Leviticus 23

Leviticus 23


The LordI spokeII to Moses,III saying, 

Notes on verse 1

I “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
II “spoke” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
III “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.

“Speak to the IsraelitesIV and say to them: These are the appointed festivalsV of the Lord that you shall proclaimVI as holyVII convocations,VIII my appointed festivals.

Notes on verse 2

IV “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
V “appointed festivals” = moed. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree). This is a meeting, assembly, fixed time. It can be used for a festival or feast. It can also refer to a meeting place.
VI “proclaim” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
VII “holy” = qodesh. This is set apart and so sacred. God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart. Things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy, etc.
VIII “convocations” = miqra. Related to “proclaim” in v2. From qara (see note VI above). This is a convocation, assembly, public meeting. It can refer to the place where the meeting is happening or the people meeting.

“SixIX daysX shall workXI be done,XII but the seventhXIII day is a SabbathXIV

Notes on verse 3a

IX “six” = shesh. This is six. Figuratively, it can be a surplus since it is one more than the number of fingers on the hand.
X “days” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
XI “work” = melakah. From the same as malak (messenger, an angel, or a deputy; human messengers literally or for prophets, priests, or teachers as messengers of God; also supernatural messengers i.e. angels). Properly, this is a deputyship or some kind of work. It can also be the product that comes from labor.
XII “done” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
XIII “seventh” = shebii. From sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness). This is seventh.
XIV “Sabbath” = Shabbath. From shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is sabbath, literally meaning rest or intermission.

of complete rest,XV a holy convocation; you shall do no XVIwork: it is a Sabbath to the Lord throughoutXVII your settlements.XVIII

Notes on verse 3b

XV “complete rest” = shabbaton. Related to “Sabbath” in v3. 11x in OT. From shabath (see note XIV above). This is a holiday, rest, a day to take a sabbath from work.
XVI {untranslated} = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
XVII “throughout” = kol. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XVI above.
XVIII “settlements” = moshab. From yashab (to sit and so to remain and so to dwell; sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly; can mean settling or marrying; continue, endure, or establish). This is dwelling, seat, assembly, settlement, population.

“These are the appointed festivals of the Lord, the holy convocations, that you shall celebrateXIX at the time appointedXX for them. In the firstXXI month,XXII

Notes on verses 4-5a

XIX “celebrate” = qara. Same as “proclaim” in v2. See note VI above.
XX “time appointed” = moed. Same as “appointed festivals” in v2. See note V above.
XXI “first” = rishon. From rishah (beginning or early time); from rosh (head, captain, or chief; excellent or the forefront; first in position or in statue or in time). This is first, former, ancestor, beginning, ranked first.
XXII “month” = chodesh. From chadash (to renew, repair). This refers to a new moon. It can also mean monthly.

on the fourteenthXXIII day of the month, at twilight,XXIV there shall be a Passover offeringXXV to the Lord,XXVI 

Notes on verse 5b

XXIII “fourteenth” = arba + asar. Arba is from raba (to make square or be four-sided). This is four. Asar is from the same as eser (ten). This is -teen or -teenth.
XXIV “twilight” = bayin + ereb. Bayin is from bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is among, between, interval. Ereb is evening, night, or dusk.
XXV “Passover offering” = pesach. From pasach (to stop, pass over, skip over, to spare). This is Passover – used for the feast, the lamb of sacrifice, the day, and the festival itself. It means exemption.
XXVI “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “Lord” in v1. It has a different vowel pointing, but the same meaning. See note I above.

and on the fifteenthXXVII day of the same month is the FestivalXXVIII of Unleavened BreadXXIX to the Lord;XXX sevenXXXI days you shall eatXXXII unleavened bread. 

Notes on verse 6

XXVII “fifteenth” = chamesh + asar. Chamesh is five. Asar is the same as “fourteenth” in v5. See note XXIII above.
XXVIII “Festival” = chag. From chagag (feast, celebrating a festival, making a pilgrimage; properly, going in a circle or marching in sacred procession; implies giddiness and dancing; reeling to and fro). This is a feast, a sacrifice as part of a festival, or the gathering of the festival.
XXIX “Unleavened Bread” = matstsah. From matsats (to drain out). This is unleavened bread – bread that is sweet rather than becoming sour with the flavor of yeast. Can also be used to refer to the festival of Passover, the staple food of which is commonly transliterate matzoh from this word.
XXX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
XXXI “seven” = sheba. Related to “seventh” in v3. See note XIII above.
XXXII “eat” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.

On the first day you shall haveXXXIII a holy convocation; you shall not workXXXIV at XXXVyour occupations.XXXVI 

Notes on verse 7

XXXIII “have” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1 & “Lord” in v5. See note I above.
XXXIV “work” = asah. Same as “done” in v3. See note XII above.
XXXV {untranslated} = kol. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XVI above.
XXXVI “occupations” = melakah + abodah. Melakah is the same as “work” in v3. See note XI above. Abodah is from abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is labor, service, bondage, job, servitude, worker. It can refer to any kind of work.

For seven days you shall presentXXXVII the Lord’sXXXVIII offerings by fire;XXXIX on the seventh day there shall be a holy convocation: you shall not workXL atXLI your occupations.”

Notes on verse 8

XXXVII “present” = qarab. This is to come near, offer, make ready, approach, take.
XXXVIII “Lord’s” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
XXXIX “offerings by fire” = ishsheh. From eshshah (a fire); from esh (fire, burning, flaming, hot; fire in a literal or figurative sense). This is an offering by fire or a burnt offering. More broadly, it can refer to any kind of sacrifice.
XL “work” = asah. Same as “done” in v3. See note XII above.
XLI {untranslated} = kol. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XVI above.

The LordXLII spoke to Moses, 10 “Speak to the Israelites and say to them: When you enterXLIII the landXLIV that I am givingXLV you and you reapXLVI

Notes on verses 9-10a

XLII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
XLIII “enter” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XLIV “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XLV “giving” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
XLVI “reap” = qatsar. This is to cut down, be short, reap, curtail. It is used especially for harvesting grass or grain. Figuratively, it can mean to be discouraged or grieve.

its harvest,XLVII you shall bringXLVIII the sheafXLIX of the first fruitsL of your harvest to the priest.LI 

Notes on verse 10b

XLVII “harvest” = qatsiyr. Related to “reap” in v10. From qatsar (see note XLVI above). This is branch, harvest, one who harvests. Properly, this means severed, reaped. It is the crop being harvested, the time of harvest or the one who harvests. It can also be a bough.
XLVIII “bring” = bo. Same as “enter” in v10. See note XLIII above.
XLIX “sheaf” = omer. 14x in OT. From amar (to bind sheaves, heap; discipline as piling on blows). This is a shear or an omer – a dry measuring unit.
L “first fruits” = reshith. Related to “first” in v5. From rosh (see note XXI above). This is beginning, first place, highest rank, chief thing.
LI “priest” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.

11 He shall raiseLII the sheaf beforeLIII the Lord,LIV that you may find acceptance;LV on the day after the Sabbath the priest shall raise it. 

Notes on verse 11

LII “raise” = nuph. This is to rock back and forth, wave, sprinkle, quiver, beckon, offer, present.
LIII “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
LIV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
LV “acceptance” = ratson. From ratsah (to be pleased with, delight, take pleasure in, or accept with favor; to approve or consent regarding something; can be used specifically of satisfying debts or being pardoned). This is delight shown in favor, good will, something that is accepted or acceptable.

12 On the day when you raise the sheaf, you shall offerLVI a lambLVII a yearLVIII old,LIX

Notes on verse 12a

LVI “offer” = asah. Same as “done” in v3. See note XII above.
LVII “lamb” = kebes. Root may mean to dominate. This is a young male sheep – having just reached the age where it can butt other sheep.
LVIII “year” = shanah. From shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.
LIX “old” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v2. See note IV above.

without blemish,LX as a burnt offeringLXI to the Lord.LXII 

Notes on verse 12b

LX “without blemish” = tamim. From tamam (to finish or accomplish; to make perfect, demonstrate that you are upright; consume; to complete in a literal or figurative sense). This is entire in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could be complete, full, intact, or without defect. Alternately, it could refer to being sound, having integrity, being sincere or perfect.
LXI “burnt offering” = olah. From alah (to go up, climb, approach, bring; to be high or actively climb; can be literal or figurative). This is a step, stairs, or some kind of ascent. It is also used for whole burnt offerings, being the offering in which the whole things is burned and rises as smoke. Burnt offerings were the least common of the offerings: most were eaten, shared with the priest and the one bringing the offering.
LXII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

13 And the grain offeringLXIII with it shall be two-tenthsLXIV of an ephah of choice flourLXV mixedLXVI with oil,LXVII

Notes on verse 13a

LXIII “grain offering” = minchah. This is a gift or an offering, particularly a sacrificial one that is generally bloodless and given spontaneously (voluntarily).
LXIV “two-tenths” = shenayim + issaron. Shenayim is from sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple. Issaron is related to “fourteenth” in v5. From the same as eser (see note XXIII above). This is a tenth.
LXV “choice flour” = soleth. It may come from a word that means to strip. This is fine flour.
LXVI “mixed” = balal. This is to anoint, mix, overflow. It can also be to fodder or temper.
LXVII “oil” = shemen. From shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat). This is fat, oil, grease, olive oil – often with perfume. Used figuratively for fertile, lavish, rich.

an offering by fire of pleasingLXVIII odorLXIX to the Lord,LXX

Notes on verse 13b

LXVIII “pleasing” = nichoach. From nuach (to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait; implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense). This is soothing, restful, sweet, pleasant.
LXIX “odor” = reyach. From ruach (to blow, breath; smell, anticipate; figuratively, to perceive, understand). This is a scent or breath – a savor, ointment. It is also used for the odor of sacrifices that pleases God.
LXX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

and the drink offeringLXXI with it shall be of wine,LXXII one-fourthLXXIII of a hin.LXXIV 

Notes on verse 13c

LXXI “drink offering” = nesek. From nasak (to pour out or melt; used especially for libations or for the process of making cast metal; can also be used figuratively for anointing a king). This is a drink offering or a molten image.
LXXII “wine” = yayin. Root may mean to effervesce, referring to the fermentation process. This is wine, grape, or banquet. It can imply intoxication.
LXXIII “one-fourth” = rebii. Related to “fourteenth” in v5. From the same as arba (see note XXIII above). This si fourth or one-fourth.
LXXIV “hin” = hin. From Egyptian hwn (jar, unit of measurement for liquid; around .48 liters). This is hin, a unit of measurement used for liquids. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hin

14 You shall eat no breadLXXV or parched grainLXXVI or fresh earsLXXVII until that veryLXXVIII day, until you have brought the offeringLXXIX of your God.LXXX

Notes on verse 14a

LXXV “bread” = lechem. From lacham (to eat, feed on). This is bread, food, loaf. It can refer to food more generally for people or for animals.
LXXVI “parched grain” = qali. 6x in OT. From qalah (to roast, toast or parch – to dry or scorch in part). This is parched or roasted – used to refer to grain.
LXXVII “fresh ears” = karmel. 15x in OT. From the same as kerem (vineyard, garden, vines, or a vintage). This is a fertile field, garden, new growth, fruit, grain. It can be an orchard or park as well as the produce.
LXXVIII “very” = etsem. From atsam (vast, numerous, strong; to close one’s eyes, to make powerful; to break bones). This is self, life, strength, bone, or substance.
LXXIX “offering” = qorban. Related to “present” in v8. From qarab (see note XXXVII above). This is an oblation or offering, which is to say, a sacrifice.
LXXX “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israelites” in v2. See note IV above.

This is a statuteLXXXI foreverLXXXII throughout your generationsLXXXIII in allLXXXIV your settlements.

Notes on verse 14b

LXXXI “statute” = chuqqah. From choq (statute, boundary, condition, custom, limit, ordinance; something that is prescribed or something that is owed); from chaqaq (to inscribe, carve, or decree; a lawmaker; literally, this is engraving, but it implies enacting a law because laws were carved into stone or metal). This is something prescribed such as a statue, custom, or ordinance.
LXXXII “forever” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
LXXXIII “generations” = dor. From dur (to move in a circle, which implies living somewhere or remaining there; it can also be the sense of piling or heaping up). This is a revolution of time, which is to say, an age or generation. It can also be a dwelling or one’s posterity.
LXXXIV “all” = kol. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XVI above.

15 “And from the day after the Sabbath, from the day on which you bring the sheaf of the elevation offering,LXXXV you shall countLXXXVI seven fullLXXXVII weeks.LXXXVIII, LXXXIX 

Notes on verse 15

LXXXV “elevation offering” = tenuphah. Related to “raise” in v11. From nuph (see note LII above). This is something that is waved or swung. So, it could be an elevation offering that is offered in that way. It can also refer to someone presenting a weapon in a threatening manner or to imply greater tumult.
LXXXVI “count” = saphar. From sepher (writing, document, book, evidence). This is properly to tally or record something. It can be enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare.
LXXXVII “full” = tamim. Same as “without blemish” in v12. See note LX above.
LXXXVIII “weeks” = Shabbath. Same as “Sabbath” in v3. See note XIV above.
LXXXIX {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “have” in v7. See note XXXIII above.

16 You shall count until the day after the seventh Sabbath, fiftyXC days; then you shall present an offering of newXCI grainXCII to the Lord.XCIII 17 You shall bring from your settlements two loavesXCIV of bread as an elevation offering, each made of two-tenths of an ephah; they shall be of choice flour, bakedXCV with leaven,XCVI

Notes on verses 16-17a

XC “fifty” = chamishshim. Related to “fifteenth” in v6. From chamesh (see note XXVII above). This is fifty.
XCI “new” = chadash. Related to “month” in v5. From chadash (see note XXII above). This is something fresh or new.
XCII “offering of…grain” = minchah. Same as “grain offering” in v13. See note LXIII above.
XCIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
XCIV “loaves” = lechem. Same as “bread” in v14. See note LXXV above.
XCV “baked” = aphah. This is one who cooks or bakes – particularly one who cooks meat.
XCVI “leaven” = chamets. 13x in OT. From chamets (be or taste sour, fermented, harsh; dyed or of a dazzling color; cruelty). This is leaven or something leavened. It can refer to bread or extortion.

as first fruitsXCVII to the Lord.XCVIII 18 You shall present with the bread seven lambs a year old without blemish, oneXCIX bullC, CI

Notes on verses 17b-18a

XCVII “first fruits” = bikkurim. 18x in OT. From bakar (to bear fruit, be firstborn, firstling, that which opens the womb, give the birthright to). This is first fruits – fruit that ripens earliest.
XCVIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
XCIX “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
C “bull” = par. Perhaps related to parar (to break, defeat, frustrate, caste off, clean, cease). This is a young bull or ox.
CI {untranslated} = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v2. See note IV above.

of the herd,CII and two rams;CIII they shall be a burnt offering to the Lord,CIV along with their grain offering and their drink offerings, an offering by fire of pleasing odor to the Lord.CV 

Notes on verse 18b

CII “herd” = baqar. From baqar (to plow, break forth; figuratively, to inquire, inspect, consider). This is cattle – an animal used for plowing.
CIII “rams” = ayil. From the same as ul (mighty, strength, body, belly; root may mean to twist and that implies strength and power). This is strength so it is used to indicate things that are strong or powerful: political chiefs, rams, posts, trees, oaks.
CIV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

19 You shall also offer one male goatCVI for a purification offeringCVII and two lambs a year old as a sacrificeCVIII of well-being.CIX 

Notes on verse 19

CVI “male goat” = sa’iyr + ez. Sa’iyr is from sa’ar (to storm, scattered by a storm, blow away, rage, fear, storm tossed; to toss in a literal or figurative sense). This is hairy, rough, male goat, shaggy. It could also refer to a devil. Ez is perhaps from azaz (to be strong in a literal or figurative sense, overcome, be impudent). This is a female goat, but can refer to male goats when plural.
CVII “purification offering” = chatta’ah. From chata’ (to miss or go wrong and so to sin, bear the blame; it can also include the sense of forfeiting or lacking). This is sin itself as well as punishment for sin. It is sometimes used specifically to refer to sin that is habitual.
CVIII “sacrifice” = zebach. From zabach (to kill, slay, offer; slaughtering an animal to offer as a sacrifice). This is a slaughter – literally of an animal. So, it implies the act or the animals used in sacrifice. Further, it can mean offering.
CIX “wellbeing” = shelem. From shalam (to make amends, finish, be safe, be friendly, to be complete or sound). This is a peace offering or a sacrifice of well-being. It was a voluntary offering given when one celebrated thanksgiving, alliance, or friendship.

20 The priest shall raise them with the bread of the first fruits as an elevation offering beforeCX the Lord,CXI together with the two lambs; they shall be holy to the LordCXII for the priest. 21 On that sameCXIII day you shall make proclamation;CXIV you shall holdCXV a holy convocation; you shall not workCXVI at CXVIIyour occupations. This is a statute forever in all your settlements throughout your generations.

Notes on verses 20-21

CX “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v11. See note LIII above.
CXI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CXII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CXIII “same” = etsem. Same as “very” in v14. See note LXXVIII above.
CXIV “make proclamation” = qara. Same as “proclaim” in v2. See note VI above.
CXV “hold” = hayah. Same as “have” in v7. See note XXXIII above.
CXVI “work” = asah. Same as “done” in v3. See note XII above.
CXVII {untranslated} = kol. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XVI above.

22 “When you reap the harvest of your land, you shall not reapCXVIII to the very edgesCXIX of your fieldCXX CXXIor gatherCXXII the gleaningsCXXIII of your harvest;

Notes on verse 22a

CXVIII “reap” = kalah. This is to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed.
CXIX “very edges” = peah. From paah (to puff, scatter, cut in pieces) OR poh (here, side). This is a side, edge, region, temple, corner.
CXX “field” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.
CXXI {untranslated} = qatsar. Same as “reap” in v10. See note XLVI above.
CXXII “gather” = laqat. Related to “gleanings” in v22. See note CXXIII below.
CXXIII “gleanings” = leqet. 2x in OT – both in Leviticus. From laqat (to pick up, glean, gather). This is a gleaning.

you shall leaveCXXIV them for the poorCXXV and for the alien:CXXVI I am the LordCXXVII your God.”

Notes on verse 22b

CXXIV “leave” = azab. To loosen, relinquish, permit, forsake, fail, leave destitute.
CXXV “poor” = ani. From anah (to be bowed down; humility or being browbeaten, oppressed, afflicted, or depressed; literal or figurative – depressed in mood or circumstance). This is humble, lowly, poor, or afflicted.
CXXVI “alien” = ger. From gur (to abide or sojourn; to leave the road to lodge or for any other reason). This is sojourner, guest, stranger, foreigner.
CXXVII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

23 The LordCXXVIII spoke to Moses, saying, 24 “Speak to the Israelites, saying: In the seventh month, on the firstCXXIX day of the month, you shall observeCXXX a day of complete rest, a holy convocation commemoratedCXXXI with trumpet blasts.CXXXII 

Notes on verses 23-24

CXXVIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CXXIX “first” = echad. Same as “one” in v18. See note XCIX above.
CXXX “observe” = hayah. Same as “have” in v7. See note XXXIII above.
CXXXI “commemorated” = zikkaron. From zakar (to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention). This is remembrance, memorial, or record. It can also be a day that is memorable.
CXXXII “trumpet blasts” = teruah. From rua (to break or destroy something so figuratively, an ear splitting sound such as a call of alarm or a joyful sound). This is an alarm, trumpet sound, battle cry, rejoicing, joyful shout, or jubilee.

25 You shall not workCXXXIII at CXXXIVyour occupations, and you shall present the Lord’sCXXXV offering by fire.”

26 The LordCXXXVI spoke to Moses, saying, 27 “Now, the tenthCXXXVII day of this seventh month

Notes on verses 25-27a

CXXXIII “work” = asah. Same as “done” in v3. See note XII above.
CXXXIV {untranslated} = kol. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XVI above.
CXXXV “Lord’s” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CXXXVI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CXXXVII “tenth” = asor. Related to “fourteenth” in v5 & “tenths” in v13. 16x in OT. From the same as eser (see note XXIII above). This is ten or tenth. Here, a ten-stringed instrument like the lute.

is the Day of Atonement;CXXXVIII it shall be a holy convocation for you: you shall humbleCXXXIX yourselvesCXL and present the Lord’sCXLI offering by fire, 

Notes on verse 27b

CXXXVIII “Atonement” = kippur. 6x in OT – all in the Torah. From the same as kopher (a cover, ransom price, amount of money, bribe); from kaphar (to appease, cover, pacify, cancel). This is atonement and expiation.
CXXXIX “humble” = anah. Related to “poor” in v22. See note CXXV above.
CXL “yourselves” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
CXLI “Lord’s” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

28 and you shall do no CXLIIworkCXLIII during that entireCXLIV day, for it is a Day of Atonement, to make atonementCXLV on your behalf beforeCXLVI the LordCXLVII your God. 

Notes on verse 28

CXLII {untranslated} = kol. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XVI above.
CXLIII “work” = melakah. Same as “work” in v3. See note XI above.
CXLIV “entire” = etsem. Same as “very” in v14. See note LXXVIII above.
CXLV “make atonement” = kaphar. Related to “Atonement” in v27. See note CXXXVIII above.
CXLVI “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v11. See note LIII above.
CXLVII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

29 ForCXLVIII thoseCXLIX who do not humble themselves during that entire day shall be cut offCL from the people.CLI 

Notes on verse 29

CXLVIII {untranslated} = kol. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XVI above.
CXLIX “those” = nephesh. Same as “yourselves” in v27. See note CXL above.
CL “cut off” = karat. This is to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant (idiom for making a covenant is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume.
CLI “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.

30 And anyoneCLII who does anyCLIII workCLIV during that entire day, such a oneCLV I will destroyCLVI from the midstCLVII of the people. 

Notes on verse 30

CLII “anyone” = kol + nephesh. Kol is the same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XVI above. Nephesh is the same as “yourselves” in v27. See note CXL above.
CLIII “any” = kol. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XVI above.
CLIV “work” = melakah. Same as “work” in v3. See note XI above.
CLV “one” = nephesh. Same as “yourselves” in v27. See note CXL above.
CLVI “destroy” = abad. To wander off, lose self. This implies to perish, destroy, die, vanish, or be broken or corrupt.
CLVII “midst” = qereb. Related to “present” in v8 & “offering” in v14. Perhaps from qarab (see note XXXVII above). This is among, in the midst, before, the center It is the inward part, whether literal or figurative. It can also be used for the heart, the site of thoughts and feelings. This word is also used as a technical term for the entrails of the animals who are sacrificed.

31 You shall do no CLVIIIwork.CLIX This is a statute forever throughout your generations in all your settlements. 32 It shall be to you a Sabbath of complete rest, and you shall humble yourselves;CLX on the ninthCLXI day of the month at evening,CLXII from evening to evening you shall keepCLXIII your Sabbath.”

Notes on verses 31-32

CLVIII {untranslated} = kol. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XVI above.
CLIX “work” = melakah. Same as “work” in v3. See note XI above.
CLX “yourselves” = nephesh. Same as “yourselves” in v27. See note CXL above.
CLXI “ninth” = tesha. Perhaps from sha’ah (to gaze at, gaze around, regard – to look to, especially for help; to consider or be compassionate; to look at in amazement or while confounded). This is nine, perhaps as looking to the next number associated with fullness (10).
CLXII “evening” = ereb. Same as “twilight” in v5. See note XXIV above.
CLXIII “keep” = shabath. Related to “Sabbath” and “complete rest” in v3. See note XIV above.

33 The LordCLXIV spoke to Moses, saying, 34 “Speak to the Israelites, saying: On the fifteenth day of this seventh month and lasting seven days, there shall be the Festival of BoothsCLXV to the Lord.CLXVI 35 The firstCLXVII day shall be a holy convocation; you shall not workCLXVIII at CLXIXyour occupations. 

Notes on verses 33-35

CLXIV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CLXV “Booths” = sukkah. From sok (lair, thicket, den, or hiding place; a den or pavilion as made of intertwined boughs); from sakak (to interweave, knit). This is a booth, canopy, shelter, tent, or tabernacle. This is also the “sukkah” from the Jewish holiday “sukkot,” which remembers the wilderness wanderings.
CLXVI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CLXVII “first” = rishon. Same as “first” in v5. See note XXI above.
CLXVIII “work” = asah. Same as “done” in v3. See note XII above.
CLXIX {untranslated} = kol. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XVI above.

36 Seven days you shall present the Lord’sCLXX offerings by fire; on the eighthCLXXI day you shall observe a holy convocation and present the Lord’sCLXXII offerings by fire; it is a solemn assembly;CLXXIII you shall not workCLXXIV atCLXXV your occupations.

Notes on verse 36

CLXX “Lord’s” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CLXXI “eighth” = shemini. Related to “oil” in v13. From the same as shemoneh (eight; can be figurative for surplus); perhaps from shamen (see note LXVII above). This is eighth or sheminith.
CLXXII “Lord’s” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CLXXIII “solemn assembly” = atsarah. 11x in OT. From atsar (to restrain, rule, confine, bond; to hold back, maintain, rule, assemble). This is an assembly, particularly one that was called for a festival or for a holiday.
CLXXIV “work” = asah. Same as “done” in v3. See note XII above.
CLXXV {untranslated} = kol. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XVI above.

37 “These are the appointed festivals of the LordCLXXVI that you shall celebrate as times of holy convocation, for presenting to the LordCLXXVII offerings by fire—burnt offerings and grain offerings, sacrifices and drink offerings, eachCLXXVIII on its proper day— 38 apart fromCLXXIX the Sabbaths of the LordCLXXX 

Notes on verses 37-38a

CLXXVI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CLXXVII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CLXXVIII “each” = dabar. Related to “spoke” in v1. From dabar (see note II above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
CLXXIX “apart from” = bad. From badad (to divide or be separated; alone, solitary, lonely, isolated, straggler). This is apart, alone, separation, body part, tree branch, except. It can also be a city’s chief.
CLXXX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

and apart from your giftsCLXXXI and apart from all your votive offeringsCLXXXII and apart from all your freewill offeringsCLXXXIII that you give to the Lord.CLXXXIV

Notes on verse 38b

CLXXXI “gifts” = mattanah. Related to “giving” in v10. 17x in OT. From mattan (gift, reward, to give); from natan (see note XLV above). This is gift, offering of sacrifice, present, bribe.
CLXXXII “votive offerings” = neder. From nadar (to vow or promise). This is a vow – literally, that which was promised.
CLXXXIII “freewill offerings” = nedabah. From nadab (to offer willingly, volunteer, freely give, be willing). This is a freewill offering, something giving spontaneously.
CLXXXIV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

39 “Now, the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when you have gathered inCLXXXV the produceCLXXXVI of the land, you shall keepCLXXXVII the festival of the Lord,CLXXXVIII lasting seven days, a complete rest on the firstCLXXXIX day and a complete rest on the eighth day. 

Notes on verse 39

CLXXXV “gathered in” = asaph. This is to gather, assemble, or bring. It can also mean to take away, destroy, or remove.
CLXXXVI “produce” = tebuah. Related to “enter” in v10. From bo (see note XLIII above). This is produce, increase or gain – can be literal or figurative.
CLXXXVII “keep” = chagag. Related to “festival” in v6. 16x in OT. See note XXVIII above.
CLXXXVIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CLXXXIX “first” = rishon. Same as “first” in v5. See note XXI above.

40 On the firstCXC day you shall takeCXCI the fruitCXCII of majesticCXCIII trees,CXCIV

Notes on verse 40a

CXC “first” = rishon. Same as “first” in v5. See note XXI above.
CXCI “take” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
CXCII “fruit” = peri. From parah (to bear fruit, grow, be fruitful, increase; bearing fruit in a literal or figurative sense). This is fruit or reward.
CXCIII “majestic” = hadar. From hadar (to honor or adorn; majestic, respected, glorious; to favor or honor; to be proud). This is ornament, splendor, beauty, dignity, majesty, magnificence, and glory.
CXCIV “trees” = ets. Perhaps from atsah (to shut, fasten, firm up, to close one’s eyes). This is tree or other things related to trees like wood, sticks, or stalks. It can also refer to wood products like a plank or staff or gallows. Additionally, this can refer to a carpenter.

branchesCXCV of palm trees,CXCVI boughsCXCVII of leafyCXCVIII trees,

Notes on verse 40b

CXCV “branches” = kaph. From kaphaph (to bend – from a root meaning curve or bend down). This is palm of the hand or sole of the foot, footstep, grasp. Figuratively, it can also mean power.
CXCVI “palm trees” = tamar. 12x in OT. From the same as tomer (palm tree, the trunk of that tree, a post). The root may mean being erect. This is a date palm or other palm tree. This is also the root of Tamar’s name in the Bible.
CXCVII “boughs” = anaph. 7x in OT. This is a branch or bough – something that covers.
CXCVIII “leafy” = aboth. 4x in OT. From abath (to weave, wind, or interlace). This is interwoven, dense, leafy.

and willowsCXCIX of the brook,CC and you shall rejoiceCCI beforeCCII the LordCCIII your God for seven days. 

Notes on verse 40c

CXCIX “willows” = arab. 5x in OT. From the same as oreb (raven); from arab (to grow dark, close, become evening); from ereb (evening) or related to arab (to exchange, give or take on pledge, braid, intermix). This is a polar or willow. It is also the name of a wadi in Moab.
CC “brook” = nachal. From nachal (to take as heritage, inherit, or distribute). This is a river or stream. It could be a wadi or arroyo – sometimes a narrow valley with no water at all, but in strong rains or when winter snow melts, it swells or floods with water.
CCI “rejoice” = samach. This is to rejoice or be glad. Properly, it is to brighten up in a literal or figurative sense.
CCII “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v11. See note LIII above.
CCIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

41 You shall keepCCIV it as a festival to the LordCCV lasting seven days in the year; you shall keepCCVI it in the seventh month as a statute forever throughout your generations. 42 You shall liveCCVII in booths for seven days; all who are native-bornCCVIII in Israel shall live in booths, 

Notes on verses 41-42

CCIV “keep” = chagag. Same as “keep” in v39. See note CLXXXVII above.
CCV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CCVI “keep” = chagag. Same as “keep” in v39. See note CLXXXVII above.
CCVII “live” = yashab. Related to “settlements” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CCVIII “native-born” = ezrach. 17x in OT. From zarach (to rise, shine, or dawn; can also describe symptoms of leprosy). This is native or native-born. It can also refer to spontaneous growth, a bay tree.

43 so that your generations may knowCCIX that I made the Israelites live in booths when I broughtCCX them out of the land of Egypt:CCXI I am the LordCCXII your God.”

44 Thus Moses declaredCCXIII to the Israelites the appointed festivals of the Lord.CCXIV

Notes on verses 43-44

CCIX “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
CCX “brought” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
CCXI “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
CCXII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CCXIII “declared” = dabar. Same as “spoke” in v1. See note II above.
CCXIV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

Image credit: “Man with Lamb” by Pablo Picasso, 1943-1944. Photo by Regan Vercruysse, 2014.

You May Also Like

Leave a Reply