Leviticus 26

Leviticus 26


“You shall makeI for yourselves no idolsII and erectIII no carved imagesIV or pillars,V

Notes on verse 1a

I “make” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
II “idols” = elil. Perhaps from al (not, nothing, lacking value). This is futility, vanity. It can also refer to an image or idol.
III “erect” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
IV “carved images” = pesel. From pasal (to hew, carve; used for wood or stone). This is an idol or image.
V “pillars” = matstsebah. From natsab (to station, appoint, establish, take a stand). This is literally something that is stationed. So, it could refer to a column, a stump, some kind of image or idol, or a garrison.

and you shall not placeVI figuredVII stonesVIII in your land,IX

Notes on verse 1b

VI “place” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
VII “figured” = maskit. 6x in OT. From the same as sekvi (appearance, mind, heart). This is a figure, imagery, wish, imagination, a stone carved piece, setting.
VIII “stones” = eben. This is a stone, weight, or mason. It is part of the word “Ebenezer.”
IX “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

to worshipX at them, for I am the LordXI your God.XII 

Notes on verse 1c

X “worship” = shachah. This is to bow down, make a humble entreaty, to do homage to royalty or to God.
XI “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
XII “God” = Elohim.

You shall keepXIII my SabbathsXIV and reverenceXV my sanctuary:XVI I am the Lord.

Notes on verse 2

XIII “keep” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.
XIV “Sabbaths” = shabbath. From shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is sabbath, literally meaning rest or intermission.
XV “reverence” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
XVI “sanctuary” = miqdash. From the same as qodesh (set apart and so sacred; God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart; things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy); related to qadash (set apart, consecrated, hallowed, sanctified; something or someone set apart for a holy purpose or use – ceremonially or morally clean). This is a sacred place, sanctuary, holy place. It is something or somewhere that is consecrated, whether to God or to another.

“If you followXVII my statutesXVIII and keep my commandmentsXIX and observeXX them faithfully, 

Notes on verse 3

XVII “follow” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
XVIII “statutes” = chuqqah. From choq (statute, boundary, condition, custom, limit, ordinance; something that is prescribed or something that is owed); from chaqaq (to inscribe, carve, or decree; a lawmaker; literally, this is engraving, but it implies enacting a law because laws were carved into stone or metal). This is something prescribed such as a statue, custom, or ordinance.
XIX “commandments” = mitsvah. From tsavah (to charge, command, order, enjoin). This is a commandment, law, ordinance obligation, or tradition. It is something commanded whether by God or by a human authority. This term is sometimes used collectively to refer to the Law.
XX “observe” = asah. Same as “make” in v1. See note I above.

I will giveXXI you your rainsXXII in their season,XXIII and the land shall yieldXXIV

Notes on verse 4a

XXI “give” = natan. Same as “place” in v1. See note VI above.
XXII “rains” = geshem. Perhaps from gasham (to rain). This is rain, shower, or rainy. It can be used figuratively for blessing or for destruction.
XXIII “season” = et. Probably from anah (to answer, sing, announce); from ad (forever, all, old); from adah (to pass on, advance, decorate oneself). This is a period or season. It can also mean whenever or continually.
XXIV “yield” = natan. Same as “place” in v1. See note VI above.

its produce,XXV and the treesXXVI of the fieldXXVII shall yield their fruit.XXVIII 

Notes on verse 4b

XXV “produce” = yebul. 13x in OT. From yabal (to lead, bring, carry, conduct; properly, to flow; to bring or lead with fanfare). This is yield, produce. Literally, it refers to crops and figuratively to wealth.
XXVI “trees” = ets. Perhaps from atsah (to shut, fasten, firm up, to close one’s eyes). This is tree or other things related to trees like wood, sticks, or stalks. It can also refer to wood products like a plank or staff or gallows. Additionally, this can refer to a carpenter.
XXVII “field” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.
XXVIII “fruit” = peri. From parah (to bear fruit, grow, be fruitful, increase; bearing fruit in a literal or figurative sense). This is fruit or reward.

Your threshingXXIX shall overlapXXX the vintage,XXXI and the vintage shall overlap the sowing;XXXII

Notes on verse 5a

XXIX “threshing” = dayish. 1x in OT. From dush (to trample, break, tear, thresh). This is threshing or the time when threshing happens.
XXX “overlap” = nasag. This is to reach in a literal or figurative sense. It is to overtake, catch, or be able to.
XXXI “vintage” = batsir. 7x in OT. From batsar (to enclose, wall up, or make something inaccessible, impenetrable, isolated to fortify, something mighty, to gather grapes). This is clipped, a reference to the grape harvest. It can also refer to a grape or the vintage.
XXXII “sowing” = zera. From zara (to sow or scatter seed; conceive or yield). This is seed or sowing. It can, thus, mean a fruit, plant, sowing time, child, offspring, or posterity.

you shall eatXXXIII your breadXXXIV to the fullXXXV and liveXXXVI securelyXXXVII in your land. 

Notes on verse 5b

XXXIII “eat” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXIV “bread” = lechem. From lacham (to eat, feed on). This is bread, food, loaf. It can refer to food more generally for people or for animals.
XXXV “full” = soba. 8x in OT. From saba (to be satisfied or full in a literal or figurative sense; to have plenty of). This is abundance, fullness, satisfaction. Properly, it is being sated – having enough food. Figuratively, it is fullness of joy.
XXXVI “live” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
XXXVII “securely” = betach. From batach (to hide for refuge, be secure or sure; figuratively, it refers to trust, being confident, or hoping). This is a place of refuge. So, abstractly, it can be confidence, security, hope, trust, or assurance.

And I will grantXXXVIII peaceXXXIX in the land, and you shall lie down,XL and no one shall make you afraid;XLI

Notes on verse 6a

XXXVIII “grant” = natan. Same as “place” in v1. See note VI above.
XXXIX “peace” = shalom. From shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is completeness, soundness, welfare, favor, friend, good health. It is to be safe and figuratively well, happy, at peace, friendly. Abstractly, it includes the ideas of welfare and prosperity (not in excessive wealth, but in having enough).
XL “lie down” = shakab. This is to lie down, lodge. It is lying for sleep, sex, or other reasons.
XLI “make…afraid” = charad. This is trembling, being afraid, or being terrified. It can also refer to moving quickly due to anxiety.

I will removeXLII dangerousXLIII animalsXLIV from the land, and no swordXLV shall goXLVI through your land. 

Notes on verse 6b

XLII “remove” = shabath. Related to “Sabbaths” in v2. See note XIV above.
XLIII “dangerous” = ra’. From ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.
XLIV “animals” = chay. From chayah (to live or keep alive literally or figuratively). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.
XLV “sword” = chereb. From charab (to attack, slay). This is any sharp instrument like a sword, dagger, axe, or mattock.
XLVI “go” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.

You shall give chaseXLVII to your enemies,XLVIII and they shall fallXLIX beforeL you by the sword. 

Notes on verse 7

XLVII “give chase” = radaph. This is to chase after, pursue, hunt, or persecute. It is running after someone or something, generally with hostile motives.
XLVIII “enemies” = oyeb. From ayab (to hate or be hostile to). This is a foe or enemy as one that you are hostile to.
XLIX “fall” = naphal. This is to fall, whether by accident, to fall prostrate, or to fall in violent death. Figuratively, it can refer to personal ruin or calamity, a city falling, an attack or a falling away. It can also be a deep sleep or wasting away.
L “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

FiveLI of you shall give chase to a hundred,LII and a hundred of you shall give chase to ten thousand;LIII your enemies shall fall beforeLIV you by the sword.

Notes on verse 8

LI “five” = chamesh. This is five.
LII “hundred” = meah. This is hundred or some number times one hundred (i.e. hundredfold or the base of two hundred, three hundred, etc.).
LIII “ten thousand” = rebabah. 16x in OT. From rabab (being many or much, abounding, increasing, multiplying; cast together and so the sense of increasing, generally in number). This is abundance, a myriad. It can be an indefinite large amount or mean ten thousand or a million.
LIV “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v7. See note L above.

I will look with favorLV upon you and make you fruitfulLVI and multiplyLVII you, and I will maintainLVIII my covenantLIX with you. 

Notes on verse 9

LV “look with favor” = panah. Related to “before” in v7 See note L above.
LVI “make…fruitful” = parah. Related to “fruit” in v4. See note XXVIII above.
LVII “multiply” = rabah. This is increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.
LVIII “maintain” = qum. Same as “erect” in v1. See note III above.
LIX “covenant” = berit. Perhaps from barah (to eat, choose, make clear); perhaps from bar (grain, wheat); from bara (to select, purify, cleanse, test, brighten, polish). This is a compact, covenant, alliance, treaty, or league.

10 You shall eat old grainLX longLXI stored,LXII and you shall have to clear outLXIII the old to make way forLXIV the new.LXV 

Notes on verse 10

LX “old grain” = yashan. 6x in OT. From yashen (to be languid or go slack; it can mean to sleep, become old or stale, or die). This is old or something old.
LXI “long” = yashen. Related to “old grain” in v10. See note LX above.
LXII “stored” = yashen. Same as “long” in v10. See note LXI above.
LXIII “clear out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
LXIV “to make way for” = paneh. Same as “before” in v7. See note L above.
LXV “new” = chadash. From chadash (to renew or restore, to repair or rebuild). This is something fresh or new.

11 I will place my dwellingLXVI in your midst,LXVII and ILXVIII shall not abhorLXIX you. 

Notes on verse 11

LXVI “dwelling” = mishkan. From shakan (to settle down in the sense of residing somewhere or staying there permanently; to abide or continue). This is a place where one lives – a tabernacle, tent, or other kind of dwelling. It can also be a lair where animals live, the grave, the Temple, or the Tabernacle.
LXVII “in…midst” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
LXVIII “I” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
LXIX “abhor” = gaal. 10x in OT. This is to abhor, defile, or reject.

12 LXXI will beLXXI your God, and you shall be my people.LXXII 

Notes on verse 12

LXX Some manuscripts include: “I will walk among you” = halak + tavek. Halak is the same as “follow” in v3. See note XVII above. Tavek is the same as “in…midst” in v11. See note LXVII above.
LXXI “be” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1. See note XI above.
LXXII “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.

13 I am the Lord your God who broughtLXXIII you out of the land of Egypt,LXXIV to be their slavesLXXV no more; I have brokenLXXVI the barsLXXVII

Notes on verse 13a

LXXIII “brought” = yatsa. Same as “clear out” in v10. See note LXIII above.
LXXIV “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
LXXV “slaves” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
LXXVI “broken” = shabar. This is break, collapse, destroy, break in pieces, tear. It is bursting in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXVII “bars” = motah. 12x in OT. From mot (pole, bar of a yoke, bar used for carrying; a pole that shakes and so this also has the sense of wavering or falling); from mot (to shake, slip, falter, stagger, move, give way, be carried). This is a pole, bar, yoke, or staves. Properly, a pole, but by implication a yoke in a literal or figurative sense.

of your yokeLXXVIII and made you walkLXXIX erect.LXXX

14 “But if you will not obeyLXXXI me and do not observe allLXXXII these commandments, 

Notes on verses 13b-14

LXXVIII “yoke” = ol. From alal (to insert). This is a yoke that is borne on the neck, whether a literal yoke or used of a figurative one.
LXXIX “walk” = halak. Same as “follow” in v3. See note XVII above.
LXXX “erect” = qomemiyyuth. Related to “erect” in v1. 1x in OT. From qum (see note III above). This is uprightness, elevation, or upright (in a figurative sense).
LXXXI “obey” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
LXXXII “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.

15 if you spurnLXXXIII my statutes and abhor my ordinances,LXXXIV so that youLXXXV will notLXXXVI observe all my commandments and you breakLXXXVII my covenant, 

Notes on verse 15

LXXXIII “spurn” = ma’as. This is to reject, refuse, despise, disdain, reject, or spurn. It can also be to disappear or melt away.
LXXXIV “ordinances” = mishpat. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.
LXXXV “you” = nephesh. Same as “I” in v11. See note LXVIII above.
LXXXVI “not” = bilti. From balah (to grow old, wear out, consume, waste, enjoy, fail, decay). This is nothing, not, lest, or except. From its root, it means “a failure of” – used for negative particles.
LXXXVII “break” = parar. This is to break, defeat, frustrate, cast off, clean, cease.

16 I in turnLXXXVIII will doLXXXIX this to you: I will bringXC terrorXCI on you,

Notes on verse 16a

LXXXVIII “in turn” = aph. This is also, furthermore, even.
LXXXIX “do” = asah. Same as “make” in v1. See note I above.
XC “bring” = paqad. This is to attend to or visit – can be used for a friendly or violent encounter. So, it can be to oversee, care for, avenge, or charge.
XCI “terror” = behalah. 4x in OT. From bahal (to be afraid, dismayed, amazed; deep trembling within; figuratively, being suddenly agitated; implies moving or acting quickly/anxiously). This is trouble, terror, ruin.

consumptionXCII and feverXCIII that wasteXCIV the eyesXCV

Notes on verse 16b

XCII “consumption” = shachepheth. 2x in OT. From the same as shachaph (sea gull, cuckoo; may come from a word that means to peel, in the sense of making thin). This is consumption or emaciation.
XCIII “fever” = qaddachath. 2x in OT. From qadach (to lit on fire, to burn). This is inflammation or fever.
XCIV “waste” = kalah. This is to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed.
XCV “eyes” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).

and cause life to pine away.XCVI You shall sowXCVII your seedXCVIII in vain,XCIX for your enemies shall eat it. 

Notes on verse 16c

XCVI “cause life to pine away” = dub + nephesh. Literally, “cause sorrow of soul” Dub is 1x in OT. This is to mope or pine. Nephesh is the same as “I” in v11. See note LXVIII above.
XCVII “sow” = zara. Related to “sowing” in v5. See note XXXII above.
XCVIII “seed” = zera. Same as “sowing” in v5. See note XXXII above.
XCIX “in vain” = riq. 12x in OT. From ruq (to pour out in a literal or figurative sense, hence, to be or make empty). This is to be empty or to make empty; also vanity, emptiness, something worthless, in vain.

17 I will setC my faceCI against you, and you shall be struck downCII byCIII your enemies; your foesCIV shall ruleCV over you,

Notes on verse 17a

C “set” = natan. Same as “place” in v1. See note VI above.
CI “face” = paneh. Same as “before” in v7. See note L above.
CII “struck down” = nagaph. This is to strike, beat, hurt, stumble, defeat, inflict disease.
CIII “by” = paneh. Same as “before” in v7. See note L above.
CIV “foes” = sane. This is an enemy or foe. It is one that is hated with a personal hatred.
CV “rule” = radah. This is to step down, rule, dominate, have victory over, crumble.

and you shall fleeCVI though no one pursuesCVII you. 18 And if in spite of this you will not obey me, I will continueCVIII to punishCIX you sevenfoldCX for your sins.CXI 

Notes on verses 17b-18

CVI “flee” = nus. This is to flee, vanish away, hide, escape, be displayed.
CVII “pursues” = radaph. Same as “give chase” in v7. See note XLVII above.
CVIII “continue” = yasaph. This is to add, increase, continue, exceed.
CIX “punish” = yasar. This is to discipline, correct, train, teach, punish. Literally, it is disciplining with blows, but figuratively using words.
CX “sevenfold” = sheba. This is seven or by sevenfold. It can also be used to imply a week or an indefinite number. Symbolically, this is the number of fullness, sacredness, perfection.
CXI “sins” = chatta’ah. From chata’ (to miss or go wrong and so to sin, bear the blame; it can also include the sense of forfeiting or lacking). This is sin itself as well as punishment for sin. It is sometimes used specifically to refer to sin that is habitual.

19 I will breakCXII your proudCXIII glory,CXIV

Notes on verse 19a

CXII “break” = shabar. Same as “broken” in v13. See note LXXVI above.
CXIII “proud” = ga’own. From the same as ga’avah (majesty, excellency, pride, arrogance, ornament); from gaah (to rise up, be exalted, triumph; figuratively, be majestic). This is majesty, pride, redemption, pomp, excellency, swelling, or arrogance.
CXIV “glory” = oz. From azaz (to be strong, become fixed, be bold, prevail, be impudent; it means to be stout literally or figuratively. A Late Hebrew word). This is strength in the sense of force, majesty, praise, material and physical strength, the abstract notion of security. It can also speak of social or political power.

and I will makeCXV your skyCXVI like ironCXVII and your earthCXVIII like copper.CXIX 

Notes on verse 19b

CXV “make” = natan. Same as “place” in v1. See note VI above.
CXVI “sky” = shamayim. Root may mean being lofty. This is sky, the air, or heaven. It is in a dual noun form so this might refer to the part of the sky where the clouds move on the one hand and the part beyond that where the sun, moon, and stars are on the other hand.
CXVII “iron” = barzel. From the same as Birzoth (a name meaning holes). Root may mean to pierce. This is iron as something used as a cutting implement. It can also specifically mean ax head.
CXVIII “earth” = erets. Same as “land” in v1. See note IX above.
CXIX “copper” = nechushah. 10x in OT. From nachush (made of bronze or brass, coppery; figuratively, hard); from the same as nechosheth (copper, bronze, brass – something made from this metal – a coin or fetter; something considered base in contrast to gold or silver) or nachash (to divine, interpret omens, learn from experience, observe; to hiss) or nachash (a serpent or snake). This is copper, bronze, brass, or steel.

20 Your strengthCXX shall be spentCXXI to no purpose:CXXII your land shall not yield its produce, and the trees of the land shall not yield their fruit.

Notes on verse 20

CXX “strength” = koach. Root may mean to be firm. This is power, strength, force. It can be literal or figurative, positive or negative. It can also mean capacity or means – what something produces. Additionally, it could refer to some kind of small reptile.
CXXI “spent” = tamam. This is to finish or accomplish. It is to make perfect, demonstrate that you are upright, consume or cease. It is to complete in a literal or figurative sense, positive or negative.
CXXII “to no purpose” = riq. Same as “in vain” in v16. See note XCIX above.

21 “If you continueCXXIII hostileCXXIV to me and willCXXV not obey me, I will continueCXXVI to plagueCXXVII you sevenfold for your sins. 

Notes on verse 21

CXXIII “continue” = halak. Same as “follow” in v3. See note XVII above.
CXXIV “hostile” = qeri. 7x in OT – all in Leviticus 26. From qarah (to happen, meet, bring about). This is opposition or hostility.
CXXV “will” = abah. This is to breathe after, be willing, obey, accept, be content with, satisfy.
CXXVI “continue” = yasaph. Same as “continue” in v18. See note CVIII above.
CXXVII “plague” = makkah. From nakah (to hit whether lightly or severely literal or figurative; beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter). This is a wound, injury, blow. Figuratively, it could be disaster, slaughter, or pestilence.

22 I will let looseCXXVIII wildCXXIX animals against you, and they shall bereave you of your childrenCXXX and destroyCXXXI your livestock;CXXXII

Notes on verse 22a

CXXVIII “let loose” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
CXXIX “wild” = sadeh. Same as “field” in v4. See note XXVII above.
CXXX “bereave…of…children” = shakol. This is a loss from death in a literal or figurative sense. It can specifically refer to a loss of children, whether a miscarriage, being barren, or not having children more broadly.
CXXXI “destroy” = karat. This is to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant (idiom for making a covenant is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume.
CXXXII “livestock” = behemah. This is animal or cattle. It is often used of large quadrupeds.

they shall make you few in number,CXXXIII and your roadsCXXXIV shall be deserted.CXXXV

Notes on verse 22b

CXXXIII “make…few in number” = maat. This is diminished, decreased, reduced, insignificant. It is a broad sense of being small or becoming small. Figuratively, this can mean ineffective.
CXXXIV “roads” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
CXXXV “deserted” = shamem. This is to stun or become numb. It can also mean to devastate or be appalled. Can also mean to be amazed or astonished.

23 “If in spite of these punishments you have not turned backCXXXVI to me but continueCXXXVII hostile to me, 24 then I, too,CXXXVIII will continueCXXXIX hostile to you:CXL I myself will strikeCXLI you sevenfold for your sins. 

Notes on verses 23-24

CXXXVI “turned back” = yasar. Same as “punish” in v18. See note CIX above.
CXXXVII “continue” = halak. Same as “follow” in v3. See note XVII above.
CXXXVIII “too” = aph. Same as “in turn” in v16. See note LXXXVIII above.
CXXXIX “continue” = halak. Same as “follow” in v3. See note XVII above.
CXL {untranslated} = gam. This is also, again, likewise.
CXLI “strike” = nakah. Related to “plague” in v21. See note CXXVII above.

25 I will bringCXLII the sword against you, executingCXLIII vengeanceCXLIV for the covenant, and if you withdrawCXLV into your cities,CXLVI

Notes on verse 25a

CXLII “bring” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
CXLIII “executing” = naqam. This is to avenge, punish, have a grudge, execute.
CXLIV “vengeance” = naqam. Related to “executing” in v25. 17x in OT. From naqam (see note CXLIII above). This can be a quarrel or vengeance.
CXLV “withdraw” = asaph. This is to gather, assemble, or bring. It can also mean to take away, destroy, or remove.
CXLVI “cities” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.

I will sendCXLVII pestilenceCXLVIII amongCXLIX you, and you shall be deliveredCL into enemy hands.CLI 

Notes on verse 25b

CXLVII “send” = shalach. Same as “let loose” in v22. See note CXXVIII above.
CXLVIII “pestilence” = deber.  From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss, destroy, subdue). This is plague or thorns.
CXLIX “among” = tavek. Same as “in…midst” in v11. See note LXVII above.
CL “delivered” = natan. Same as “place” in v1. See note VI above.
CLI “hands” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.

26 When I cut offCLII your supplyCLIII of bread, tenCLIV womenCLV

Notes on verse 26a

CLII “cut off” = shabar. Same as “broken” in v13. See note LXXVI above.
CLIII “supply” = matteh. From natah (to stretch or spread out, extend, bend). This is a staff, rod, branch, or tribe. It could be a rod for discipline or correction. It could be a scepter to indicate authority, a throwing lance, or a walking staff. Figuratively, it could also be something that supports life (like bread).
CLIV “ten” = eser. Perhaps from asar (to tithe, render a tenth of). This is ten or -teen. While 7 is symbolically the number of perfection, ten is also symbolically a number of perfection (but to a lesser degree than 7 is).
CLV “women” = ishshah. From ish (man); perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is woman, wife, or female.

shall bakeCLVI your bread in a singleCLVII oven,CLVIII

Notes on verse 26b

CLVI “bake” = aphah. This is one who cooks or bakes – particularly one who cooks meat.
CLVII “single” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
CLVIII “oven” = tannur. 15x in OT. From the same as tenuk (ear lobe, pinnacle, extremity); perhaps from the same as anak (plumb line, hook; root may mean to be narrow) OR from ner (properly, to glisten; a lamp, light, burner, candle; light literal or figurative). This is a portable stove, oven, or furnace.

and they shall dole outCLIX your bread by weight,CLX and though you eat, you shall not be satisfied.CLXI

Notes on verse 26c

CLIX “dole out” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
CLX “weight” = mishqal. From shaqal (to weigh, spend, trade). This is to weigh, or a unit of weight. It shares a root with the word “shekel.”
CLXI “be satisfied” = saba. Related to “full” in v5. See note XXXV above.

27 “But if, despite this, you disobeyCLXII me and continueCLXIII hostile to me, 28 I will continueCLXIV hostile to you in fury;CLXV I in turn will punish you myself sevenfold for your sins. 

Notes on verses 27-28

CLXII “disobey” = lo + shama. Shama is the same as “obey” in v14. See note LXXXI above.
CLXIII “continue” = halak. Same as “follow” in v3. See note XVII above.
CLXIV “continue” = halak. Same as “follow” in v3. See note XVII above.
CLXV “fury” = chemah. From yacham (to be hot, mate; figuratively, to conceive). This is heat – figuratively it can be anger or fury. It can also refer to poison or venom as they can cause fever.

29 You shall eat the fleshCLXVI of your sons,CLXVII and you shall eat the flesh of your daughters.CLXVIII 30 I will destroyCLXIX your high placesCLXX

Notes on verses 29-30a

CLXVI “flesh” = basar. From basar (being a messenger, publish, carry preach; properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news). This is flesh, the body, fat, skin, self, nakedness, humankind, or kin. It can also refer to private parts.
CLXVII “sons” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXVIII “daughters” = bat. Related to “sons” in v29. From ben (see note CLXVII above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXIX “destroy” = shamad. This is to demolish, destroy, perish, overthrow, pluck down.
CLXX “high places” = bamah. The root might mean being high. This is height, wave, or elevation.

and cut downCLXXI your incense altars;CLXXII I will heapCLXXIII your carcassesCLXXIV on the carcasses of your idols.CLXXV ICLXXVI will abhor you. 

Notes on verse 30b

CLXXI “cut down” = karat. Same as “destroy” in v22. See note CXXXI above.
CLXXII “incense altars” = chamman. 8x in OT. From chamam (to be warm, heat. It is to be hot in a literal or figurative sense, to mate). This is an incense altar or stand. It can also refer to some kind of idol, perhaps a sun pillar.
CLXXIII “heap” = natan. Same as “place” in v1. See note VI above.
CLXXIV “carcasses” = peger. From pagar (to be exhausted, relax). This is a carcass or remains, whether a person or animal. Figuratively, it can also refer to an idol.
CLXXV “idols” = gillul. From galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is an idol, as carved from a round log.
CLXXVI “I” = nephesh. Same as “I” in v11. See note LXVIII above.

31 I will layCLXXVII your cities waste,CLXXVIII will make your sanctuaries desolate,CLXXIX

Notes on verse 31a

CLXXVII “lay” = natan. Same as “place” in v1. See note VI above.
CLXXVIII “waste” = chorbah. From chareb (to be waste or desolate, destroyer). This is ruin, desert, waste place. Properly, it is a drought, which implies a desolated or decayed place.
CLXXIX “make…desolate” = shamem. Same as “be deserted” in v22. See note CXXXV above.

and I will not smellCLXXX your pleasingCLXXXI odors.CLXXXII 

Notes on verse 31b

CLXXX “smell” = ruach. 11x in OT. Related to riach (scent, odor, perceive). This is to blow or breathe. It can imply to perceive, anticipate, or enjoy.
CLXXXI “pleasing” = nichoach. From nuach (to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait; implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense). This is soothing, restful, sweet, pleasant.
CLXXXII “odors” = reyach. Related to “smell” in v31. From ruach (see note CLXXX above). This is a scent or breath – a savor, ointment. It is also used for the odor of sacrifices that pleases God.

32 I will devastateCLXXXIII the land, so that your enemies who come to settleCLXXXIV in it shall be appalledCLXXXV at it. 33 And you I will scatterCLXXXVI among the nations,CLXXXVII

Notes on verses 32-33a

CLXXXIII “devastate” = shamem. Same as “be deserted” in v22. See note CXXXV above.
CLXXXIV “settle” = yashab. Same as “live” in v5. See note XXXVI above.
CLXXXV “appalled” = shemem. Same as “be deserted” in v22. See note CXXXV above.
CLXXXVI “scatter” = zarah. This is to scatter or toss around. It can imply to disperse, cast away, or to scrutinize.
CLXXXVII “nations” = goy. Related to “proud” in v19. From the same root as gevah (the back, person, or body); related to gev (among); related to gaah (see note CXIII above). This is nation or people. Often used to refer to Gentiles or foreign nations. It can also be used figuratively for a group of animals. This is where the Yiddish “goy” comes from.

and I will unsheatheCLXXXVIII the sword againstCLXXXIX you; your land shall be a desolationCXC and your citiesCXCI a waste.CXCII

Notes on verse 33b

CLXXXVIII “unsheathe” = ruq. Related to “in vain” in v16. 19x in OT. See note XCIX above.
CLXXXIX “against” = achar. From achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.
CXC “desolation” = shemamah. Related to “be deserted” in v22. From shamem (see note CXXXV above). This is a devastation, ruin, or waste.
CXCI {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “be” in v12. See note LXXI above.
CXCII “waste” = chorbah. Same as “waste” in v31. See note CLXXVIII above.

34 “Then the land shall enjoyCXCIII its Sabbath years as long asCXCIV it lies desolate,CXCV while you are in the land of your enemies; then the land shall restCXCVI and enjoy its Sabbath years. 

Notes on verse 34

CXCIII “enjoy” = ratsah. This is to be pleased with, delight, take pleasure in, or accept with favor. It can mean to approve or consent regarding something. It can also be used specifically of satisfying debts or being pardoned.
CXCIV “as long as” = kol + yom. Literally, “all of the days.” Kol is the same as “all” in v14. See note LXXXII above. Yom has a root that may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
CXCV “lies desolate” = shamem. Same as “be deserted” in v22. See note CXXXV above.
CXCVI “rest” = shabath. Same as “remove” in v6. See note XLII above.

35 As long as it lies desolate, it shall have the restCXCVII it did not have on your Sabbaths when you were living on it. 36 And as for those of you who survive,CXCVIII I will sendCXCIX faintnessCC into their heartsCCI in the lands of their enemies;

Notes on verses 35-36a

CXCVII “have the rest” = shabath. Same as “remove” in v6. See note XLII above.
CXCVIII “survive” = shaar. Properly, this is swelling up i.e. being left over, a remnant, remaining, being redundant.
CXCIX “send” = bo. Same as “bring” in v25. See note CXLII above.
CC “faintness” = morek. 1x in OT. Perhaps from rakak (to be tender, soft, faint, weak; to soften or mollify). This is softness or weakness. It can be an analogy for fear.
CCI “hearts” = lebab. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.

the soundCCII of a drivenCCIII leafCCIV shall put them to flight,CCV and they shall flee as one fleesCCVI from the sword, and they shall fall though no one pursues. 

Notes on verse 36b

CCII “sound” = qol. This is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.
CCIII “driven” = nadaph. 9x in OT. This is to drive away, flee, rout, toss about, disperse.
CCIV “leaf” = aleh. 18x in OT. From alah (to go up, climb, to be high; to arise in a literal or figurative sense). This is leaf, branch, or foliage.
CCV “put…to flight” = radaph. Same as “give chase” in v7. See note XLVII above.
CCVI “flees” = menusah. Related to “flee” in v17. 2x in OT. From manos (a place to which one escapes; a refuge in a literal or figurative sense; fleeing); from nus (see note CVI above). This is fugitive, fleeing, or retreat.

37 They shall stumbleCCVII over one another,CCVIII as if to escapeCCIX a sword, though no one pursues, and you shall haveCCX no power to standCCXI againstCCXII your enemies. 

Notes on verse 37

CCVII “stumble” = kashal. This is to stumble, fail, be weak or decayed, be overthrown, to totter. It can refer to weak legs or ankles so it is falter, faint, or fall.
CCVIII “over one another” = ish + ach. Ish is related to “women” in v26. See note CLV above. Ach is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
CCIX {untranslated} = paneh. Same as “before” in v7. See note L above.
CCX “have” = hayah. Same as “be” in v12. See note LXXI above.
CCXI “power to stand” = tequmah. Related to “erect” in v1 & “erect” in v13. 1x in OT. From qum (see note III above). This is standing, ability to resist.
CCXII “against” = paneh. Same as “before” in v7. See note L above.

38 You shall perishCCXIII among the nations, and the land of your enemies shall devourCCXIV you. 39 And those of you who survive shall languishCCXV in the land of your enemies because of their iniquities;CCXVI they shall alsoCCXVII languish because of the iniquities of their ancestors.CCXVIII

Notes on verses 38-39

CCXIII “perish” = abad. To wander off, lose self. This implies to perish, destroy, die, vanish, or be broken or corrupt.
CCXIV “devour” = akal. Same as “eat” in v5. See note XXXIII above.
CCXV “languish” = maqaq. 10x in OT. This is to melt, decay, wear away, or waste away. Figuratively, it could be to corrupt, flow, or vanish.
CCXVI “iniquities” = avon. Perhaps related to avah (to bend, twist, be amiss). This is sin, mischief, guilt, fault, punishment for iniquity, or moral evil.
CCXVII “also” = aph. Same as “in turn” in v16. See note LXXXVIII above.
CCXVIII “ancestors” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.

40 “But if they confessCCXIX their iniquity and the iniquity of their ancestors—their treacheryCCXX against me and also their continuedCCXXI hostility to me, 41 so that I in turn was hostile to them and broughtCCXXII them into the land of their enemies—if, then, their uncircumcisedCCXXIII heart is humbledCCXXIV and they make amendsCCXXV for their iniquity, 

Notes on verses 40-41

CCXIX “confess” = yadah. This is to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise. So, it is to praise, give thanks, or make a confession.
CCXX “treachery” = maal + asher + maal. Literally, “their unfaithfulness in which they were unfaithful.” Maal is from maal (to be or behave in a way that is unfaithful, to violate or transgress; to cover up). This is an unfaithful action, falsehood, or sin.
CCXXI “continued” = halak. Same as “follow” in v3. See note XVII above.
CCXXII “brought” = bo. Same as “bring” in v25. See note CXLII above.
CCXXIII “uncircumcised” = arel. From arel (to strip or expose, restrain; to remove in a literal or figurative sense). This is uncircumcised, unskilled, exposed, forbidden.
CCXXIV “humbled” = kana. This is to be humble, subdue, humiliate, conquer. Properly, it means to bend the knee.
CCXXV “make amends” = ratsah. Same as “enjoy” in v34. See note CXCIII above.

42 then will I rememberCCXXVI my covenant with Jacob;CCXXVII I will remember also my covenant with IsaacCCXXVIII and also my covenant with Abraham,CCXXIX and I will remember the land. 

Notes on verse 42

CCXXVI “remember” = zakar. This is to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention.
CCXXVII “Jacob” = Yaaqob. From the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is Isaac’s son and his descendants. The name means heel-catcher or supplanter.
CCXXVIII “Isaac” = Yitschaq. From tsachaq (to laugh, mock, play, make sport; this is laughing out loud whether in joy or in a scornful way). This is Isaac, meaning “he laughs.”
CCXXIX “Abraham” = Abraham. Related to “ancestors” in v39. From the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (see note CCXVIII above) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.

43 For the land shall be desertedCCXXX by them and enjoy its Sabbath years by lying desolate without them, while they shall make amends for their iniquity, because they dared to spurn my ordinances, and theyCCXXXI abhorred my statutes. 44 YetCCXXXII for all that, when they are in the land of their enemies, I will not spurn them or abhor them so as to destroy them utterlyCCXXXIII and breakCCXXXIV my covenant with them, for I am the Lord their God, 

Notes on verses 43-44

CCXXX “deserted” = azab. To loosen, relinquish, permit, forsake, fail, leave destitute.
CCXXXI “they” = nephesh. Same as “I” in v11. See note LXVIII above.
CCXXXII “yet” = aph. Same as “in turn” in v16. See note LXXXVIII above.
CCXXXIII “destroy…utterly” = kalah. Same as “waste” in v16. See note XCIV above.
CCXXXIV “break” = parar. Same as “break” in v15. See note LXXXVII above.

45 but I will remember in their favor the covenant with their ancestorsCCXXXV whom I broughtCCXXXVI out of the land of Egypt in the sightCCXXXVII of the nations, to be their God: I am the Lord.”

46 These are the statutesCCXXXVIII and ordinances and lawsCCXXXIX

Notes on verses 45-46a

CCXXXV “ancestors” = rishon. From rishah (beginning or early time); from rosh (head, captain, or chief; excellent or the forefront; first in position or in statue or in time). This is first, former, ancestor, beginning, ranked first.
CCXXXVI “brought” = yatsa. Same as “clear out” in v10. See note LXIII above.
CCXXXVII “sight” = ayin. Same as “eyes” in v16. See note XCV above.
CCXXXVIII “statutes” = choq. Related to “statutes” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CCXXXIX “laws” = torah. From yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach). This is law, instruction, teaching, or statute. It can also refer to the first five books of the Bible – the Torah.

that the Lord establishedCCXL betweenCCXLI himself andCCXLII the IsraelitesCCXLIII

Notes on verse 46b

CCXL “established” = natan. Same as “place” in v1. See note VI above.
CCXLI “between” = bayin. From bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is among, between, interval.
CCXLII {untranslated} = bayin. Same as “between” in v46. See note CCXLI above.
CCXLIII “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is the same as “sons” in v29. See note CLXVII above. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.


Notes on verse 46c

CCXLIV “Mount” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.
CCXLV “Sinai” = Sinay. Probably from the same as Sin (Sin, a city meaning “clay” or “bush);{perhaps from asam (to gather, store) OR from seneh (thorn bush) OR related to Aramaic siyn (a god called Sin) OR perhaps Hebrew siyn (related to mud or clay)}. This is Sinai – a place whose name may mean “bush of the Lord” or “muddy.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Sinai.html
CCXLVI {untranslated} = yad. Literally, “by the hand of.” This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
CCXLVII “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.

Image credit: “His Dwelling Place” by littlelouderplease, 2006.

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