Mark 14:1-15:47

Mark 14:1-15:47
Palm/Passion Sunday B18


14:1 It was two days before the PassoverI and the festival of Unleavened Bread.II The chief priestsIII and the scribesIV

Notes on verse 14:1a

I “Passover” = pascha. Akin to penthos (mourning, sorrow). This is to be acted on for good or ill. It is often used for negative treatment. Properly, it means feeling strong emotions – especially suffering. It can also be the ability to feel suffering.
II “Unleavened Bread” = azumos. 9x in NT. From a (not, without) + zume (yeast in a literal or figurative sense – an influence that grows, but is not easily detected); {perhaps from zeo (to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow; used figuratively for being fervent or earnest)}. This is unleavened – can refer specifically to the Passover meal. Figuratively, it is sincere or not corrupted.
III “chief priests” = archiereus. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
IV “scribes” = grammateus. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (to write). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.

were looking forV a way to arrestVI Jesus by stealthVII and killVIII him; 

Notes on verse 14:1b

V “looking for” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
VI “arrest” = krateo. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control. In this sense, it means arrest.
VII “stealth” = dolos. 11x in NT. From dello (probably to decoy). This is literally bait, but used figuratively for treachery, stealth, guile, or deceit.
VIII “kill” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.

for they said, “Not during the festival,IX or there may be a riotX among the people.”XI

Notes on verse 14:2

IX “festival” = heorte. This is a holiday or feast.
X “riot” = thorubos. 7x in NT. From the same as thoreo (to be troubled, agitated, alarmed, be unsettled, be frightened); from throos (clamor, noise) or from threomai (to wail). This is an uproar, noise, outcry, riot, disturbance, trouble. It can also be used figuratively for a very emotional wailing or hysteria. It is a commotion that leads to panic or terror.
XI “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.

While he was at BethanyXII in the houseXIII of SimonXIV the leper,XV 

Notes on verse 14:3a

XII “Bethany” = Bethania. 12x in NT. From Aramaic beth anya (house of affliction, misery, wretchedness). This is Bethany.
XIII “house” = oikia. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
XIV “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
XV “leper” = lepros. 9x in NT. From lepis (fish scale, skin flake); from lepo (to peel). This is scaly or leprous. It can also refer to a person with leprosy.

as he satXVI at the table, a womanXVII came with an alabaster jarXVIII

Notes on verse 14:3b

XVI “sat” = katakeimai. 12x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + keimai (to lie, recline, be placed, lie outstretched, be appointed). This is to lie down, whether for a meal or as one sick in bed.
XVII “woman” = gune. Perhaps from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
XVIII “alabaster jar” = alabastron. 4x in NT– all of the anointing at Bethany. Perhaps from Egyptian ꜥj-r-bꜣstjt (“vessel of the Egyptian goddess Bast”) OR related to Arabic عُلْبَة‎ (ʿulba, box, chest); related to Akkadian a-la-mit-tu (palm tree). This is a box or vial of alabaster, generally containing a perfumed ointment. See

of very costlyXIX ointmentXX ofXXI nard,XXII and she broke openXXIII the jar and pouredXXIV the ointment on his head.XXV 

Notes on verse 14:3c

XIX “very costly” = poluteles. 3x in NT. From polus (much, many, abundant) + telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one); {from tello (to start out with a definite goal in mind)}. This is very expensive or precious.
XX “ointment” = muron. 14x in NT. This is ointment, perfume, or anointing oil. Probably olive oil mixed with spices and scents such as myrrh.
XXI {untranslated} = pistikos. 2x in NT– both in the anointing of Jesus. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is trustworthy – as in, it can be trusted to be genuine or unadulterated.
XXII “nard” = nardos. 2x in NT– both in the anointing of Jesus. From Akkadian ardu; from Arabic rand; perhaps from Sanskrit nalada (all referring to nard). This is a fragrant Indian plant that was used to make perfume. See
XXIII “broke open” = suntribo. 8x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + the same as tribos (worn track or path like a rut that is formed from rubbing i.e. steady use; also road or highway); {from tribo (to rub or thresh)}. This is break in pieces, bruise, shatter, or crush completely.
XXIV “poured” = katacheo. 2x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + cheo (to pour). This is to pour over or pour down.
XXV “head” = kephale. This is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from.

But some were there who said to one another in anger,XXVI “Why was the ointment wastedXXVII in this way? For this ointment couldXXVIII have been soldXXIX for more than three hundred denarii,XXX 

Notes on verses 14:4-5a

XXVI “anger” = aganakteo. 7x in NT. Perhaps from agan (much) + achthos (grief); {related to agkale (bent arm); from agkos (bend, ache)}. This is being greatly grieved or displeased. Generally translated angry or indignant.
XXVII “wasted” = apoleia…+ ginomai. Literally “to what has this waste of ointment been made?” Apoleia is 18x in NT. From apollumi (to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently; to cancel or remove); {from apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination)}. This is destruction, loss, something cut off, ruin, perdition. It can be any kind of loss whether tangible, spiritual, or eternal. Ginomai is related to “woman” in v14:3. See note XVII above.
XXVIII “could” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
XXIX “sold” = piprasko. 9x in NT. From pernemi (to sell by export). This is to sell with travel involved. It can also mean to sell into slavery or to be devoted to.
XXX “denarii” = denarion. 16x in NT. From Latin deni (ten each) + arius (belonging to). This is a silver Roman coin.

and the money givenXXXI to the poor.”XXXII And they scoldedXXXIII her.

Notes on verse 14:5b

XXXI “given” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXII “poor” = ptochos. From ptosso (to crouch or cower as a beggar does). This is poor or destitute – someone who is extremely poor and bowed down because of a long struggle under poverty. Properly, it means bent over so figuratively it is someone who is deeply destitute and lacking tangible resources. This is a beggar – as extremely opposite a wealthy person as possible.
XXXIII “scolded” = embrimaomai. 5x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + brimaomai (snorting due to anger). This is affected by anger, stern admonishment, scolding, or being deeply moved. It is snorting displeasure or anger or roaring from rage. It can also mean to blame, sigh or murmur against someone.

But JesusXXXIV said, “Let her alone;XXXV why do you troubleXXXVI her? She has performedXXXVII a goodXXXVIII serviceXXXIX for me. 

Notes on verse 14:6

XXXIV “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XXXV “let…alone” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
XXXVI “trouble” = kopos + parecho. Kopos is 18x in NT. From kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is trouble, toil, or labor. This is working to the point of exhaustion or weariness. At base, this refers to a blow that lands so swiftly that one is seriously weakened. Figuratively, this is being greatly tired or working to the point of being without strength. Parecho is 16x in NT– including Luke 6:29: “if anyone strikes you on the cheek, offer the other also.” From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + echo (to have, hold, possess). This is present, to show, bring, give, offer to hold near.
XXXVII “performed” = ergazomai. Related to “service” in v14:6. From ergon (see note XXXIX below). This is to work, labor, perform, toil.
XXXVIII “good” = kalos. This is good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy. This is external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues. A different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good.
XXXIX “service” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.

For you alwaysXL have the poor with you, and you canXLI showXLII kindnessXLIII to them whenever you wish;XLIV but you will not always have me. 

Notes on verse 14:7

XL “always” = pantote. From pas (all, every, each) + tote (then, whether past or future); {from hote (when); from ho (the)}. This is literally every when. It is always, at all times.
XLI {untranslated} = pantote. Same as “always” in v14:7. See note XL above.
XLII “show” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XLIII “kindness” = eu. 6x in NT. This is good well, well done, or rightly. It can also be a positive exclamation.
XLIV “wish” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.

She has doneXLV what she could; she has anointedXLVI my bodyXLVII beforehandXLVIII for its burial.XLIX 

Notes on verse 14:8

XLV “done” = poieo. Same as “show” in v14:7. See note XLII above.
XLVI “anointed” = murizo. Related to “ointment” in v14:3. 1x in NT. From muron (see note XX above). This is to anoint with a perfumed ointment, particularly in preparation for burial.
XLVII “body” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
XLVIII “beforehand” = prolambano. 3x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to anticipate, take by surprise, take before others have the chance to, take before.
XLIX “burial” = entaphiasmos. 2x in NT. From entaphiazo (to prepare a body to be buried, to embalm); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + taphos (a burial place such as a grave, sepulcher, or tomb); {from thapto (to bury, hold a funeral)}}. This is embalming or burial.

TrulyL I tell you, wherever the good newsLI is proclaimedLII in the wholeLIII world,LIV what she has done will be told in remembranceLV of her.”

Notes on verse 14:9

L “truly” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
LI “good news” = euaggelion. Related to “kindness” in v14:7. From eu (see note XLIII above) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel); {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (to bring, lead, carry, guide)}. This is literally “the good news,” used for the gospel. This is also where “evangelism” comes from.
LII “proclaimed” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.
LIII “whole” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
LIV “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.
LV “remembrance” = mnemosunon. 3x in NT. From the same as mnemoneuo (to remember, recollect; does not necessarily imply remembering something that you forgot – it could be calling something to mind; to punish or rehearse); {from mnemon (mindful) OR from mneme (memory or mention); {from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence) or mimnesko (to remind or remember; memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful; not incidentally or accidentally remembering); or form meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure) or from massaomai (to chew, gnaw); from masso (to knead, squeeze)}}. This is a remembrance, memory, memorial, record. It could also be an offering for remembrance.

10 Then JudasLVI Iscariot,LVII who was one of the twelve, went to the chief priests in order to betrayLVIII him to them. 

Notes on verse 14:10

LVI “Judas” = Ioudas. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.
LVII “Iscariot” = Iskariotes. 11x in NT. From Hebrew probably ish (man, husband); {perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be frail, feeble)} + qirya (city); {Aramaic corresponding to qiryah (city, building); from qarah (to happen, meet, bring about)}. Iscariot means person from Kerioth.
LVIII “betray” = paradidomi. Related to “given” in v14:5. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (see note XXXI above). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.

11 When they heardLIX it, they were greatly pleased,LX and promisedLXI to give him money.LXII So he began to look for an opportunityLXIII to betray him.

Notes on verse 14:11

LIX “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
LX “were greatly pleased” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).
LXI “promised” = epaggellomai. Related to “good news” in v14:9. 15x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (see note LI above)}. This is to proclaim, profess, or make a promise that is fitting.
LXII “money” = argurion. From arguros (silver, whether the metal itself or things made from silver); from argos (shining). This is silver, which implies money – shekel, drachma, etc.
LXIII “opportunity” = eukairos. Related to “kindness” in v14:7 & “good news” in v14:9. 2x in NT. From eukairos (timely, suitable, strategic, well-timed, opportune, festival); {from eu (see note XLIII above) + kairos (season, opportunity, occasion; spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time)}. This is opportunely, season, conveniently.

12 On the first day of Unleavened Bread, when the Passover lambLXIV is sacrificed,LXV his disciplesLXVI said to him,

Notes on verse 14:12a

LXIV “Passover lamb” = pascha. Same as “Passover” in v14:1. See note I above.
LXV “sacrificed” = thuo. 14x in NT. This is to rush along, breathe violently. It can also mean to offer sacrifice, specifically by fire (in reference to the blowing smoke).
LXVI “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.

“Where do you wantLXVII us to go and make the preparationsLXVIII for you to eatLXIX the Passover?” 

Notes on verse 14:12b

LXVII “want” = thelo. Same as “wish” in v14:7. See note XLIV above.
LXVIII “make the preparations” = hetoimazo. From hetoimos (make ready, be ready because of being prepared, standing by, adjusted; ready to meet some opportunity or challenge). This is to prepare or provide.
LXIX “eat” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.

13 So he sentLXX two of his disciples, saying to them, “GoLXXI into the city,LXXII

Notes on verse 14:13a

LXX “sent” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
LXXI “go” = hupago. Related to “good news” in v14:9 & “promised” in v14:11. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (see note LI above). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
LXXII “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.

and a manLXXIII carryingLXXIV a jarLXXV of waterLXXVI will meetLXXVII you; followLXXVIII him, 

Notes on verse 14:13b

LXXIII “man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
LXXIV “carrying” = bastazo. Perhaps from the base of basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is to lift in a literal of figurative sense. It can also mean take up, carry, bear, or remove. Figuratively, it can mean declare, endure, or sustain.
LXXV “jar” = keramion. 2x in NT. From keramos (a tile made from earth, a roof, awning); from kerannumi (to mix, mingle); from kerao (to mix). This is a pitcher or jar. It shares a root with “ceramic.”
LXXVI “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.
LXXVII “meet” = apantao. 2x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + antao (to meet with personally) OR from apo (from, away from) + anti (opposite, instead of, against). This is to meet or encounter.
LXXVIII “follow” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.

14 and wherever he enters, say to the owner of the house,LXXIX ‘The TeacherLXXX asks, Where is my guest roomLXXXI where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?’ 

Notes on verse 14:14

LXXIX “owner of the house” = oikodespotes. Related to “house” in v14:3. 12x in NT. From oikos (see note XIII above) + despotes (lord, master, despot; authority who has unrestricted power and jurisdiction) + posis (husband). This is the master of the house, head of a family, or the householder.
LXXX “Teacher” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
LXXXI “guest room” = kataluma. 3x in NT – 2x of the guest room that Jesus seeks in which to eat his Passover for the Last Supper (Mark 14:14) (Luke 22:11) & 1x of Jesus’ birth story. From kata (down, according to, throughout, by way of) + luo (to loose, release, dissolve, untie; figurative for break or destroy). This is a lodging place, inn, or guest room. Properly, it is a place where one unyokes or unharnesses animals for the purpose of lodging. Alternately, it’s a place to break up a long journey.

15 He will showLXXXII you a large room upstairs,LXXXIII furnishedLXXXIV and ready.LXXXV Make preparations for us there.” 16 So the disciples set out and went to the city, and foundLXXXVI everything as he had told them; and they prepared the Passover meal.

Notes on verses 14:15-16

LXXXII “show” = deiknumi. This is to show in a literal or figurative sense so it can be to teach, bring, or point out.
LXXXIII “room upstairs” = anogeon. 2x in NT. From anagaion (second floor, over the ground); {from ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + ge (earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area)}. This is an upper room on the second floor. It could also be a dome or balcony.
LXXXIV “furnished” = stronnuo. 6x in NT. This is to spread, strew, make a bed.
LXXXV “ready” = hetoimos. Related to “make the preparations” in v14:12. 17x in NT. See note LXVIII above.
LXXXVI “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.

17 When it wasLXXXVII evening, he came with the twelve. 18 And when they had taken their placesLXXXVIII and were eating,LXXXIX Jesus said, “Truly I tell you, one of you will betray me, one who is eatingXC with me.” 

Notes on verses 14:17-18

LXXXVII “was” = ginomai. Same as “wasted” in v14:4. See note XXVII above.
LXXXVIII “taken…places” = anakeimai. Related to “sat” in v14:3. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + keimai (see note XVI above). This is to recline, particularly as one does for dinner. It can also be reclining as a corpse.
LXXXIX “eating” = esthio. This is to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust.
XC “eating” = esthio. Same as “eating” in v14:18. See note LXXXIX above.

19 They beganXCI to be distressedXCII and to say to him one after another, “Surely, notXCIII I?” 

Notes on verse 14:19

XCI “began” = archomai. Related to “chief priests” in v14:1. From archo (see note III above). This is to begin or rule.
XCII “be distressed” = lupeo. From lupe (pain, whether physical or mental; grief, sorrow, distress, a heavy heart). This is to be sad, grieve, distress, hurt, feel pain. It can be used for deep pain or severe sorrow as well as the pain that accompanies childbirth.
XCIII “surely, not” = meti. 17x in NT. From me (not, neither, never; rules out conditional statements and their implications) + tis (someone, anyone, anything). This is asking a question when you expect the answer to be no. It is if not, surely no. But it also keeps a small possibility floating – but could it be?

20 He said to them, “It is one of the twelve, one who is dippingXCIV bread into the bowlXCV with me. 21 ForXCVI the Son of ManXCVII goes as it is writtenXCVIII of him,

Notes on verses 14:20-21a

XIV “dipping” = embapto. 2x in NT– both of the disciple who betrays Jesus in Mt 26:23 & Mk 14:20. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + bapto (to dip, dye, fully cover with liquid). This is to dip into, to touch liquid. This shares a root with “baptize.”
XCV “bowl” = trublion. 2x in NT. This is bowl, deep dish, or platter.
XCVI {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XCVII “Man” = anthropos. Same as “man” in v14:13. See note LXXIII above.
XCVIII “written” = grapho. Related to “scribes” in v14:1. See note IV above.

but woeXCIX to that oneC by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been betterCI for that one not to have been born.”CII

Notes on verse 14:21b

XCIX “woe” = ouai. This is alas or woe to show grief or to denounce something.
C “one” = anthropos. Same as “man” in v14:13. See note LXXIII above.
CI “better” = kalos. Same as “good” in v14:6. See note XXXVIII above.
CII “been born” = gennao. Related to “woman” in v14:3 & “wasted” in v14:4. From genna (descent, birth); from genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note XVII above). This is to beget, give birth to, or bring forth. Properly, it refers to procreation by the father, but was used of the mother by extension. Figuratively, this can mean to regenerate.

22 While they were eating,CIII he tookCIV a loaf of bread,CV and after blessingCVI it he brokeCVII it, gave it to them, and said, “Take; this is my body.” 

Notes on verse 14:22

CIII “eating” = esthio. Same as “eating” in v14:18. See note LXXXIX above.
CIV “took” = lambano. Related to “beforehand” in v14:8. See note XLVIII above.
CV “loaf of bread” = artos. Perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.
CVI “blessing” = eulogeo. Related to “kindness” in v14:7 & “good news” in v14:9 & “opportunity” in v14:11. From eu (see note XLIII above) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. Properly, this is speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited. It can mean praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing. This is where “eulogy” comes from.
CVII “broke” = klao. 14x in NT. This is to break, to break in pieces as one breaks bread.

23 Then he took a cup,CVIII and after giving thanksCIX he gave it to them, and all of them drankCX from it. 

Notes on verse 14:23

CVIII “cup” = poterion. From pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is a drinking vessel. Figuratively, it can refer to one’s lot, to fate, or to what God has in store for you.
CIX “giving thanks” = eucharisteo. Related to “kindness” in v14:7 & “good news” in v14:9 & “opportunity” in v14:11 & “blessing” in v14:22 & “were greatly pleased” in v14:11. From eu (see note XLIII above) + charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); {from chairo (see note LX above)}. This is giving thanks, being thankful. It is a recognition that God’s grace is good and actively showing gratitude. It can also be used for saying grace before eating. This is where “eucharist” comes from.
CX “drank” = pino. Related to “cup” in v14:23. See note CVIII above.

24 He said to them, “This is my bloodCXI of the covenant,CXII which is poured outCXIII for many. 

Notes on verse 14:24

CXI “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).
CXII “covenant” = diatheke. From diatithemi (to place separately – to make a will or covenant; this is arranging ahead of time how things will be accomplished); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position)}. This is a will, covenant, contract, or agreement.
CXIII “poured out” = ekcheo. Related to “poured” in v14:3. From ek (from, from out of) + cheo (see note XXIV above). This is something poured out in a liberal fashion. So, it is gushing, spilling, or shedding.

25 Truly I tell you, I will never again drink of the fruitCXIV of the vineCXV until that day when I drink it newCXVI in the kingdomCXVII of God.”CXVIII

Notes on verse 14:25

CXIV “fruit” = gennema. Related to “woman” in v14:3 & “wasted” in v14:4 & “been born” in v14:21. 8x in NT. From gennao (see note CII above). This is offspring, child, fruit, brood, or produce in a literal or figurative sense.
CXV “vine” = ampelos. 9x in NT. Perhaps from the base of amphoteros (both, all); {from amphi (around) + halon (the threshing floor where grain is rolled to separate from the chaff); {from halos (threshing floor); probably from helisso (to roll up, coil, wrap)}}. This is vine or grapevine as that which coils around.
CXVI “new” = kainos. This is not new as in new versus old. This is new in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh.
CXVII “kingdom” = basileia. Related to “carrying” in v14:13. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (see note LXXIV above). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
CXVIII “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

26 When they had sung the hymn,CXIX they went out to the Mount of Olives. 27 And Jesus said to them, “You will all become deserters;CXX, CXXI for it is written,

Notes on verses 14:26-27a

CXIX “sung the hymn” = humneo. 4x in NT. From humno (hymn, song to praise God, religious ode; also used in other faiths as songs that celebrated their gods, heroes, etc); from hudeo (to celebrate). This is singing a hymn or religious ode, to praise or celebrate God.
CXX “become deserters” = skandalizo. From skandalon (the bait or portion of the trap that closes down on the victim – the trap’s trigger; a stumbling block, offense, or cause for error; something that sets into motion a negative cause and effect; something that causes one to stumble); perhaps from kampto (to bend or bow). This is to put a stumbling block in someone’s way. Figuratively, causing someone to sin or preventing them from good action. It can also mean to shock or offend. Literally, this is falling into a trap or tripping someone up. So, here, enticing someone to sin or apostasy.
CXXI Some manuscripts add “in me on this night.”

‘I will strikeCXXII the shepherd,CXXIII
    and the sheepCXXIV will be scattered.’CXXV

Notes on verse 14:27b

CXXII “strike” = patasso. 10x in NT. Perhaps from paio (to strike, hit, sting). This can be strike or hit in a gentle sense like tapping someone on the side (Acts 12:7) or the beating of the heart. It can also be violent as in the disciples striking with the sword when Jesus is arrested (Mt 26:31 & Mk 22:49-50). It can also refer to slaying or death (Acts 7:24; Acts 12:23).
CXXIII “shepherd” = poimen. 18x in NT. This is shepherd or pastor – one who protects. It is also used figuratively to mean ruler. 
CXXIV “sheep” = probaton. Related to “carrying” in v14:13 & “kingdom” in v14:25. Probably from probaino (to go forward literally or to advance in years); {from pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + the same as basis (see note LXXIV above)}. This is literally easily led and so a sheep or another grazing animal. Also use figuratively of people who are led easily.
CXXV “be scattered” = diaskorpizo. 9x in NT. From dia (through, on account of, across, thoroughly) + skorpizo (to scatter, distribute, dissipate, waste). This is to separate or disperse. Figuratively, it can be squander or waste.

28 But after I am raised up,CXXVI I will go beforeCXXVII you to Galilee.”CXXVIII

Notes on verse 14:28

CXXVI “raised up” = egeiro. Probably from ageiro (to bring together). This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
CXXVII “go before” = proago. Related to “good news” in v14:9 & “promised” in v14:11 & “go” in v14:13. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + ago (see note LI above). This is to lead, go before, bring forward, walk ahead. It can be before in location or in time.
CXXVIII “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.

29 PeterCXXIX saidCXXX to him, “Even though all become deserters, I will not.” 

30 Jesus said to him, “Truly I tell you, this day, this very night, before the cockCXXXI crowsCXXXII twice, you will denyCXXXIII me three times.” 

Notes on verses 14:29-30

CXXIX “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
CXXX “said” = phemi. From phao (to shine). This is to declare, say, or use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view.
CXXXI “cock” = alektor. 12x in NT. Perhaps from aleko (to ward off). This is a cock or rooster.
CXXXII “crows” = phoneo. Related to “said” in v14:29. From phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi (see note CXXX above) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.
CXXXIII “deny” = aparneomai. 11x in NT– 8x of Peter’s denial of Jesus, 2x “let them deny themselves and take up their cross and follow me” (Mt 16:24 & Mk 8:34), 1x “whoever denies me before others will be denied before the angels of God” (Lk 12:9). From apo (from, away from) + arneomai (to deny, disown, refuse, repudiate someone or a previously held belief, to contradict); {from a (not) + rheo (say, speak of)}. This is a strong denial or rejection – utter denial, disowning, or repudiation.

31 But he said vehemently,CXXXIV “Even though I mustCXXXV die withCXXXVI you, I will not deny you.” And all of them said the same.

Notes on verse 14:31

CXXXIV “vehemently” = perissos. 17x in NT. From perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative or peiro (to pierce). This is abundantly, exceedingly, far more, or all the more. This is going beyond what is anticipated or past the upper limit.
CXXXV “must” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
CXXXVI “die with” = sunapothnesko. 3x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.

32 They went to a placeCXXXVII calledCXXXVIII Gethsemane;CXXXIX

Notes on verse 14:32a

CXXXVII “place” = chorion. 10x in NT. From chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is place, estate, possession, piece of ground, property.
CXXXVIII “called” = hos + ho + onoma. Literally “of which the name [is].” Onoma may be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
CXXXIX “Gethsemane” = Gethsemani. 2x in NT. From Hebrew gath (wine press); {perhaps from nagan (to strike a stringed instrument, to pluck or play it)} + shemen (fat, oil, grease, olive oil – often with perfume; figurative for fertile, lavish, rich); {from shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat)}. This is Gethsemane, meaning oil-press, an olive orchard.

and he said to his disciples, “SitCXL here while I pray.”CXLI 33 He tookCXLII with him Peter and JamesCXLIII and John,CXLIV

Notes on verses 14:32b-33a

CXL “sit” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.
CXLI “pray” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.
CXLII “took” = paralambano. Related to “beforehand” in v14:8 & “took” in v14:22. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + lambano (see note XLVIII above). This is to receive, take, acknowledge, associate with. It can also mean to take on an office or to learn.
CXLIII “James” = Iakobos. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
CXLIV “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v14:6. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note XXXIV above) + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”

and began to be distressedCXLV and agitated.CXLVI 34 And he said to them, “ICXLVII am deeply grieved,CXLVIII even to death;CXLIX remainCL here, and keep awake.”CLI 

Notes on verses 14:33b-34

CXLV “be distressed” = ekthambeo. 4x in NT – 1x when Jesus healed a boy with a spirit and the crowd was overcome with awe in Mark 9:15, 1x when Jesus was distressed at Gethsemane in Mark 14:33 & 2x when Mary Magdalene, Mary, and Salome were alarmed at seeing the angel at the empty tomb and the angel says, “do not be alarmed” in Mark 16:5-6. From ekthambos (amazed, filled with wonder that affects the viewer greatly); {from ek (from, from out of) + thambos (amazement, wonder, being stunned or dumbfounded because something unusual happened; it can be positive or negative); {akin to tapho (dumbfounded)}}. This is to amaze, be full of awe, to be distressed.
CXLVI “agitated” = ademoneo. 3x in NT. Perhaps from adeo (to be full to the point of loathing). This is being distressed, troubled, fearful, lacking courage.
CXLVII “I” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
CXLVIII “deeply grieved” = perilupos. Related to “be distressed” in v14:19. 5x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + lupe (see note XCII above). This is very sad, deeply grieved, consumed by sorrow.
CXLIX “death” = thanatos. This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
CL “remain” = meno. Related to “remembrance” in v14:9. See note LV above.
CLI “keep awake” = gregoreo. Related to “raised up” in v14:28. From egeiro (see note CXXVI above). This is to be or stay awake, watch. Figuratively, it can be alertness or vigilance.

35 And going a little farther, he threw himself on the groundCLII and prayed that, if it were possible,CLIII the hourCLIV might pass from him. 36 He said, “Abba,CLV Father, for you all things are possible; removeCLVI this cup from me; yet, not what I want, but what you want.” 

Notes on verses 14:35-36

CLII “ground” = ge. Related to “room upstairs” in v14:15. See note LXXXIII above.
CLIII “possible” = dunatos. Related to “could” in v14:5. From dunamai (see note XXVIII above). This is mighty or powerful. It speaks of ability of persons, possibility of things. It is what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits. The root verb is also related to miracles i.e. deeds of power.
CLIV “hour” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
CLV “Abba” = Abba. 3x in NT. From Aramaic ab (father); corresponding to Hebrew ab (father in a literal or figurative sense – grandfather, chief, ancestor). This is abba, which means father – not a diminutive daddy.
CLVI “remove” = paraphero. 4x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to carry away, remove, mislead, to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense.

37 He came and found them sleeping;CLVII and he said to Peter, “Simon, are you asleep? CouldCLVIII you not keep awake one hour? 38 Keep awake and pray that you may not come into the time of trial;CLIX 

Notes on verses 14:37-38a

CLVII “sleeping” = katheudo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + heudo (to sleep). This is to settle down to rest, to sleep, fall asleep in a literal or figurative sense.
CLVIII “could” = ischuo. Related to “trouble” in v14:6. From ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance); {perhaps from is (force) + echo (see note XXXVI above)}. This is to be strong or have power. It can also refer to being healthy and vigorous. Further, it can mean to prevail. It is strength in action against resistance, exercising force in a literal or figurative sense.
CLIX “time of trial” = peirasmos. Related to “vehemently” in v14:31. From peirazo (to test, try, tempt, or make proof of, scrutinize, or assay something; could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline); from peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran see note CXXXIV above). This is a test as in an experiment or assaying. It is also trial, temptation, and discipline. Further, it could be used to mean calamity, affliction, or adversity more generally.

the spiritCLX indeedCLXI is willing,CLXII but the fleshCLXIII is weak.”CLXIV

Notes on verse 14:38b

CLX “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
CLXI “indeed” = men. Same as {untranslated} in v14:21. See note XCVI above.
CLXII “willing” = prothumos. Related to “sacrificed” in v14:12. 3x in NT. From pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + thumos (passion, actions that stem from passion or impulse; can be rage, indignation); {from thuo (see note LXV above)}. This is willing, eager, ready, enthusiastic, free from resistance. It can also be predisposed, willing, or generous from one’s own impulse.
CLXIII “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).
CLXIV “weak” = asthenes. From a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}. This is without strength so weak, sick, helpless, frail, feeble. It can also be unimpressive or impotent. It can be used for physical or moral weakness.

39 And again he went away and prayed, saying the same words.CLXV 40 And once more he came and found them sleeping, for their eyesCLXVI were very heavy;CLXVII and they did not knowCLXVIII what to say to him. 

Notes on verses 14:39-40

CLXV “words” = logos. Related to “blessing” in v14:22. See note CVI above.
CLXVI “eyes” = ophthalmos. From optanomai (to appear, be seen by). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.
CLXVII “very heavy” = katabareo. Related to “carrying” in v14:13 & “kingdom” in v14:25 & “sheep” in v14:27. 2x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout) + bareo (heavy, press, weigh down, or burden); {from barus (heavy, burdensome; figuratively, violent, oppressive; that which presses down on someone so that they cannot move freely); from the same as baros (weight, burden in a literal or figurative sense; authority); from the same as basis (see note LXXIV above). This is to weigh down, oppress, to be a destructive force on something. It is often used for financial burdens.
CLXVIII “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.

41 He came a third time and said to them, “Are you stillCLXIX sleeping and taking your rest?CLXX Enough!CLXXI The hour has come;CLXXII the Son of Man is betrayed into the handsCLXXIII of sinners.CLXXIV 

Notes on verse 14:41

CLXIX “still” = loipon. 13x in NT. From loipos (the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue); from leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is what remains, from now on, finally.
CLXX “taking…rest” = anapauo. 12x in NT – including Matthew 11:28 “come to me, all you that are weary and are carrying heavy burdens, and I will give you rest.” From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + pauo (to stop, refrain, pause, restrain, quit, come to an end). This is a break from work, which implies being refreshed. It denotes that rest that one gets once a necessary task is finished.
CLXXI “enough” = apecho. Related to “trouble” in v14:6 & “could” in v14:37. 19x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + echo (see note XXXVI above). This is to be distant, have fully, abstain, be paid, be distant, be enough. It is having something by detaching it from something else or releasing something else.
CLXXII {untranslated} = idou. Related to “know” in v14:40. From eido (see note CLXVIII above). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CLXXIII “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
CLXXIV “sinners” = hamartolos. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. This is sinning, sinful, sinner. It referred to missing the mark or falling short. The term was also used in archery for missing the target.

42 Get up,CLXXV let us be going.CLXXVI See,CLXXVII my betrayerCLXXVIII is at hand.”CLXXIX

Notes on verse 14:42

CLXXV “get up” = egeiro. Same as “raised up” in v14:28. See note CXXVI above.
CLXXVI “going” = ago. Related to “good news” in v14:9 & “promised” in v14:11 & “go” in v14:13 & “go before” in v14:28. See note LI above.
CLXXVII “see” = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v14:41. See note CLXXII above.
CLXXVIII “betrayer” = paradidomi. Same as “betray” in v14:10. See note LVIII above.
CLXXIX “is at hand” = eggizo. From eggus (nearby or near in time). This is extremely close by – approaching, at hand, immediately imminent.

43 Immediately,CLXXX while he was still speaking, Judas, one of the twelve, arrived;CLXXXI and with him there was a crowd with swordsCLXXXII and clubs,CLXXXIII from the chief priests, the scribes, and the elders.CLXXXIV 

Notes on verse 14:43

CLXXX “immediately” = eutheos. Related to “kindness” in v14:7 & “good news” in v14:9 & “opportunity” in v14:11 & “blessing” in v14:22 & “covenant” in v14:24. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (see note XLIII above) + tithemi (see note CXII above)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
CLXXXI “arrived” = paraginomai. Related to “woman” in v14:3 & “wasted” in v14:4 & “been born” in v14:21 & “fruit” in v14:25. From para (from beside, by) + ginomai (see note XVII above). This is to arrive, appear, reach. It implies appearing publicly.
CLXXXII “swords” = machaira. Perhaps from mache (fight, battle, conflict; figuratively, controversy); from machomai (to fight, strive, dispute, quarrel; to war). This is a short sword, slaughter knife, or dagger. It is a stabbing weapon. Figuratively, associated with retribution, war, or legal punishment.
CLXXXIII “clubs” = xulon. This refers to things made of wood such as a tree trunk, club, staff, or cross. It can also refer to timber used as fuel for a fire.
CLXXXIV “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.

44 Now the betrayer had given them a sign,CLXXXV saying, “The one I will kissCLXXXVI is the man; arrest him and lead him awayCLXXXVII under guard.”CLXXXVIII 

Notes on verse 14:44

CLXXXV “sign” = sussemon. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); {from sema (a sign or mark)}. This is a prearranged signal or sign.
CLXXXVI “kiss” = phileo. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person). This is friendship love and fondness with personal attachment.
CLXXXVII “lead…away” = apago. Related to “good news” in v14:9 & “promised” in v14:11 & “go” in v14:13 & “go before” in v14:28 & “going” in v14:42. 16x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + ago (see note LI above). This is to lead away, take away, or bring. Figuratively, it can refer to being led astray or put to death.
CLXXXVIII “under guard” = asphalos. 3x in NT. From asphales (certain, reliable, secure, definite; literally unfailing – something that is secure because it is solid and constructed on something that will not fall or slip; it is literal or figurative); {from a (not, without) + sphallo (to trip up or fail)}. This is securely in a literal or figurative sense. Also, it’s certainly, steadfastly, or assuredly.

45 So when he came, he went upCLXXXIX to him at onceCXC and said, “Rabbi!”CXCI and kissedCXCII him. 

Notes on verse 14:45

CLXXXIX “went up” = proserchomai. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
CXC “at once” = eutheos. Same as “immediately” in v14:43. See note CLXXX above.
CXCI “Rabbi” = Rhabbi. 15x in NT– 8x in the Gospel of John. From Hebrew rab (chief); from rabab (to be many, increase, multiply). This is a title of respect for a teacher-scholar. Literally, it means great one or honorable sir. It can also be understood as my master or my teacher.
CXCII “kissed” = kataphileo. Related to “kiss” in v14:44. 6x in NT– 2x of Judas’s betrayal, 2x of the woman who washes Jesus’s feet and kisses them (Lk 7:38, 45), 1x when the father kisses the prodigal son (Lk 15:20), and 1x when Paul kisses the Ephesian elders goodbye (Acts 20:37). From kata (down, against, according to) + phileo (see note CLXXXVI above). This is kissing with great emotion or kissing repeatedly, earnestly, affectionately.

46 Then they laidCXCIII hands on him and arrested him. 47 But one of those who stood nearCXCIV drewCXCV his sword

Notes on verses 14:46-47a

CXCIII “laid” = epiballo. 18x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to place on, fall, lay, throw over, think about, waves crashing, emotions emerging.
CXCIV “stood near” = paristemi. Related to “sent” in v14:13. From para (from beside, by) + histemi (see note LXX above). This is literally to place by stand. It can mean to present, exhibit, appear, bring, stand by, or prove. It can also mean to be ready, to assist, to yield, or to commend.
CXCV “drew” = spao. 2x in NT. This is to pull or draw like one draws a sword.

and struckCXCVI the slaveCXCVII of the high priest, cutting offCXCVIII his ear.CXCIX 

Notes on verse 14:47b

CXCVI “struck” = paio. Related to “strike” in v14:27. 5x in NT. See note CXXII above.
CXCVII “slave” = doulos. Related to “must” in v14:31. Perhaps from deo (see note CXXXV above). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
CXCVIII “cutting off” = aphaireo. Related to “loaf of bread” in v14:22. From apo (from, away from) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer); {probably related to airo (see note CV above)}. This is remove, take away, cut in a literal or figurative sense.
CXCIX “ear” = otion. 5x in NT. From ous (ear; figuratively, hearing). This is ear or it might refer to the earlobe.

48 Then Jesus said to them, “Have you come out with swords and clubs to arrestCC me as though I were a bandit?CCI 49 Day after day I was with you in the templeCCII teaching,CCIII and you did not arrest me.

Notes on verses 14:48-49a

CC “arrest” = sullambano. Related to “beforehand” in v14:8 & “took” in v14:22 & “took” in v14:33. 16x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + lambano (see note XLVIII above). This is to take, take part in, conceive, help. It can also be clasp or seize as to arrest or take hold of someone.
CCI “bandit” = lestes. 15x in NT– 3x “you are making [my house] a den of robbers” when Jesus cleanses the temple, 3x of Jesus’ arrest “did you come for me…as though I were a bandit?”; 3x of bandits crucified on Jesus’ left and right; 2x of the man falling into the hands of robbers in the Good Samaritan parable; 2x of the Good Shepherd speech (anyone who doesn’t come in by the gate is a bandit) in John 10:1, 8; 1x of Barrabbas as a bandit; and 1x Paul writes he is in danger from bandits. From leis (booty); from leizomai (to plunder). This is a bandit or thief – one who steals by violence/force out in the open as opposed to by stealth. These were part of armed gangs.
CCII “temple” = hieron. Related to “chief priests” in v14:1. From hieros (see note III above). This is the word for temple.
CCIII “teaching” = didasko. Related to “Teacher” in v14:14. See note LXXX above.

But let the scripturesCCIV be fulfilled.”CCV 50 All of them desertedCCVI him and fled.CCVII

Notes on verses 14:49b-50

CCIV “scriptures” = graphe. Related to “scribes” in v14:1 & “written” in v14:21. From grapho (see note IV above). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.
CCV “fulfilled” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
CCVI “deserted” = aphiemi. Same as “let…alone” in v14:6. See note XXXV above.
CCVII “fled” = pheugo. This is to run away in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to flee, escape, shun, or vanish.

51 A certain young manCCVIII was followingCCIX him, wearingCCX nothing butCCXI a linen cloth.CCXII

Notes on verse 14:51a

CCVIII “young man” = neaniskos. 11x in NT. From neanias (youth, young man; someone in their prime to the age of 40); from neos (young, new, youth, person). This is a youth or young man in their prime up to 40.
CCIX “following” = sunakoloutheo. Related to “follow” in v14:13. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + akoloutheo (see note LXXVIII above). This is to follow together, accompany.
CCX “wearing” = periballo. Related to “laid” in v14:46. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + ballo (see note CXCIII). This is to thrown around, clothe, array, put on.
CCXI “nothing but” = gumnos. 15x in NT. This is naked. Generally, it refers to someone who is not completely clothed i.e. only wearing the undergarment and not the complete attire for going out. Rarely, it can mean completely naked. It can be naked in a literal or figurative sense – open, bare, ill-clad. This is where “gymnasium” comes from.
CCXII “linen cloth” = sindon. 6x in NT. This is byssos, a fine linen cloth, garment, or sheet.

They caught hold ofCCXIII him, 52 but he leftCCXIV the linen cloth and ran offCCXV naked.CCXVI

Notes on verses 14:51b-52

CCXIII “caught hold of” = krateo. Same as “arrest” in v14:1. See note VI above.
CCXIV “left” = kataleipo. Related to “still” in v14:41. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (see note CLXIX above). This is to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve.
CCXV “ran off” = pheugo. Same as “fled” in v14:50. See note CCVII above.
CCXVI “naked” = gumnos. Same as “nothing but” in v14:51. See note CCXI above.

53 They tookCCXVII Jesus to the high priest; and all the chief priests, the elders, and the scribes were assembled. 54 Peter had followed him at a distance, right into the courtyardCCXVIII of the high priest; and he was sitting with the guards,CCXIX warmingCCXX himself at the fire.CCXXI 

Notes on verses 14:53-54

CCXVII “took” = apago. Same as “lead…away” in v14:44. See note CLXXXVII above.
CCXVIII “courtyard” = aule. 12x in NT. Perhaps from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is a building that has a courtyard within it – an area that has no roof, but does have walls and is open to the air. It could also imply a palace or mansion as larger buildings that would include courtyards.
CCXIX “guards” = huperetes. From huper (by, under, subordinate to another) + eresso (to row). This is originally a rower or someone who crewed a boat on the lower deck. It came to mean underling, servant, or attendant. It is also used in the New Testament of disciples under the gospel.
CCXX “warming” = thermaino. 6x in NT. From thermos (hot); from the same as theros (heat, which implies the summer); from thero (to heat). This is to warm or warm oneself. This root is where the words “thermometer” and “thermos” come from.
CCXXI “fire” = phos. Related to “crows” in v14:30. From phao (see note CXXX above); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is light, a source of light, fire, or radiance. This is light with specific reference to what it reveals. It is luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative.

55 Now the chief priests and the whole councilCCXXII were looking for testimonyCCXXIII against Jesus to put him to death;CCXXIV but they found none. 56 For many gave false testimonyCCXXV against him, and their testimony did not agree.CCXXVI 

Notes on verses 14:55-56

CCXXII “council” = sunedrion. From sun (with, together with) + hedra (convening, siting together, being firm and faithful); {from aphedron (seat, well-seated; figuratively, this is firm in purpose, steadfast); from hedra (a seat)}. This is Sanhedrin – literally a sitting together. It was the high court for Jews and had 71 members. This term could also mean council or meeting place and was used for the lower courts that were throughout the land and had 23 members.
CCXXIII “testimony” = marturia. From martureo (to bear witness, testify, give evidence; to testify in a literal or figurative sense); from martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is testimony, witness, evidence, record, reputation.
CCXXIV “put…to death” = thanatoo. Related to “die with” in v14:31 & “death” in v14:34. 11x in NT. From thanatos (see note CXLIX above). This is to kill in a literal or figurative sense – subdue, mortify, be apart from.
CCXXV “gave false testimony” = pseudomatureo. Related to “testimony” in v14:55. 5x in NT. From pseudomartus (false witness); {from pseudes (false, lying, wicked); {from pseudomai (to lie, deceive, falsify)}} + martus (see note CCXXIII above). This is to bear false witness or give untrue evidence.
CCXXVI “agree” = isos. Literally “their testimonies were not alike.” Isos is related to “know” in v14:40 & {untranslated} in v14:41. 8x in NT. Perhaps from eido (see note CLXVIII above). This is equal, same, like, similar number or substance.

57 Some stood upCCXXVII and gave false testimony against him, saying, 58 “We heard him say, ‘I will destroyCCXXVIII this templeCCXXIX that is made with hands,CCXXX

Notes on verses 14:57-58a

CCXXVII “stood up” = anistemi. Related to “sent” in v14:13 & “stood near” in v14:47. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note LXX above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
CCXXVIII “destroy” = kataluo. Related to “guest room” in v14:14. 17x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + luo (see note LXXXI above). Literally, this means thoroughly loosening. It can mean unharnessing or unyoking animals and so to lodge somewhere for a night. It can also mean to disintegrate or demolish in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be destroy, overthrow, abolish, or tear down.
CCXXIX “temple” = naos. From naio (to dwell, inhabit). This is a place for God (or a god) to live – a sanctuary, shrine, or temple. It is a place for God or a god to manifest. For the Jewish Temple, it is used of the Temple itself and the two inner chambers.
CCXXX “made with hands” = cheiropoietos. Related to “hands” in v14:41 & “show” in v14:7. 6x in NT. From cheir (see note CLXXIII above) + poieo (see note XLII above). This is literally made with hands i.e. human-made or artificial.

and in three days I will buildCCXXXI another,CCXXXII not made with hands.’”CCXXXIII 59 But even on this point their testimony did not agree. 

Notes on verses 14:58b-59

CCXXXI “build” = oikodomeo. Related to “house” in v14:3 & “owner of the house” in v14:14. From oikos (see note XIII above) + domeo (to build). This is to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden.
CCXXXII “another” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
CCXXXIII “not made with hands” = acheiropoietos. Related to “hands” in v14:41 & “show” in v14:7 & “made with hands” in v14:58. 3x in NT. From a (not, without) + cheiropoietos (see note CCXXX above). This is literally not made by hand i.e. unmanufactured.

60 Then the high priest stood up before them and askedCCXXXIV Jesus, “Have you no answer? What is it that they testify againstCCXXXV you?” 61 But he was silentCCXXXVI and did not answer. Again the high priest asked him, “Are you the Messiah,CCXXXVII the Son of the BlessedCCXXXVIII One?” 

Notes on verses 14:60-61

CCXXXIV “asked” = eperotao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of)}. This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.
CCXXXV “testify against” = katamartureo. Related to “testimony” in v14:55 & “gave false testimony” in v14:56. 3x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + martureo (see note CXXIII above). This is testify or bear witness against.
CCXXXVI “was silent” = siopao. 10x in NT. From siope (silence or muteness). This is to be silent whether by choice or not. Figuratively, this is being calm as water, keeping one’s peace.
CCXXXVII “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
CCXXXVIII “Blessed” = eulogetos. Related to “kindness” in v14:7 & “good news” in v14:9 & “opportunity” in v14:11 & “blessing” in v14:22 & “giving thanks” in v14:23 & “immediately” in v14:43 & “tell” in v14:9 & “words” in v14:39. From eulogeo (see note CVI above). This is blessed, spoken well of, to be praiseworthy, or adorable. This is the root that “eulogy” comes from.

62 Jesus said, “I am; and

‘you will seeCCXXXIX the Son of Man
seatedCCXL at the right handCCXLI of the Power,’CCXLII
and ‘coming with the cloudsCCXLIII of heaven.’”CCXLIV

Notes on verse 14:62

CCXXXIX “see” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
CCXL “seated” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
CCXLI “right hand” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
CCXLII “Power” = dunamis. Related to “could” in v14:5 & “possible” in v14:35. From dunamai (see note XXVIII above). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
CCXLIII “clouds” = nephele. From nephos (cloud; figurative for a great crowd or multitude). This is cloud or cloudiness.
CCXLIV “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.

63 Then the high priest toreCCXLV his clothesCCXLVI and said, “Why do we still needCCXLVII witnesses?CCXLVIII 

Notes on verse 14:63

CCXLV “tore” = diarresso. 5x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + rhegnumi (to break, burst, wreak, crack, break apart). This is to tear apart or burst.
CCXLVI “clothes” = chiton. 11x in NT. From a Semitic language – see Hebrew kethoneth (tunic). Root means to cover. This is the garment worn beneath the cloak or robe – the one that is closest to the skin.
CCXLVII “need” = chreia. From chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary). This is the is task, business, or affair. It can also be need, want, or destitution.
CCXLVIII “witnesses” = martus. Related to “testimony” in v14:55 & “gave false testimony” in v14:56 & “testify against” in v14:60. See note CCXXIII above.

64 You have heard his blasphemy!CCXLIX What is your decision?”CCL All of them condemnedCCLI him as deservingCCLII death. 

Notes on verse 14:64

CCXLIX “blasphemy” = blasphemia. Related to “said” in v14:29 & “crows” in v14:30. 18x in NT. From perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (see note CXXX above). This is slander, blasphemy, or abusive language. It is calling something wrong that is right or calling something right that is wrong – mis-identifying what is good and bad. This is particularly used for vilifying God. This is where the word “blasphemy” comes from.
CCL “decision” = phaneroo. Literally “what to you does it appear?” Related to “crows” in v14:30 & “fire” in v14:54. From phaneros (visible, apparent, clear, shining); from phos (see note CCXXI above). This is to make visible or clear, to make known. Properly, it is to illumine and so to make apparent or bring into open view.
CCLI “condemned” = katakrino. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is judging down, which is to say to vote guilty or deserving of punishment, to condemn. This is a decisive judgment of guilt. It can also be to damn someone.
CCLII “deserving” = enochos. Related to “trouble” in v14:6 & “could” in v14:37 & “enough” in v14:41. 10x in NT. From enecho (to hold in, ensnare, be angry at); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + echo (see note XXXVI above)}. This is bound by, liable to, deserving, guilty, subject, in danger of.

65 Some began to spit on him, to blindfoldCCLIII him, and to strikeCCLIV him, saying to him, “Prophesy!”CCLV The guards also took him over and beatCCLVI him.

Notes on verse 14:65

CCLIII “blindfold him” = perikalupto + autos + ho + prosopon. Literally “cover his face.” Perikalupto is 3x in NT. From peri (all-around, encompassing, excess) + kalupto (to cover, hide, conceal; figuratively, to keep hidden or secret) {related to kalube (hut, cabin)}. This is to cover around, veil, overlay. Prosopon is related to “see” in v14:62. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (eye, face) {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note CCXXXIX above)}. This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
CCLIV “strike” = kolaphizo. 5x in NT. From kolaphos (to hit with a fist); from the base of kolazo (to punish, particularly to punish slaves so that they are restricted or chastised); from kolos (docked). This is to punch – literally to hit with knuckles. It can also more generally mean violent mistreatment.
CCLV “prophesy” = propheteuo. Related to “said” in v14:29 & “crows” in v14:30 & “blasphemy” in v14:64. From prophetes (prophet or poet; one who speaks with inspiration from God); {from pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note CXXX above)}. This is to prophesy, foretell, or tell forth.
CCLVI “beat” = rhapisma. 3x in NT. From rhapizo (to hit with a rod or to slap); from a derivation of rhabdos (staff, rod, cudgel; a staff that denotes power, royalty, or authority); from rhepo (to let fall, to rap). This is a hit from a stick or an open-handed slap.

66 While Peter was below in the courtyard, one of the servant-girlsCCLVII of the high priest came by. 67 When she saw Peter warming himself, she staredCCLVIII at him and said, “You also were with Jesus, the man from Nazareth.”CCLIX 

Notes on verses 14:66-67

CCLVII “servant-girls” = paidiske. Related to “strike” in v14:27 & “struck” in v14:47. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is a female servant or slave.
CCLVIII “stared” = emblepo. 12x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + blepo (to see, used primarily in the physical sense; figuratively, seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, beware, and acting on the visual information). This is to look at, gaze, consider, stare, see clearly, look with particular interest.
CCLIX “from Nazareth” = Nazarenos. 6x in NT. Probably from Nazara (Nazareth); perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazarene. See

68 But he deniedCCLX it, saying, “I do not know or understandCCLXI what you are talking about.” And he went out into the forecourt.CCLXII Then the cock crowed. 

Notes on verse 14:68

CCLX “denied” = arneomai. Related to “deny” in v14:30. From a (not) + rheo (see note CXXXIII above). This is to deny, disown, refuse, repudiate someone or a previously held belief, to contradict.
CCLXI “understand” = epistamai. Related to “sent” in v14:13 & “stood near” in v14:47 & “stood up” in v14:57. 14x in NT. From ephistemi (to stand upon, be present, stand by, be urgent; to attack, confront, appear); {from epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + histemi (see note LXX above)}. This is to know, stand on, get knowledge face to face or with personal effort, comprehend, be acquainted. It is one of the roots that “epistemology” comes from.
CCLXII “forecourt” = proaulion. Related to “courtyard” in v14:54. 1x in NT. From pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + aule (see note CCXVIII above). This is a vestibule, porch, or alley.

69 And the servant-girl, on seeing him, began again to say to the bystanders, “This man is one of them.” 70 But again he denied it.

Then after a little while the bystanders again said to Peter, “CertainlyCCLXIII you are one of them; for you are a Galilean.”CCLXIV, CCLXV 

Notes on verses 14:69-70

CCLXIII “certainly” = alethos. 18x in NT. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic); from a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is truly, really, surely, truthfully, indeed. Properly, this is saying “in accordance with fact…” – what one is about to say can be proven and is true to reality.
CCLXIV “Galilean” = Galilaios. Related to “Galilee” in v14:28. 11x in NT. From galilaia (see note CXXVIII above). This is Galilean.
CCLXV Some manuscripts add “and your manner of speech resembles it.”

71 But he began to curse,CCLXVI and he swore an oath, “I do not know this man you are talking about.” 72 At that momentCCLXVII the cock crowed for the second time. Then Peter rememberedCCLXVIII, CCLXIX that Jesus had said to him, “Before the cock crows twice, you will deny me three times.” And he broke downCCLXX and wept.CCLXXI

Notes on verses 14:71-72

CCLXVI “curse” = anathematizo.  Related to “covenant” in v14:24 & “immediately” in v14:43. 4x in NT. From anathema (solemn, anathema, or accursed; a thing that is laid up, such as a votive offering or something one pledges to God; it can be a divine curse or a divine ban, something or someone that is cast out); {from anatithemi (to set up or fort, communicate, submit, declare); {from ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + tithemi (see note CXII above)}}. This is to curse or make a solemn oath or vow. It can also mean devote to destruction.
CCLXVII “at that moment” = eutheos. Same as “immediately” in v14:43. See note CLXXX above.
CCLXVIII “remembered” = anamimnesko. Related to “remembrance” in v14:9. 6x in NT. From ana (up, again, among, anew) + mimnesko (see note LV above). This is to remember, recall, admonish. It is a journey of remembering.
CCLXIX {untranslated} = rhema. Related to “deny” in v14:30 & “denied” in v14:68. From rheo (see note CXXXIII above). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
CCLXX “broke down” = epiballo. Same as “laid” in v14:46. Sees note CXCIII above.
CCLXXI “wept” = klaio. This is to weep, lament, or sob. It is weeping aloud.

15:1 As soon asCCLXXII it was morning,CCLXXIII the chief priests heldCCLXXIV a consultationCCLXXV with the elders and scribes and the whole council.

Notes on verse 15:1a

CCLXXII “as soon as” = eutheos. Same as “immediately” in v14:43. See note CLXXX above.
CCLXXIII “morning” = proi. 12x in NT. From pro (before, earlier than, ahead, prior). This is early, at dawn, during the daybreak watch.
CCLXXIV “held” = poieo. Same as “show” in v14:7. See note XLII above.
CCLXXV “consultation” = sumboulion. 8x in NT. From souboulos (counselor or adviser in an official capacity); {from sun (with, together with) + boule (counsel, plan, purpose, decision; wisdom that comes from deliberation); {from boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination)}}. This is to counsel and so could be used for a group of advisers. It could also be to plot or conspire together. Abstractly, it could refer to advice or resolutions.

They boundCCLXXVI Jesus, led him away,CCLXXVII and handed him over to Pilate.CCLXXVIII 2 Pilate asked him, “Are you the KingCCLXXIX of the Jews?”CCLXXX

He answered him, “You say so.” 

Notes on verses 15:1b-2

CCLXXVI “bound” = deo. Related to “must” in v14:31 & “slave” in v14:47. See note CXXXV above.
CCLXXVII “led…away” = apophero. Related to “remove” in v14:36. 6x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + phero (see note CLVI above). This is to carry off or away. It can mean carry off violently.
CCLXXVIII “Pilate” = Pilatos. From Latin Pilatus (may mean one who has skill with a javelin); perhaps from pilum (javelin) OR perhaps from pileus (a soft cap made of felt that was brimless and was associated with people who were freedmen). This is Pilate. See
CCLXXIX “King” = basileus. Related to “carrying” in v14:13 & “kingdom” in v14:25 & “sheep” in v14:27 & “very heavy” in v14:40. See note CXVII above.
CCLXXX “Jews” = Ioudaios. Related to “Judas” in v14:10. From Ioudas (see note LVI above). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.

3 Then the chief priests accusedCCLXXXI him of many things. 

Pilate asked him again, “Have you no answer? See how many charges they bring againstCCLXXXII you.” 5 But Jesus made no further reply, so that Pilate was amazed.CCLXXXIII

Notes on verses 15:3-5

CCLXXXI “accused” = kategoreo. Related to “raised up” in v14:28 & “keep awake” in v14:34. From kategoros (prosecutor or accuser; used in legal context, but also of Satan); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + agoreuo (speaking in the assembly)} OR {from kata (see above) + agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square); {from ageiro (see note CXXVII)}}. This is to accuse, charge, or prosecute. This is where the word “category” comes from, but it is in the sense of applying logic and offering proof.
CCLXXXII “bring against” = kategoreo. Same as “accused” in v15:3. See note CCLXXXI above.
CCLXXXIII “was amazed” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.

Now at the festival he used to releaseCCLXXXIV a prisonerCCLXXXV for them, anyone for whom they asked.CCLXXXVI 

Notes on verse 15:6

CCLXXXIV “used to release” = apoluo. Related to “guest room” in v14:14 & “destroy” in v14:58. From apo (from, away from) + luo (see note LXXXI above). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.
CCLXXXV “prisoner” = desmios. Related to “must” in v14:31 & “slave” in v14:47 & “bound” in v15:1. 17x in NT. From desomon (a chain, impediment, imprisonment); from deo (see note CXXXV above) This is binding or someone who has been bound i.e. a captive or prisoner.
CCLXXXVI “asked” = paraiteomai. 12x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + aiteo (to ask, demand, beg, desire). This is to beg off, refuse, avoid, request.

Now a man called BarabbasCCLXXXVII was in prisonCCLXXXVIII with the rebelsCCLXXXIX who had committedCCXC murderCCXCI during the insurrection.CCXCII 

Notes on verse 15:7

CCLXXXVII “Barabbas” = Barabbas. 11x in NT. From Aramaic bar (son literal or figurative, age); {corresponding to Hebrew ben (son literal or figurative, subject, age)} + Aramaic abba (father) {from Aramaic ab (father); corresponding to Hebrew ab (father literal or figurative – ancestor, chief, grandfather, etc.)}. This is Barabbas, meaning son of the father.
CCLXXXVIII “was in prison” = deo. Same as “bound” in v15:1. See note CCLXXVI above.
CCLXXXIX “rebels” = sustasiastes. Related to “sent” in v14:13 & “stood near” in v14:47 & “stood up” in v14:57 & “understand” in v14:68. 1x in NT. From stasiastes (standing, position, uproar, insurrection, controversy); from histemi (see note LXX above) OR from sun (with, together with) + stasis (standing, rebel, place, insurrection); {from histemi (see note LXX above)}. This is a rebel.
CCXC “committed” = poieo. Same as “show” in v14:7. See note XLII above.
CCXCI “murder” = phonos. 9x in NT. From pheno (to slay). This is killing, murder, or slaughter. It is one of the crimes that Barabbas and Saul are accused of.
CCXCII “insurrection” = stasis. Related to “sent” in v14:13 & “stood near” in v14:47 & “stood up” in v14:57 & “understand” in v14:68 & “rebels” in v15:7. 9x in NT. See note CCLXXXIX above.

So the crowd cameCCXCIII and began to askCCXCIV Pilate to do for them according to his custom. Then he answered them, “Do you want me to release for you the King of the Jews?” 10 For he realizedCCXCV that it was out of jealousyCCXCVI that the chief priests had handed him over. 11 But the chief priests stirred upCCXCVII the crowd to have him release Barabbas for them instead.CCXCVIII 

Notes on verses 15:8-11

CCXCIII “came” = anabaino. Related to “carrying” in v14:13 & “kingdom” in v14:25 & “sheep” in v14:27 & “very heavy” = in v14:40 & “King” in v15:2. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (see note LXXIV above). This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
CCXCIV “ask” = aiteo. Related to “asked” in v15:6. See note CCLXXXVI above.
CCXCV “realized” = ginosko. Related to “called” in v14:32. See note CXXXVIII above.
CCXCVI “jealousy” = phthonos. 9x in NT. Perhaps from phtheiro (to destroy, corrupt, ruin, deteriorate, wither; also used of moral corruption); from phthio (perish, waste away). This is jealousy, spite, or ill-will. It can also be feeling glad when misfortune befalls another (akin to Schadenfreude).
CCXCVII “stirred up” = anaseio. 2x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + seio (to shake, vibrate; figuratively to agitate or show fear). This is to shake up, move back and forth, or excite.
CCXCVIII “instead” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.

12 Pilate spoke to them again, “Then what do you wish me to do with the man you call the King of the Jews?” 

13 They shoutedCCXCIX back, “CrucifyCCC him!” 

14 Pilate asked them, “Why, what evilCCCI has he done?”

But they shouted all the more,CCCII “Crucify him!” 

Notes on verses 15:12-14

CCXCIX “shouted” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.
CCC “crucify” = stauroo. Related to “sent” in v14:13 & “stood near” in v14:47 & “stood up” in v14:57 & “understand” in v14:68 & “rebels” and “insurrection” in v15:7. From stauros (upright stake, cross; literally the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die); from the same as histemi (see note LXX above). This can be to attach someone to a cross or fencing with stakes. In a figurative sense, it could be to destroy, mortify, or subdue passions/selfishness.
CCCI “evil” = kakos. This is bad, evil, harm, ill. It is evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm. It refers to deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character. Can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue.
CCCII “all the more” = perissos. Same as “vehemently” in v14:31. See note CXXXIV above.

15 So Pilate, wishingCCCIII to satisfyCCCIV the crowd, released Barabbas for them; and after floggingCCCV Jesus, he handed him over to be crucified.

Notes on verse 15:15

CCCIII “wishing” = boulomai. Related to “consultation” in v15:1 See note CCLXXV above.
CCCIV “satisfy” = hikanos. From hikneomai (to reach, come to, attain). This is sufficient, suitable, adequate, competent, ample.
CCCV “flogging” = phragelloo. 2x in NT. This is to whip or scourge – a whipping as a punishment given in public.

16 Then the soldiersCCCVI ledCCCVII him into the courtyard of the palace (that is, the governor’s headquarters);CCCVIII and they called togetherCCCIX the whole cohort.CCCX 

Notes on verse 15:16

CCCVI “soldiers” = stratiotes. Related to “furnished” in v14:15. From stratia (army; used figuratively for large organized groups like the angels and the hosts of heaven, which is to say the stars); from the same as strateuo (to wage war, fight, serve as a soldier; used figuratively for spiritual warfare); or from the base of stronnuo (see note LXXXIV above). This is a soldier in a literal or figurative sense.
CCCVII “led” = apago. Same as “lead…away” in v14:44. See note CLXXXVII above.
CCCVIII “governor’s headquarters” = praitorion. 8x in NT. From Latin praetorium (headquarters, general’s tent, villa, place where the governor lives); from prator (leader, chief, president); from pareeo (to lead, go before). This is praetorium or preatorian guard. It is the place where the governor lives or the place where the praetorian guard of Rome lived. It could also mean courtroom. See
CCCIX “called together” = sugkaleo. 8x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to summon or call together.
CCCX “cohort” = speira. From Latin spira (something wound up like a coil or twist, the base of a column, a hair braid, etc.); from Greek speira (a twist or wreath); from Proto-Indo-European *sper- (to twist, turn). This is a group of soldiers or military guard. Properly, this is something wound up. Figuratively, it refers to a group of men. Thus, a tenth of a legion. Also used for Levitical janitors. This is where the word “spiral” comes from. See

17 And they clothedCCCXI him in a purpleCCCXII cloak; and after twistingCCCXIII some thorns into a crown,CCCXIV they put it onCCCXV him. 

Notes on verse 15:17

CCCXI “clothed” = endidusko. 2x in NT– 1x when the soldiers dressed Jesus in purple at the crucifixion in Mark 15:17 & 1x of the rich man dressed in purple in Luke 16:19. From enduo (to clothe, put on in a literal or figurative sense); {from en (in, on, at, by, with, within) + duno (to enter, sink into; can also be set like the sun); {from duo (to sink)}}. This is to be clothed in or put on.
CCCXII “purple” = porphura. 4x in NT– 2x of the purple cloak the soldiers put on Jesus at the crucifixion, 1x of the rich man in Luke 16 & 1x of the purple goods from Babylon in Revelation 18:12. Perhaps from phuro (to mix something dry with something wet). This is purple dye, cloth, or a garment from that cloth. Its shade ranged from violet to scarlet to blue. The dye was made from a snail. The color symbolized royalty, wealth, or power.
CCCXIII “twisting” = pleko. 3x in NT– all in Gospel parallels of soldiers mocking Jesus. This is to twist, braid, or weave together.
CCCXIV “crown” = stephanos. 18x in NT. From stepho (to twine, encircle). This is something that surrounds i.e. a crown or garland. Properly, this refers to the wreath or garland that the winner of athletic games would win. It symbolized victory and honor from skill as contrasted with a royal crown, which is diadema in Greek. This is the word used for the crown that the saints in haven wear in, for example, Revelation 4:4.
CCCXV “put…on” = peritithemi. Related to “covenant” in v14:24 & “immediately” in v14:43 & “curse” in v14:71. 8x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + tithemi (see note CXII above). This is to place around i.e. to clothe. Figuratively, it can mean to bestow or to present.

18 And they began salutingCCCXVI him, “Hail,CCCXVII King of the Jews!” 19 They struckCCCXVIII his head with a reed,CCCXIX spat upon him, and knelt downCCCXX in homageCCCXXI to him. 

Notes on verses 15:18-19

CCCXVI “saluting” = aspazomai. Related to “drew” in v14:47. Perhaps from a (with, together with) + a form of spao (see note CXCV above). This is to welcome, salute, or greet. It can also be to embrace or acclaim.
CCCXVII “hail” = chairo. Same as “were greatly praised” in v14:11. See note LX above.
CCCXVIII “struck” = tupto. 14x in NT. This is to strike, beat, or wound – generally with a stick or cudgel. It is hitting with repeated blows. So, it contrasts with paiso and patasso, which describe single blows by hand or weapon. Also contrast plesso (beating with a fist or hammer), rhapizo (to slap), and tugchaono (hitting accidentally). This word is hitting to punish. Figuratively, it can refer to being offended.
CCCXIX “reed” = kalamos. 12x in NT. This is a reed, whether the plant itself or a stem that is like the reed. It can also imply a staff, pen, or measuring rod.
CCCXX “knelt down” = tithemi + ho + gonu. Literally “lay the knee.” Tithemi is related to “covenant” in v14:24 & “immediately” in v14:43 & “curse” in v14:71 & “put…on” in v15:17. See note CXII above.
CCCXXI “homage” = proskuneo. From pros (advantageous for, at, to, toward, with) + kuneo (to kiss); {may be related to kuno (dog)}. This is to do reverence, kneel, to prostrate oneself in homage, to worship.

20 After mockingCCCXXII him, they strippedCCCXXIII him of the purple cloak and put his ownCCCXXIV clothesCCCXXV onCCCXXVI him. Then they led him outCCCXVII to crucify him.

Notes on verse 15:20

CCCXXII “mocking” = empaizo. Related to “strike” in v14:27 & “struck” in v14:47 & “servant girls” in v14:66. 13x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + paizo (to play like a child does – can include singing and dancing); {from pais (see note CCLVII above). This is to mock, ridicule, jeer.
CCCXXIII “stripped” = ekduo. Related to “clothed” in v15:17. 6x in NT – 3x Jesus being stripped before crucifixion, 2x in 2 Corinthians 5:3-4 as a metaphor for death – being stripped of this earthly tent, & 1x in Parable of the Good Samaritan when the man is attacked. From ek (from, from out of) + duo (see note CCCXI above). This is to strip off or take off.
CCCXXIV “own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
CCCXXV “clothes” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.
CCCXXVI “put…on” = enduo. Related to “clothed” in v15:17 & “stripped” in v15:20. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + duno (to sink into, set like the sun); {from duo (see note CCCXI above)}. This is to put on as when one puts on clothes. It is the idea of sinking into one’s clothing.
CCCXVII “led…out” = exago. Related to “good news” in v14:9 & “promised” in v14:11 & “go” in v14:13 & “go before” in v14:28 & “going” in v14:42 & “led…away” in v14:44. 12x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + ago (see note LI above). This is to lead out or fetch. It can sometimes mean to lead someone to their death.

21 They compelledCCCXXVIII a passer-by,CCCXXIX who was coming in from the country,CCCXXX to carryCCCXXXI his cross;CCCXXXII

Notes on verse 15:21a

CCCXXVIII “compelled” = aggareuo. 3x in NT– 2x of Simon the Cyrene & 1x “if anyone forces you to go one mile, go also the second mile” from Matthew 5:41. From Persian, but compare Aramaic iggerah (a letter); corresponding to Hebrew iggereth (letter); from the same as Agur (hired, gathered, received from the sages); from agar (to gather or harvest). This means to impress into service, to force. It can also mean send someone on an errand, particularly as a courier or other public service.
CCCXXIX “passer-by” = parago. Related to “good news” in v14:9 & “promised” in v14:11 & “go” in v14:13 & “go before” in v14:28 & “going” in v14:42 & “led…away” in v14:44 & “led…out” in v15:20. 11x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of, alongside) + ago (see note LI above). This is to lead near or by, to pass by, go along, be a passer-by.
CCCXXX “country” = agros. This is a field as a place where one grows crops or pastures cattle. It can also refer to a farm or lands. This is one of the roots of “agriculture.”
CCCXXXI “carry” = airo. Related to “loaf of bread” in v14:22 & “cutting off” in v14:47. See note CV above.
CCCXXXII “cross” = stauros. Related to “sent” in v14:13 & “stood near” in v14:47 & “stood up” in v14:57 & “understand” in v14:68 & “rebels” and “insurrection” in v15:7 & “crucify” in v15:13. See note CCC above.

it was Simon of Cyrene,CCCXXXIII the father of AlexanderCCCXXXIV and Rufus.CCCXXXV 

Notes on verse 15:21b

CCCXXXIII “Cyrene” = Kurenaios. 6x in NT. From Kurene (Cyrene, a Greek mythological figure; perhaps meaning sovereign queen). This is from Cyrene. See
CCCXXXIV “Alexander” = Alexandros. Perhaps related to “cock” in v14:30 & “Man” in v14:13. 6x in NT. From aleko (see note CXXXI above) + aner (see note LXXIII above). This is Alexander, meaning “man-defender” or “one who defends men.”
CCCXXXV “Rufus” = Rhouphos. 2x in NT. From Sabellian Rufrae or Rufrium (proper names); related to Latin ruber (red, ruby). This is Rufus, meaning “red.” See

22 Then they broughtCCCXXXVI Jesus to the place called GolgothaCCCXXXVII (which meansCCCXXXVIII the placeCCCXXXIX of a skull).CCCXL 

Notes on verse 15:22

CCCXXXVI “brought” = phero. Related to “remove” in v14:36 & “led…away” in v15:1. See note CLVI above.
CCCXXXVII “Golgotha” = Golgotha. 3x in NT. From Aramaic golgolta (skull); from Hebrew gulgolet (skull, head; a census or poll that counts people by head); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Golgotha, skull. See &
CCCXXXVIII “means” = methermeneuo. 8x in NT. From meta (with, among, beyond) + hermeneuo (to interpret, translate, explain the meaning of); {perhaps from Hermes, the god of language and a proper name}. This is to explain beyond i.e. to translate or interpret.
CCCXXXIX “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
CCCXL “skull” = kranion. 4x in NT. From kara (the head) OR from the base of keras (horn or something horn-shaped; horn in a literal or figurative sense – that which prevails or a symbol of power). This is skull. It’s where we get the word “cranium” from.

23 And they offeredCCCXLI him wineCCCXLII mixed with myrrh;CCCXLIII but he did not take it. 

Notes on verse 15:23

CCCXLI “offered” = didomi. Same as “given” in v14:5. See note XXXI above.
CCCXLII “wine” = oinos. Perhaps from Hebrew yayin (wine; root means to effervesce). This is wine. It is where the word “oenophile” comes from.
CCCXLIII “mixed with myrrh” = smurnizo. Related to “ointment” in v14:3 & “anointed” in v14:8. 1x in NT. From smurna (myrrh, perfume as incense; ointment for embalming or figurative for romantic desire); perhaps from muron (see note XX above). This is to be similar to myrrh or to mix with myrrh. It was given to those sentenced to death to help numb their pain.

24 And they crucified him, and dividedCCCXLIV his clothesCCCXLV among them, castingCCCXLVI lotsCCCXLVII to decide what each should take.CCCXLVIII

Notes on verse 15:24

CCCXLIV “divided” = diamerizo. Related to “sinners” in v14:41. 12x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + merizo (to divide, part, share, distribute, assign; figuratively, to differ); {from meros (see note CLXXIV above). This is to divide up, distribute, or share. Figuratively, it can mean dissension.
CCCXLV “clothes” = himation. Same as “clothes” in v15:20. See note CCCXXV above.
CCCXLVI “casting” = ballo. Related to “laid” in v14:46 & “wearing” in v14:51. See note CXCIII above.
CCCXLVII “lots” = kleros. Related to “broke” in v14:22. 12x in NT. Perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (see note CVII above). This lot, portion, heritage. It is that share assigned to you. It could also refer to a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will.
CCCXLVIII “take” = airo. Same as “carry” in v15:21. See note CCCXXXI above.

25 It was nine o’clockCCCXLIX in the morning when they crucified him. 26 The inscriptionCCCL of the chargeCCCLI against him read,CCCLII “The King of the Jews.” 

Notes on verses 15:25-26

CCCXLIX “nine o’clock” = hora + tritos. Literally “third hour.” Hora is the same as “hour” in v14:35. See note CLIV above.
CCCL “inscription” = epigraphe. Related to “scribes” in v14:1 & “written” in v14:21 & “scriptures” in v14:49. 5x in NT. From epigrapho (to write on, inscribe, read; a literal inscription or a mental one); {from epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + grapho (see note IV above)}. This is some kind of title or label like an inscription or superscription.
CCCLI “charge” = aitia. Related to “asked” in v15:6 & “ask” in v15:8. From aiteo (see note CCLXXXVI above). This is a cause or reason. It can also be a legal crime, accusation, guilt, or case.
CCCLII “read” = epigrapho. Related to “scribes” in v14:1 & “written” in v14:21 & “scriptures” in v14:49 & “inscription” in v15:26. 5x in NT. See note CCCL above.

27 And with him they crucified two bandits, one on his right and one on his left.CCCLIII 28 And the scripture was fulfilled that says, And he was countedCCCLIV among the lawless.CCCLV

Notes on verses 15:27-28

CCCLIII “left” = euonumos. Related to “kindness” in v14:7 & “good news” in v14:9 & “opportunity” in v14:11 & “blessing” in v14:22 & “blessed” in v14:61 & “called” in v14:32 & “realized” in v15:10. 9x in NT. From eu (see note XLIII above) + onoma (see note CXXXVIII above). This is literally well-named. It is left.
CCCLIV “counted” = logizomai. Related to “tell” in v14:9 & “blessing” in v14:22 & “words” in v14:39 & “blessed” in v14:61. From logos (see note CVI above). This is this is to compute or reckon up, to count; figuratively, it is coming to a conclusion or decision using logic; taking an inventory in a literal or figurative sense.
CCCLV “lawless” = anomos. This verse is not found in all manuscripts. 10x in NT. From a (not, without) + nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}. This is literally without law. So, it could refer to someone who disregards authority or one who is not under the law (i.e. a Gentile). It can be lawless, wicked, or a transgressor.

29 Those who passed byCCCLVI deridedCCCLVII him, shakingCCCLVIII their heads and saying, “Aha!CCCLIX

Notes on verse 15:29a

CCCLVI “passed by” = paraporeuomai. 5x in NT. From para (from beside, by) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, or die; transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination)}. This is to pass long, journey near, go past.
CCCLVII “derided” = blasphemeo. Related to “blasphemy” in v14:64 & “said” in v14:29 & “crows” in v14:30 & “prophesy” in v14:65. From blasphemos (blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil); {from perhaps blapto (see note CCXLIX above) + pheme (see note CCXLIX above)}. This is to slander, malign, hurl abuse, speak against, blaspheme, or defame. It is speaking evil or abusive language – not acknowledging what is good or worth reverence/respect.
CCCLVIII “shaking” = kineo. 8x in NT. This is to move, excite, or provoke. It is to stir in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “kinetic” comes from.
CCCLIX “aha” = oua. 1x in NT. This is an exclamation of wonder or surprise like ah or ha. It can have a derisive sense to it.

You who would destroy the templeCCCLX and build it in three days, 30 saveCCCLXI yourself, and come downCCCLXII from the cross!” 

Notes on verses 15:29b-30

CCCLX “temple” = naos. Same as “temple” in v14:58. See note CCXXIX above.
CCCLXI “save” = sozo. Related to “body” in v14:8. See note XLVII above.
CCCLXII “come down” = katabaino. Related to “carrying” in v14:13 & “kingdom” in v 14:25 & “sheep” in v14:27 & “very heavy” in v14:40 & “King” in v15:2 & “came” in v15:8. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note LXXIV above). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.

31 In the same way the chief priests, along with the scribes, were also mocking him among themselves and saying, “He saved others; he cannot save himself. 32 Let the Messiah, the King of Israel,CCCLXIII come down from the cross now, so that we may see and believe.”CCCLXIV Those who were crucifiedCCCLXV with him also tauntedCCCLXVI him.

Notes on verses 15:31-32

CCCLXIII “Israel” = Israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.
CCCLXIV “believe” = pisteuo. Related to {untranslated} in v14:3. From pistis (see note XXI above). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
CCCLXV “crucified” = sustauroo. Related to “sent” in v14:13 & “stood near” in v14:47 & “stood up” in v14:57 & “understand” in v14:68 & “rebels” and “insurrection” in v15:7 & “crucify” in v15:13 & “cross” in v15:21. 5x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + stauroo (see note CCC above). This is to crucify together literally or figuratively.
CCCLXVI “taunted” = oneidizo. Related to “called” in v14:32 & “realized” in v15:10 & “blessed” in v14:61 & “left” in v15:27. 9x in NT. From oneidos (a personal disgrace that leads to harm to one’s reputation, a taunt or reproach); perhaps from the base of onoma (see note CXXXVIII above). This is to disgrace, insult, mock, blame, or curse someone so as to create shame. This is when a person or thing is considered guilty and deserving punishment. So, it can be denounce, revile, defame, or chide.

33 When it was noon,CCCLXVII darknessCCCLXVIII cameCCCLXIX over the whole landCCCLXX until three in the afternoon. 

Notes on verse 15:33

CCCLXVII “noon” = hora + hektos. Literally “sixth hour.” Hora is the same as “hour” in v14:35. See note CLIV above.
CCCLXVIII “darkness” = skotos. Perhaps from the base of skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it. This can also mean obscurity.
CCCLXIX “came” = ginomai. Same as “wasted” in v14:4. See note XVII above.
CCCLXX “land” = ge. Same as “ground” in v14:35. See note CLII above.

34 At three o’clockCCCLXXI Jesus cried outCCCLXXII with a loud voice,CCCLXXIII

Notes on verse 15:34a

CCCLXXI “three o’clock” = hora + ennatos. Literally “ninth hour.” Hora is the same as “hour” in v14:35. See note CLIV above.
CCCLXXII “cried out” = boao. 12x in NT. From boe (a cry or shout). This is cry out, make a distress call, ask for desperately need assistance.
CCCLXXIII “voice” = phone. Related to “said” in v14:29 & “crows” in v14:30 & “fire” in v14:54 & “blasphemy” in v14:64 & “prophesy” in v14:65 & “derided” in v15:29. Probably from phemi (see note CXXX above). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.

“Eloi,CCCLXXIV Eloi, lemaCCCLXXV sabachthani?”CCCLXXVI which means, “My God, my God, why have you forsakenCCCLXXVII me?” 

Notes on verse 15:34b

CCCLXXIV “Eloi” = Eloi. Related to “Israel” in v15:32. From Aramaic elah (God, a god); akin to Hebrew eloah (God, Mighty One, power); from el (see note CCCLXIII above). This is Eloi – “my God.”
CCCLXXV “lema” = lama. 2x in NT. From Hebrew mah (what, how, why, whatever). This is “why.”
CCCLXXVI “sabachthani” = sabachthani. 2x in NT. From Aramaic shebaq (to leave, leave alone, quite); corresponding to Hebrew azab (loosen, relinquish, permit, forsake, fail, leave destitute). This is forsake or leave.
CCCLXXVII “forsaken” = egkataleipo. Related to “still” in v14:41 & “left” in v14:52. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + kataleipo (to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (see note CXLIX above)}. This is left behind, left as a remainder, desert, forsake. Properly, it means to leave someone or something wanting or lacking – so, to forsake or cause someone to be helpless in a serious scenario.

35 When some of the bystanders heard it, they said, “Listen,CCCLXXVIII he is callingCCCLXXIX for Elijah.”CCCLXXX 

Notes on verse 15:35

CCCLXXVIII “listen” = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v14:41. See note CLXXII above.
CCCLXXIX “calling” = phoneo. Same as “crows” in v14:30. See note CXXXII above.
CCCLXXX “Elijah” = Elias. Related to “Israel” in v15:32 & “Eloi” in v15:34 & “Jesus” in v14:6 & “John” in v14:33. From Hebrew Eliyyah (Elijah) {from el (see note CCCLXIII above) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note XXXIV above)}. This is Elijah, “The Lord is God.”

36 And someone ran,CCCLXXXI filledCCCLXXXII a spongeCCCLXXXIII with sour wine,CCCLXXXIV put it on a stick,CCCLXXXV

Notes on verse 15:36a

CCCLXXXI “ran” = trecho. 20x in NT. To run, make progress, rush. This is running like an athlete in a race. Figuratively, to work quickly towards a goal in a focused way.
CCCLXXXII “filled” = gemizo. 8x in NT. From gemo (to be full, swell, at capacity, actions taken to fulfill a goal). This is to fill up or load, be swamped as a boat with water.
CCCLXXXIII “sponge” = spoggos. 3x in NT– all during the crucifixion. Perhaps related to spoggos (sponge or tonsil) –  a “Mediterranean-Pontic Pre-Greek substrate loanword.” This is sponge. See
CCCLXXXIV “sour wine” = oxos. 6x in NT– all of the crucifixion. From oxus (sharp, eager, quick); probably related to akmen (even now, still, yet); from the same as akmazo (become ripe, reach maturity); from akme (point or edge); related to ake (point). This is sour wine or vinegar. As the lowest grade of Roman wine, it was a common drink for Roman soldiers.
CCCLXXXV “stick” = kalamos. Same as “reed” in v15:19. See note CCCXIX above.

and gave it to him to drink,CCCLXXXVI saying, “Wait,CCCLXXXVII let us see whether Elijah will come to take him down.”CCCLXXXVIII 

Notes on verse 15:36b

CCCLXXXVI “gave it…to drink” = potizo. Related to “cup” and “drank” in v14:23. 15x in NT. From potos (drink or for drinking) OR from pino (see note CVIII above). This is to give to drink, water, furnish, irrigate, or feed.
CCCLXXXVII “wait” = aphiemi. Same as “let…alone” in v14:6. See note XXXV above.
CCCLXXXVIII “take…down” = kathaireo. Related to “loaf of bread” in v14:22 & “cutting off” in v14:47 & “carry” in v15:21. 9x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout) + haireo (see note CXCVIII above). This is to take down, destroy, yank down, demolish in a literal or figurative sense.

37 Then Jesus gaveCCCLXXXIX a loud cryCCCXC and breathed his last.CCCXCI 

Notes on verse 15:37

CCCLXXXIX “gave” = aphiemi. Same as “let…alone” in v14:6. See note XXXV above.
CCCXC “cry” = phone. Same as “voice” in v15:34. See note CCCLXXIII above.
CCCXCI “breathed…last” = ekpneo. Related to “spirit” in v14:38. 3x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + pneo (see note CLX above). This is to breath out as in a last breath – to expire.

38 And the curtainCCCXCII of the templeCCCXCIII was tornCCCXCIV in two, from topCCCXCV to bottom. 

Notes on verse 15:38

CCCXCII “curtain” = katapetasma. 6x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + petannumi (to spread out); {from petomai (to fly)}. This is the inner veil in the Temple. Literally, it is what spreads down i.e. hangs down. The curtain hung between the Holy of Holies, the innermost part of the Temple, from the rest of it.
CCCXCIII “temple” = naos. Same as “temple” in v14:58. See note CCXXIX above.
CCCXCIV “torn” = schizo. 11x in NT. This is to split, divide, tear, sever; split in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “schism” comes from and also “schizophrenia” (literally “split mind”).
CCCXCV “top” = anothen. 13x in NT– this is the word used in John 3:3 in the being born “from above”/“again” conversation between Jesus and Nicodemus.. From ano (up, above, up to the top, things above, heaven); from ana (up, upwards, again, back, among, anew). This is from above, from the top, again, beginning, from the source. It implies anew.

39 Now when the centurion,CCCXCVI who stood facing him, saw that in this way he breathed his last, he said, “TrulyCCCXCVII this man was God’s Son!”

Notes on verse 15:39

CCCXCVI “centurion” = kenturion. 3x in NT – all in Mark (a different word for “centurion” is used elsewhere). From Latin centurio (to separate by hundreds, make military companies); from centuria (a unit of a hundred, a century; can be an infantry unit or other group of a hundred); from centum (a hundred). This is a centurion in the Roman army who has charge over a hundred infantry. See
CCCXCVII “truly” = alethos. Same as “certainly” in v14:70. See note CCLXIII above.

40 There were also women looking onCCCXCVIII from a distance; among them were MaryCCCXCIX Magdalene,CD and Mary the mother of James the younger and of Joses,CDI and Salome.CDII 

Notes on verse 15:40

CCCXCVIII “looking on” = theoreo. From theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
CCCXCIX “Mary” = Maria. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.
CD “Magdalene” = Magdalene. 12x in NT. From Magdala (Magadan, a place near the Sea of Galilee); perhaps from Aramaic migdal, see also Hebrew migdal (tower); from gadal (to grow, grow up, be great). This is from Magdala.
CDI “Joses” = Ioses. 3x in NT. Perhaps from Ioseph (Joseph, “he increases”); from Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joses, meaning “he increases.”
CDII “Salome” = Salome. 2x in NT – both in Mark. From Hebrew Shalem (Salem or Shalem, meaning “peaceful”); from shalem (to make amends, to be complete or sound). This is Salome or Shelomah, meaning “peaceful.”

41 These used to follow him and provided forCDIII him when he was in Galilee; and there were many other women who had come up withCDIV him to Jerusalem.CDV

Notes on verse 15:41

CDIII “provided for” = diakoneo. From diakonos (servant, minister, waiter, or attendant; a person who performs a service, including religious service); {perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute); {related to dio (put to flight)}}. This is to wait at table, to serve generally, to minister or administer, to be in the office of deacon. To wait on someone as a slave, friend, or host.
CDIV “come up with” = sunanabaino. Related to “carrying” in v14:13 & “kingdom” in v 14:25 & “sheep” in v14:27 & “very heavy” in v14:40 & “King” in v15:2 & “came” in v15:8 & “come down” in v15:30. 2x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + anabaino (to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter); {from ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (see note LXXIV above)}. This is to come up with, ascend together.
CDV “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. Related to “Salome” in v15:40. From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalem (see note CDII above)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

42 When evening had come, and since it was the day of Preparation,CDVI that is, the day before the sabbath,CDVII 43 JosephCDVIII of Arimathea,CDIX

Notes on verses 15:42-43a

CDVI “Preparation” = paraskeue. 6x in NT. From paraskeuazo (to prepare, get ready); {from para (from beside, by) + skeuos (vessel, tool, container, implement; also vessel in a figurative or literal sense); {from skeuazo (to prepare using a tool)}}. This is preparation or readiness. It can be used specifically to refer to preparing for the Sabbath or a festival.
CDVII “day before the sabbath” = prosabbaton. 1x in NT. From pro (before, earlier, above) + sabbaton (the sabbath;  also shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths); {from Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate)}. This is the day prior to the sabbath.
CDVIII “Joseph” = Ioseph. Related to “Joses” in v15:40. See note CDI above.
CDIX “Arimathea” = Harimathaia. 4x in NT. From Hebrew compare Ramah (Ramah, height); from rum (to be high, rise, exalt self, extol, be haughty; to rise literally or figuratively). This is Arimathea, a city by Jerusalem.

a respectedCDX member of the council,CDXI who was also himself waiting expectantly forCDXII the kingdom of God, went boldlyCDXIII to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. 

Notes on verse 15:43b

CDX “respected” = euschemon. Related to “kindness” in v14:7 & “good news” in v14:9 & “opportunity” in v14:11 & “blessing” in v14:22 & “blessed” in v14:61 & “left” in v15:28 & “deserving” in v14:64. 5x in NT. From eu (see note XLIII above) + schema (figure, appearance, form – outer shape; figuratively, can be external condition); {from echo (see note XXXVI above)}. This is presentable, seemly, prominent, noble, appropriate, desirable, well-formed.
CDXI “member of the council” = bouleutes. Related to “consultation” in v15:1 & “wishing” in v15:15. 2x in NT. From bouleuo (to plan, consider, deliberate, advise); from boule (see note CCLXXV above). This is a member of a council, adviser. In the New Testament, it refers to people on the Sanhedrin.
CDXII “waiting expectantly for” = prosdechomai. Related to “right hand” in v14:62. 14x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + dechomai (see note CCXLI above). This is to receive, welcome, expect, accept. It is reception with a warm, personal welcome or active waiting. It can also mean endurance or patience.
CDXIII “boldly” = tolmao. Related to “very costly” in v14:3. 16x in NT. From tolma (boldness); perhaps from telos (see note XIX above). This is to show courage to take a risk, to venture decisively, to put it on the line for something that matters.

44 Then Pilate wonderedCDXIV if he were already dead;CDXV and summoningCDXVI the centurion, he asked him whether he had been deadCDXVII for some time.CDXVIII 

Notes on verse 15:44

CDXIV “wondered” = thaumazo. Same as “was amazed” in v15:5. See note CCLXXXIII above.
CDXV “were…dead” = thnesko. Related to “die with” in v14:31 & “death” in v14:34 & “put…to death” in v14:55. 9x in NT. See note CXXXVI above.
CDXVI “summoning” = proskaleo. Related to “called together” in v15:16. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kaleo (see note CCCIX above). This is to call to oneself, summon.
CDXVII “been dead” = apothnesko. Related to “die with” in v14:31 & “death” in v14:34 & “put…to death” in v14:55 & “were…dead” in v15:44. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (see note CXXXVI above). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.
CDXVIII “for some time” = palai. 7x in NT. Perhaps from palin (back, again, further); probably from the same as pale (wrestling, struggle, conflict); from pallo (to sway or vibrate). This is long ago, former, ancient, in the past.

45 When he learnedCDXIX from the centurion that he was dead, he grantedCDXX the bodyCDXXI to Joseph. 

Notes on verse 15:45

CDXIX “learned” = ginosko. Same as “realized” in v15:10. See note CXXXVIII above.
CDXX “granted” = doreomai. Related to “given” in v14:5 & “betray” in v14:10. 3x in NT. From doron (gift, offering, sacrifice; emphasizes that the gift is given freely, voluntarily); from didomi (see note XXXI above). This is to give, grant, donate – a free gift.
CDXXI “body” = ptoma. Related to “curtain” in v15:38. 7x in NT. From pipto (to fall literally or figuratively); probably related to petomai (see note CCCXCII above). This is a fall, misfortune, ruin, corpse.

46 Then Joseph boughtCDXXII a linen cloth, and taking down the body, wrappedCDXXIII it in the linen cloth, and laidCDXXIV it in a tombCDXXV that had been hewnCDXXVI out of the rock.CDXXVII

Notes on verse 15:46a

CDXXII “bought” = agorazo. Related to “raised up” in v14:28 & “keep awake” in v14:34 & “accused” in v15:3. From agora (see note CCLXXXI above). This is to go and buy something at market with a focus on goods being transferred. It can also mean to purchase or redeem.
CDXXIII “wrapped” = eneileo. Related to “vine” in v14:25. 1x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + eileo (to wind) OR the base of heilisso (to roll or wrap up);{from helisso (see note CXV above)}. This is to wind up, roll in.
CDXXIV “laid” = tithemi. Same as “knelt down” in v15:19. See note CCCXX above.
CDXXV “tomb” = mnemeion. Related to “remembrance” in v14:9 & “remembered” in v14:72. From mousikos (to remember); from mneme (see note LV above). This is properly a memorial – a tomb, grave, monument.
CDXXVI “hewn” = latomeo. 2x in NT. From laas (a stone) + temno (to cut with a repeated blows). This is to hew or cut as when one quarries stones.
CDXXVII “rock” = petra. Related to “Peter” in v14:29. 15x in NT. See note CXXIX above.

 He then rolledCDXXVIII a stoneCDXXIX against the doorCDXXX of the tomb. 47 Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses sawCDXXXI where the body was laid.

Notes on verses 15:46b-47

CDXXVIII “rolled” = proskulio. 2x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kulioo (to roll, wallow); {from kulindo (to roll, roll along); from kuma (wave, billow, curve, bend); from kuo (to swell as one pregnant)}. This is to roll towards or against.
CDXXIX “stone” = lithos. This is stone in a literal or figurative sense.
CDXXX “door” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.
CDXXXI “saw” = theoreo. Same as “looking on” in v15:40. See note CCCXCVIII above.

Image credit: “Crucifixion” by Robert R. Thurman, early 21st century.

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