIII “branches” = baion. Related to “steal” in v6. 1x in NT. Perhaps from basis (see note XLV above). This is a palm branch or twig.
LXIX “palm trees” = phoinix. 2x in NT. This is some kind of palm or palm tee, perhaps the date palm. It shares a root with “phoenix.”
LXX “went out” = exerchomai. Related to “came” in v1. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note V above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
LXXI “meet” = hupantesis. 3x in NT. From hupantao (to encounter someone or to go to meet them); {from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + antao (to meet with personally) OR from hupo (see above) + anti (opposite, instead of, against)}. This is meeting or encounter.
LXXII “shouting” = kraugazo. 9x in NT. From krauge (a very emotional shout or cry generally or clamor against someone else; a cry of alarm, trouble, or grief); from krazo (to cry out, scream, shriek; onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call; figuratively, this is means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt). This is to cry, shout, clamor. It is a screaming or shrieking that is often impossible to understand exact words in. It is sound expressing feeling/urgency. Properly, this refers to loud animal sounds.

Blessed isLXXIV the one who comes in the nameLXXV of the LordLXXVI
    the KingLXXVII of Israel!”LXXVIII

Notes on verse 13b

LXXIII “Hosanna” = hosanna. Related to “Jesus” in v1. 6x in NT. From Hebrew yasha (see note IV above) + na (particle used for requests or for urging; can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh). This is Hosanna – save, we pray. It started as a call for help, but later became a cry of happiness (anticipating the help coming). It can be save now, please save, or oh, save.
LXXIV “blessed is” = eulogeo. Related to “said” in v4. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (see note XXXV above)}. Properly, this is speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited. It can mean praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing. This is where “eulogy” comes from.
LXXV “name” = onoma. Related to “learned” in v9. May be from ginosko (see note LV above). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
LXXVI “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
LXXVII “King” = basileus. Related to “steal” in v6 & “branches” in v13. Probably from basis (see note XLV above). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
LXXVIII “Israel” = Israel. Related to “Lazarus” in v1. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (see note VII above)}. This is Israel the people and the land.

14 Jesus foundLXXIX a young donkeyLXXX and satLXXXI on it, as it is written:LXXXII

Notes on verse 14

LXXIX “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
LXXX “young donkey” = onarion. 1x in NT. From onos (donkey). This is the diminutive form – little donkey.
LXXXI “sat” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.
LXXXII “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.

15 “Do not be afraid,LXXXIII daughterLXXXIV of Zion.LXXXV

Notes on verse 15a

LXXXIII “be afraid” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.
LXXXIV “daughter” = thugater. This is daughter, a related female or one who lives with you.
LXXXV “Zion” = Sion. 7x in NT. From Hebrew tsiyyon (Zion – a mountain in Jerusalem as well as another name for Jerusalem itself or the people); related to tsyiyyun (signpost, monument); from tsavah (to charge someone, to command, order); from the same as tsiyyah (dryness drought); from a root meaning parched as desert, dry land. This is Zion – the mountain in Jerusalem, the city, or its people. Also used figuratively to refer to the church.

Look,LXXXVI your king is coming,
    sittingLXXXVII on a donkey’sLXXXVIII colt!”LXXXIX

Notes on verse 15b

LXXXVI “look” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
LXXXVII “sitting” = kathemai. Related to “days” in v1. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (see note II above). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
LXXXVIII “donkey’s” = onos. Related to “young donkey” in v14. 5x in NT. See note LXXX above.
LXXXIX “colt” = polos. 12x in NT– all in Jesus’s Palm Sunday entry into Jerusalem. This is foal, colt, or young donkey.

16 His disciples did not understandXC these things at first,XCI but when Jesus was glorified,XCII then they rememberedXCIII that these things had been written of him and had been doneXCIV to him. 

Notes on verse 16

XC “understand” = ginosko. Same as “learned” in v9. See note LV above.
XCI “first” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
XCII “glorified” = doxazo. From doxa (glory, opinion, praise, honor, renown; particularly used as a quality of God or manifestation of God – splendor); from dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.
XCIII “remembered” = mimnesko. Related to “wiped” in v3 & “only” in v9. From mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (see note LVI above). This is to remind or remember. It is memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful of. It is not incidentally or accidentally remembering.
XCIV “done” = poieo. Same as “gave” in v2. See note X above.

17 So the crowd that had been with him when he calledXCV Lazarus out of the tombXCVI and raised him from the dead continued to testify.XCVII 

Notes on verse 17

XCV “called” = phoneo. From phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.
XCVI “tomb” = mnemeion. Related to “wiped” in v3 & “only” in v9 & “remembered” in v16. From mousikos (to remember); from mneme (memory or mention); from mnaomai (see note XCIII above); perhaps from meno (see note LVI above). This is properly a memorial – a tomb, grave, monument.
XCVII “testify” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.

18 It was also because they heard that he had performedXCVIII this signXCIX that the crowd went to meetC him. 

Notes on verse 18

XCVIII “performed” = poieo. Same as “gave” in v2. See note X above.
XCIX “sign” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
C “meet” = hupantao. Related to “meet” in v13. 10x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + antao (see note LXXI above) OR from hupo (see above) + anti (opposite, instead of, against). This is to encounter someone or to go to meet them.

19 The PhariseesCI then said to one another, “You see,CII you can doCIII nothing.

Notes on verse 19a

CI “Pharisees” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
CII “see” = theoreo. Related to “keep” in v7. See note XLVIII above.
CIII “do” = opheleo. 15x in NT. From ophelos (help, gain, profit); from ophello (to heap up or increase). This is to help, benefit, do good, or be useful.

Look, the worldCIV has goneCV afterCVI him!”

Notes on verse 19b

CIV “world” = kosmos. Related to “common purse” in v6. Perhaps from the base of komizo (see note XLIV above). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.
CV “gone” = aperchomai. Related to “came” in v1 & “went out” in v13. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note V above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
CVI “after” = opiso. Related to “see” in v9. From the same as opisthen (after, back, from the rear); probably from opis (back); from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note LVII above). This is back, behind, after.

20 Now among those who went upCVII to worshipCVIII at the festival were some Greeks.CIX 

Notes on verse 20

CVII “went up” = anabaino. Related to “steal” in v6 & “branches” and “King” in v13. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (see note XLV above). This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
CVIII “worship” = proskuneo. From pros (advantageous for, at, to, toward, with) + kuneo (to kiss); {may be related to kuno (dog)}. This is to do reverence, kneel, to prostrate oneself in homage, to worship.
CIX “Greeks” = Hellen. From Hellas (Hellas, what Greeks called themselves); perhaps from helane (torch) OR from selene (moon). This is Greek, but was used for Gentiles, broader populations that spoke Greek and were a part of Greek culture regardless of their heritage. See

21 They cameCX to Philip,CXI who was from BethsaidaCXII in Galilee,CXIII

Notes on verse 21a

CX “came” = proserchomai. Related to “came” in v1 & “went out” in v13 & “gone” in v19. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (see note V above). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
CXI “Philip” = Philippos. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + hippos (horse). This is Philip, meaning one who loves horses or is fond of horses.
CXII “Bethsaida” = Bethsaida. Related to “Bethany” in v1. 7x in NT. From Aramaic beth (see note VI above) + tsaida (hunting); related to Hebrew bayit (house, family); {from banah (to build)} + tsayid (hunting, catch, the chase); {from tsud (to hunt, to lie in wait in order to catch an animal; used figuratively for capturing people)} OR from Aramaic bet (house) + chasda (grace); related to Hebrew chesed (favor, goodness, kindness, loving kindness, pity, reproach, or a good deed; when done by humanity to God, it is piety); {from chasad (being good, kind, merciful; may mean bowing one’s neck as is done in the presence of an equal for courtesy’s sake; so, if one in a superior position is treating you like an equal, that is what is captured here)}. This is Bethsaida, meaning either house of fish or house of grace.
CXIII “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.

and saidCXIV to him, “Sir,CXV we wishCXVI to seeCXVII Jesus.” 

Notes on verse 21b

CXIV “said” = erotao. From eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of). This is asking a question or making an earnest request. It is used between someone with whom the asker is close in some sense. So, they anticipate special consideration for their request.
CXV “sir” = kurios. Same as “Lord” in v13. See note LXXVI above.
CXVI “wish” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
CXVII “see” = horao. Same as “see” in v9. See note LVII above.

22 Philip wentCXVIII and toldCXIX Andrew,CXX then Andrew and Philip went and told Jesus. 

23 Jesus answered them, “The hourCXXI has comeCXXII for the SonCXXIII of ManCXXIV to be glorified. 

Notes on verses 22-23

CXVIII “went” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v1. See note V above.
CXIX “told” = lego. Same as “said” in v4. See note XXXV above.
CXX “Andrew” = Andreas. 13x in NT. From aner (man, male, sir, husband). This is Andrew, meaning manly.
CXXI “hour” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
CXXII “come” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v1. See note V above.
CXXIII “Son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
CXXIV “Man” = anthropos. Related to “see” in v9 & “after” in v19 & “Andrew” in v22. Probably from aner (see note CXX above) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (see note CVI above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.

24 Very truly,CXXV I tell you, unless a grainCXXVI of wheatCXXVII

Notes on verse 24a

CXXV “very truly” = amen + amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
CXXVI “grain” = kokkos. 7x in NT. This is grain, kernel, or seed.
CXXVII “wheat” = sitos.  15x in NT. This is used for any kind of grain that you can eat. It is usually wheat, but it can also be barley and other grains.

fallsCXXVIII into the earthCXXIX and dies,CXXX it remainsCXXXI

Notes on verse 24b

CXXVIII “falls” = pipto. This is to fall literally or figuratively.
CXXIX “earth” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
CXXX “dies” = apothnesko. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.
CXXXI “remains” = meno. Related to “only” in v9 & “remembered” in v16 & “tomb” in v17 & “single” in v24. See note LVI above.

just a singleCXXXII grain, but if it dies it bearsCXXXIII muchCXXXIV fruit.CXXXV 

Notes on verse 24c

CXXXII “single” = monos. Related to “only” in v9 & “remembered” in v16 & “tomb” in v17. Perhaps from meno (see note LVI above). This is alone, single, remaining, mere, desolate.
CXXXIII “bears” = phero. This is to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly. It is to carry in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXIV “much” = polus. Same as “great” in v9. See note LII above.
CXXXV “fruit” = karpos. Perhaps from harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (to choose, take). This is a fruit or vegetable, through sometimes it refers to an animal. Figuratively, it is deeds, results, profits, or gain.

25 Those who loveCXXXVI their lifeCXXXVII loseCXXXVIII it,

Notes on verse 25a

CXXXVI “love” = phileo. Related to “Philip” in v21. From philos (see note CXI above). This is friendship love and fondness with personal attachment.
CXXXVII “life” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
CXXXVIII “lose” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.

and those who hateCXXXIX their life in this world will keepCXL it for eternalCXLI life.CXLII 

Notes on verse 25b

CXXXIX “hate” = miseo. From misos (hatred). This word is used in two ways in the New Testament. One has to do with how we prioritize. In order to prioritize something the highest, it means we have to rank other things lower. We cannot have 10 number one priorities. So, the nine that are not number 1, we love less or we value them lower. We make a moral choice the springs from our values about where we put our time, efforts, energy, etc. The other way is detesting or hatred as we normally think of it. This sense has a particular affinity with persecuting the one we hate.
CXL “keep” = phulasso. This is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly. This is being on guard in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLI “eternal” = aionios. From aion (an age, length of time); from the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is age-long, forever, everlasting. Properly, that which lasts for an age. This is where eon comes from.
CXLII “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

26 Whoever serves me must followCXLIII me, and where I am, there will my servantCXLIV be also. Whoever serves me, the FatherCXLV will honor.CXLVI

Notes on verse 26

CXLIII “follow” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
CXLIV “servant” = diakonos. Related to “served” in v2. See note XIII above.
CXLV “Father” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
CXLVI “honor” = timao. Related to “costly” in v3. From time (see note XIX above). Properly, this is setting a value or price on something, to estimate. Figuratively, it speaks to what level of honor we afford someone or something depending on our personal feeling toward it. By implication, this can mean to revere or honor.

27 “Now my soulCXLVII is troubled.CXLVIII And what should I say: ‘Father, saveCXLIX me from this hour’? No, it is for this reason that I have comeCL to this hour. 28 Father, glorify your name.”

Notes on verses 27-28a

CXLVII “soul” = psuche. Same as “life” in v25. See note CXXXV above.
CXLVIII “troubled” = tarasso. 18x in NT. This is trouble, agitate, stir up. It is motion back and forth, creating inner turmoil or confusion, roiling water.
CXLIX “save” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.
CL “come” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v1. See note V above.

Then a voiceCLI cameCLII from heaven,CLIII “I have glorified it, and I will glorify it again.” 

Notes on verse 28b

CLI “voice” = phone. Related to “called” in v17. See note XCV above.
CLII “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v1. See note V above.
CLIII “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill); probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.

29 The crowd standing thereCLIV heard it and said that it wasCLV thunder.CLVI OthersCLVII said, “An angelCLVIII has spoken to him.” 

Notes on verse 29

CLIV “standing there” = histemi. This is to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast.
CLV “was” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
CLVI “thunder” = bronte. 12x in NT. Related to bremo (to roar). This is thunder. It’s part of the root of brontosaurus, literally thunder lizard. This is also where the last name Brontё comes from.
CLVII “others” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
CLVIII “angel” = aggelos. Related to “deserting” in v11. Probably from ago (see note LXII above) + agele (flock, herd, drove); {also from ago (see above)}. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.

30 Jesus answered, “This voice has comeCLIX for your sake, not for mine. 31 Now is the judgmentCLX of this world; now the rulerCLXI of this world will be drivenCLXII out. 

Notes on verses 30-31

CLIX “come” = ginomai. Same as “was” in v29. See note CLV above.
CLX “judgment” = krisis. From krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is a judging or a sentence. It is often used of God’s judgment, but can also be any accusation or condemnation. This is where the word “crisis” comes from.
CLXI “ruler” = archon. Related to “chief priests” in v10. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is ruler, leader, magistrate, official, prince, chief.
CLXII “driven” = ekballo. Related to “put into” in v6. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (see note XLVI above). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.

32 And I, when I am lifted upCLXIII from the earth, will drawCLXIV allCLXV people to myself.” 

Notes on verse 32

CLXIII “lifted up” = hupsoo. From hupsos (height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted); from hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond). This is to elevate in a literal or figurative sense. So it could be to raise up or set something in a high place or to exalt or make something great.
CLXIV “draw” = helko. Related to “fruit” in v24. 8x in NT. Perhaps from haireomai (see note CXXXV above). This is to pull in or draw in. It can be drag in a literal or figurative sense. This places an emphasis on the power of the attraction.
CLXV “all” = pas. Related to “always” in v8. See note L above.

33 He said this to indicateCLXVI the kind of deathCLXVII he was toCLXVIII die. 

Notes on verse 33

CLXVI “indicate” = semaino. Related to “sign” in v18. 6x in NT. See note XCIX above.
CLXVII “death” = thanatos. Related to “dies” in v24. From thnesko (see note CXXX above). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
CLXVIII “was to” = mello. Same as “was about to” in v4. See note XXXIII above.

34 The crowd answered him, “We have heard from the lawCLXIX that the MessiahCLXX remains forever.CLXXI How can you say that the Son of Man mustCLXXII be lifted up? Who is this Son of Man?” 

Notes on verse 34

CLXIX “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.
CLXX “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
CLXXI “forever” = eis + ho + aion. Literally, “into the age.” Aion is related to “eternal” in v25. See note CXLI above.
CLXXII “must” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.

35 Jesus said to them, “The lightCLXXIII is in you for a littleCLXXIV longer.CLXXV WalkCLXXVI while you have the light,

Notes on verse 35a

CLXXIII “light” = phos. Related to “called” in v17 & “voice” in v28. From phao (see note XCV above); from the same as phaino (see note XCV above). This is light, a source of light, fire, or radiance. This is light with specific reference to what it reveals. It is luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative.
CLXXIV “little” = mikron. This is small in reference to a size or the number of something, least or less. Figuratively, it can refer to little dignity.
CLXXV “longer” = chronos. Time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time.
CLXXVI “walk” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.

so that the darknessCLXXVII may not overtakeCLXXVIII you. If you walk in the darkness, you do not knowCLXXIX where you are going.CLXXX 36 While you have the light, believe in the light, so that you may becomeCLXXXI childrenCLXXXII of light.”

Notes on verses 35b-36a

CLXXVII “darkness” = skotia. 16x in NT. From skotos (darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it; obscurity); from skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness or dimness. Figuratively, it can be a spiritual darkness. This is obscurity in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXVIII “overtake” = katalambano. Related to “took” in v3. 15x in NT. From kata (down, against, among, throughout) + lambano (see note XVII above). This is to take hold of something with great intention for one’s own interest. It can be seize or arrest – grasping forcefully. Figuratively, it can also mean to comprehend, to win, to surprise, or to possess.
CLXXIX “know” = eido. Related to “look” in v15. See note LXXXVI above.
CLXXX “going” = hupago. Same as “deserting” in v11. See note LXII above.
CLXXXI “become” = ginomai. Same as “was” in v29. See note CLV above.
CLXXXII “children” = huios. Same as “Son” in v23. See note CXXIII above.

After Jesus had said this, he departedCLXXXIII and hidCLXXXIV from them. 37 Although he had performed so many signs in their presence, they did not believe in him. 

38 This was to fulfillCLXXXV the wordCLXXXVI spoken by the prophetCLXXXVII Isaiah:CLXXXVIII

Notes on verses 36b-38a

CLXXXIII “departed” = aperchomai. Same as “gone” in v19. See note CV above.
CLXXXIV “hid” = krupto. 18x in NT. This is to hide by covering, secret, hidden things. This is the root of the word “cryptography.”
CLXXXV “fulfill” = pleroo. Same as “filled” in v3. See note XXVIII above.
CLXXXVI “word” = logos. Related to “said” in v4 & “blessed is” in v13. See note LXXIV above.
CLXXXVII “prophet” = prophetes. Related to “called” in v17 & “voice” in v28 & “light” in v35. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note XCV above); {from phao (see note XCV above) or phaino (see note XCV above)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
CLXXXVIII “Isaiah” = Esaias. Related to “Jesus” in v1 & “hosanna” in v13. From Hebrew Yeshayahu (Isaiah, “salvation of the Lord”); {from yasha (see note IV above) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note IV above)}. This is Isaiah, meaning “salvation of the Lord.”

“Lord, who has believed our message,CLXXXIX
    and to whom has the armCXC of the Lord been revealed?”CXCI

Notes on verse 38b

CLXXXIX “message” = akoe. Related to “heard” in v12. From akouo (see note LXVI above). This is hearing, ear, audience, fame, report, rumor.
CXC “arm” = brachion. 3x in NT. From brachus (little, few, a short time). This is arm, which can metaphorically refer to strength. It shares a root with the “brachial” artery.
CXCI “revealed” = apokalupto. From apo (from, away from) + kalupto (to cover, hide, conceal; figuratively, to keep hidden or secret) {related to kalube (hut, cabin)}. This is properly to uncover so it means revealing something that was hidden or obstructed. It particularly refers to revealing the essence of something. This is to make plain or manifest. This is the root verb that “apocalypse” comes from.

39 And so they couldCXCII not believe, because Isaiah also said,

40 “He has blindedCXCIII their eyesCXCIV
    and hardenedCXCV their heart,CXCVI

Notes on verses 39-40a

CXCII “could” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
CXCIII “blinded” = tuphloo. 3x in NT. From tuphlos (blind or a blind person – perhaps in the sense of smoke making things opaque and impossible to see; blind literally or figuratively); from tuphoo (to be conceited, foolish, puffed up, haughty; properly, to blow smoke; figuratively being muddled or cloudy in mind; poor judgment that harms spiritual clarity; also, being covered with smoke – so filled with pride); from tuphos (smoke, vanity, arrogance); from tupho (to raise smoke, smolder, slowly consume without flame). This is to blind in a physical or spiritual sense – obscured vision.
CXCIV “eyes” = ophthalmos. Related to “see” in v9 & “after” in v19 & “Man” in v23. From optanomai (see note CVI above). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.
CXCV “hardened” = poroo. 5x in NT. From poros (a stone, callous). This is to harden, petrify, of rock. Figuratively, this can be insensitive, callous, or dense.
CXCVI “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.

so that they might not lookCXCVII with their eyes
    and understandCXCVIII with their heart and turnCXCIX
    and I would healCC them.”

Notes on verse 40b

CXCVII “look” = horao. Same as “see” in v9. See note LVII above.
CXCVIII “understand” = noeo. Related to “learned” in v9 & “name” in v13. 14x in NT. From nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from noos (mind); probably from the base as ginosko (see note LV above)}. This is to think, understand, conceive, realize, see. It is one who thinks things through sufficiently to reach a conclusion or value judgment. It is also one’s moral reasoning.
CXCIX “turn” = strepho. From trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn). This is to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one.
CC “heal” = iaomai. This is to heal, particularly from a physical illness, but it could also be a spiritual difficulty. This is to cure or make whole in a literal or figurative sense.

41 Isaiah said this because he sawCCI his gloryCCII and spoke about him. 42 NeverthelessCCIII many, even of the authorities,CCIV believed in him.

Notes on verses 41-42a

CCI “saw” = horao. Same as “see” in v9. See note LVII above.
CCII “glory” = doxa. Related to “glorified” in v16. See note XCII above.
CCIII “nevertheless” = homos. 3x in NT. From the same as homou (together); from homos (the same. This is yet, even, though.
CCIV “authorities” = archon. Same as “ruler” in v31. See note CLXI above.

But because of the Pharisees they did not confessCCV it, for fear that they would beCCVI put out of the synagogue,CCVII 

Notes on verse 42b

CCV “confess” = homologeo. Related to “said” in v4 & “blessed is” in v13 & “word” in v38 & “nevertheless” in v42. From homologos (of one mind); {from homos (see note CCIII above) + lego (see note XXXV above)}. This is to agree, speak the same, declare, promise, praise, celebrate. It can mean to align with, express the same conclusion, endorse.
CCVI “be” = ginomai. Same as “was” in v29. See note CLV above.
CCVII “put out of the synagogue” = aposunagogos. Related to “deserting” in v11 & “angel” in v29. 3x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + sunagoge (literally, a bringing together, a place of assembly; used for the people or the place where they assemble; sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament; a synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church); {from sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note LXII above)}. This is sent away from the synagogue.

43 for they lovedCCVIII humanCCIX glory moreCCX than the glory that comes from God.CCXI

Notes on verse 43

CCVIII “loved” = agapao. Perhaps from agan (much). This is love, longing for, taking pleasure in. It is divine love or human love that echoes divine love.
CCIX “human” = anthropos. Same as “Man” in v23. See note CXXIV above.
CCX “more” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.
CCXI “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

44 Then Jesus cried aloud:CCXII “Whoever believes in me believes not in me but in him who sentCCXIII me. 45 And whoever seesCCXIV me seesCCXV him who sent me. 

Notes on verses 44-45

CCXII “cried aloud” = krazo. Related to “shouting” n v13. See note LXXII above.
CCXIII “sent” = pempo. This is to send, put forth, or dispatch. This often refers to a temporary errand. It is sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from. By contrast, another Greek word, hiemi, emphasizes the destination and yet another word, stello, focuses on the motion that goes with the sending.
CCXIV “sees” = theoreo. Same as “see” in v19. See note CII above.
CCXV “sees” = theoreo. Same as “see” in v19. See note CII above.

46 I have comeCCXVI as light into the world, so that everyoneCCXVII who believes in me should not remain in the darkness. 47 I do not judge anyone who hears my wordsCCXVIII and does not keepCCXIX them, for I cameCCXX not to judgeCCXI the world but to save the world. 

Notes on verses 46-47

CCXVI “come” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v1. See note V above.
CCXVII “everyone” = pas. Same as “all” in v32. See note CLXV above.
CCXVIII “words” = rhema. Related to “said” in v21. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (see note CXIV above). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
CCXIX “keep” = phulasso. Same as “keep” in v25. See note CXL above.
CCXX “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v1. See note V above.
CCXXI “judge” = krino. Related to “judgment” in v31. See note CLX above.

48 The one who rejectsCCXXII me and does not receiveCCXXIII my wordsCCXXIV has a judge;

Notes on verse 48a

CCXXII “rejects” = atheteo. 16x in NT. From athetos (not having position or place); {from a (not) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position)}. This is setting something aside, ignoring or nullifying it, refusing or rejecting. It can also mean to annul or cancel out the effect of something. Literally, this is to un-place. It can also be rejecting something, despising it, or considering something invalid.
CCXXIII “receive” = lambano. Same as “took” in v3. See note XVII above.
CCXXIV “words” = rhema. Same as “words” in v47. See note CCXVIII above.

on the lastCCXXV day the wordCCXXVI that I have spoken will serve as judge,CCXXVII 

Notes on verse 48b

CCXXV “last” = eschatos. Related to “kept” in v6 & “crowd” in v9. Related to eschaton (end, last); perhaps from echo (see note XLIII above). This is last, end, extreme, final. It is often used to discuss the end times, prophecies of the future, and the afterlife. The branch of theology focusing on all these topics is called “eschatology.”
CCXXVI “word” = logos. Same as “word” in v38. See note CLXXXVI above.
CCXXVII “serve as judge” = krino. Same as “judge” in v47. See note CCXXI above.

49 for I have not spoken on my own, but the Father who sent me has himself givenCCXXVIII me a commandmentCCXXIX about what to say and what to speak. 50 And I know that his commandment is eternal life.CCXXX What I speak, therefore, I speak just as the Father has toldCCXXXI me.”

Notes on verses 49-50

CCXXVIII “given” = didomi. Same as “given” in v5. See note XXXIX above.
CCXXIX “commandment” = entole. From entellomai (to charge, command, give orders or instructions) {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + tellomai (to accomplish); {from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one)}}. This is an order, command, ordinance, or law. It focuses on the purpose of the command and its end result.
CCXXX “life” = zoe. Same as “life” in v25. See note CXLII above.
CCXXXI “told” = ereo. Related to “said” in v21 & “words” in v47.  See note CXIV above.

Image credit: “Palm Frond Swirl” by cobalt123, 2007.

You May Also Like

Leave a Reply