Romans 11

Romans 11


I ask,I then, has GodII rejectedIII his people?IV

Notes on verse 1a

I “ask” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
II “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
III “rejected” = apotheo. 6x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + otheo (to push away, show). This is to push away or cast away. Figuratively, it can mean to repulse, reject, or refuse.
IV “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.

By no means!V I myself amVI an Israelite,VII

Notes on verse 1b

V “by no means” = me + ginomai. Ginomai is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
VI “am” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
VII “Israelite” = Israelites. 9x in NT. From Israel (Israel, the people and land); from Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land. This is Israelite in a literal or figurative sense.

a descendantVIII of Abraham,IX a member of the tribeX of Benjamin.XI 

Notes on verse 1c

VIII “descendant” = sperma. From speiro (to sow seed, spread, scatter); perhaps from spao (to pull, to draw a sword). This is something sown so it could be seed or offspring and descendants. This is where the word “sperm” comes from.
IX “Abraham” = Abraam. From Hebrew Abraham (exalted father); from the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (father literal or figurative) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.
X “tribe” = phule. From phuo (to produce, spring up, grow, germinate; perhaps originally meaning puff or blow). This is clan, tribe, lineage. It is those who descend from a shared ancestor.
XI “Benjamin” = Beniamin. 4x in NT. From Hebrew Binyamin (Benjamin; meaning “son of the right hand”; Jacob’s son, his descendants, and their territory); {from ben (son, age, child) + from yamin (right hand or side; that which is stronger or more agile; the south); {perhaps yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm)}}. This is Benjamin, meaning “son of the right hand.” It is Benjamin or his tribe.

God has not rejected his people whom he foreknew.XII Do you not knowXIII what the scriptureXIV saysXV of Elijah,XVI

Notes on verse 2a

XII “foreknew” = proginosko. 5x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is to know ahead of time, foresee, or ordain.
XIII “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
XIV “scripture” = graphe. From grapho (to write). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.
XV “says” = lego. Same as “ask” in v1. See note I above.
XVI “Elijah” = Elias. Related to “Israelite” in v1. From Hebrew Eliyyah (Elijah) {from el (see note VII above) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; God, Lord; the self-existent or eternal one); from havah (to become) or hayah (to be, become, happen)}}. This is Elijah, “The Lord is God.”

how he pleadsXVII with God against Israel?XVIII “Lord,XIX they have killedXX your prophets,XXI

Notes on verses 2b-3a

XVII “pleads” = entugchano. 5x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + tugchano (root means to become ready; to hit, meet, happen, obtain, chance, perhaps; properly, to hit the mark or be spot on; the opposite of the Greek word for sin hamartano, which literally means to miss the mark); {perhaps from tucho (to make ready, bring about)}. This is to encounter, appeal, please, chance upon, confer with, intercede, or petition. It is to meet someone in order to consult with them.
XVIII “Israel” = Israel. Related to “Israelite” in v1 & “Elijah” in v2. See note VII above.
XIX “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XX “killed” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.
XXI “prophets” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.

they have demolishedXXII your altars;XXIII I aloneXXIVam left,XXV

Notes on verse 3b

XXII “demolished” = kataskapto. 2x in NT. From kata (up, again, back, anew) + skapto (to dig or excavate). This is to dig under, tear down, ruin, destroy.
XXIII “altars” = thusiasterion. From thusia (a sacrifice or offering; the act of sacrifice or the thig being sacrificed; a sacrifice in a literal or figurative sense.); from thuo (to breathe violently, seethe, rage; properly, to rush as breathing heavy; so smoke as in offering an animal sacrifice by fire; by extension, killing or slaying in general). This is altar that is used for sacrifice.
XXIV “alone” = monos. Perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is alone, single, remaining, mere, desolate.
XXV “am left” = hupoleipo. 2x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing). This is to remain, survive, a remnant.

and they are seekingXXVI my life.”XXVII But what isXXVIII the divine replyXXIX to him?

Notes on verses 3c-4a

XXVI “seeking” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
XXVII “life” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
XXVIII “is” = lego. Same as “ask” in v1. See note I above.
XXIX “divine reply” = chrematismos. 1x in NT. From chrematizo (to conduct business, instruct, warn, reveal, to utter an oracle, be warned by God); from chrema (something one uses or needs; money, possessions, wealth); from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request). This is an oracle or revelation from God.

“I have keptXXX for myself seven thousandXXXI, XXXII who have not bowedXXXIII the kneeXXXIV to Baal.”XXXV 

Notes on verse 4b

XXX “kept” = kataleipo. Related to “am left” in v3. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (see note XXV above). This is to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve.
XXXI “seven thousand” = heptakischilioi. 1x in NT. From heptakis (seven times); {from hepta (seven or seventh; figuratively, the number of completeness or perfection)} + chilioi (thousand; symbolically it has a sense of inclusiveness of everything). This is 7,000.
XXXII {untranslated} = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
XXXIII “bowed” = kampto. This is to bend or bow.
XXXIV “knee” = gonu. 12x in NT. The knee.
XXXV “Baal” = Baal. 1x in NT. Related to Hebrew Baal (Baal, literally “lord;” a Phoenician god); from the same as ba’al (lord, owner, ally, or archer); from ba’al (to marry, have dominion, be master). This is Baal, literally “lord.” It Refers to a Phoenician god

So, too, at the present timeXXXVI there is a remnantXXXVII chosenXXXVIII by grace.XXXIX 

Notes on verse 5

XXXVI “time” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.
XXXVII “remnant” = leimma. Related to “am left” in v3 & “kept” in v4. From leipo (see note XXV above). This is a remnant or remainder.
XXXVIII “chosen” = ekloge + ginomai. Ekloge is Related to “ask” in v1. 7x in NT. From eklego (to choose, select, elect); {from ek (from, from out of) + lego (see note I above)}. This is properly a choosing out so it is a selection or choice. It is also used theologically to mean election i.e. God’s choice. Ginomai is the same as “by no means” in v1. See note V above.
XXXIX “grace” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.

But if it is by grace, it is no longer on the basis of works,XL otherwise grace would no longer beXLI grace.XLII

Notes on verse 6

XL “works” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.
XLI “be” = ginomai. Same as “by no means” in v1. See note V above.
XLII Some manuscripts add “if however it is on the basis of works, it is no longer grace; otherwise work is no longer work” = ei + de + ek + ergon + ouketi + eimi + charis + epei + ho + ergon + ouketi + eimi + ergon. Ergon is the same as “works” in v6. See note XL above. Eimi is the same as “am” in v1. See note VI above. Charis is the same as “grace” in v5. See note XXXIX above.

What then? Israel has not achievedXLIII what it was pursuing.XLIV The electXLV have achieved it, but the restXLVI were hardened,XLVII 

Notes on verse 7

XLIII “achieved” = epitugchano. Related to “pleads” in v2. 5x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + tugchano (see note XVII above). This is to obtain by chancing upon something, to acquire.
XLIV “pursuing” = epizeteo. Related to “seeking” in v3. 13x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + zeteo (see note XXVI above). This is to desire, search for, seek, or want. It is following through on a personal goal by seeking.
XLV “elect” = ekloge. Same as “chosen” in v5. See note XXXVIII above.
XLVI “rest” = loipos. Related to “am left” in v3 & “kept” in v4 & “remnant” in v5. From leipo (see note XXV above). This is the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue.
XLVII “hardened” = poroo. 5x in NT. From poros (a stone, callous). This is to harden, petrify, of rock. Figuratively, this can be insensitive, callous, or dense.

as it is written,XLVIII

“God gaveXLIX them a sluggishL spirit,LI

Notes on verse 8a

XLVIII “written” = grapho. Related to “scripture” in v2. See note XIV above.
XLIX “gave” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
L “sluggish” = katanuxis. 1x in NT. From katanusso (to pierce, sting; to be emotionally stung); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + nusso (to pierce, prick, transfix)}. This is violent strike, stupor, bewilderment, lethargy.
LI “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

    eyesLII that would not seeLIII
    and earsLIV that would not hear,LV
down to this very day.”LVI

Notes on verse 8b

LII “eyes” = ophthalmos. From optanomai (to appear, be seen by); from horao (become, seem, appear). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.
LIII “see” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
LIV “ears” = ous. This is the physical ear, or the perception of hearing, whether physical or cognitive.
LV “hear” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
LVI “this very day” = semeron + hemera. Semeron is from hemera (day, time, daybreak); perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is today, now, at present. Hemera is related to “this very day” in v8. See above.

And DavidLVII says,

“Let their tableLVIII becomeLIX a snareLX and a trap,LXI

Notes on verse 9a

LVII “David” = Dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
LVIII “table” = trapeza. 15x in NT. Probably from tessares (four; figuratively, can mean total inclusion or universality) + peze (by foot or land) or pezos (by foot or land); {from pous (foot)}. This is a table – whether for eating or conducting business. Literally, four feet. This is where the word “trapeze” comes from.
LIX “become” = ginomai. Same as “by no means” in v1. See note V above.
LX “snare” = pagis. 5x in NT. From pegnumi (to fasten, to set up a tent). This is a trap or a snare. It is often used to snare birds. Figuratively, this is a stratagem or a moral snare, a trick.
LXI “trap” = thera. 1x in NT. From their (wild animal; can refer to an animal that is hunted). This is prey, hunting, net, trap.

    a stumbling blockLXII and a retributionLXIII for them;
10 let their eyes be darkenedLXIV so that they cannot see,
    and keep their backs foreverLXV bent.”LXVI

Notes on verses 9b-10

LXII “stumbling block” = skandalon. Related to “bowed” in v4. 15x in NT. Perhaps from kampto (see note XXXIII above). This is a stumbling block, offense, hindrance, or scandal. Properly, this is the part of the trap that triggers it shut on the victim. So, as a snare, it is anything that causes error or offense, something that makes one stumble or traps someone. This is where the word “scandal” comes from.
LXIII “retribution” = antapodoma. Related to “gave” in v8. 2x in NT. From antapodidomi (to pay back, recompense); {from anti (opposite, instead of, against) + apodidomi (to give back, return, give away; to restore as when one makes payment – to rend what is due, to sell); {from apo (from, away from) + didomi (see note XLIX above)}}. This is retribution, return, requital.
LXIV “darkened” = skotizo. 5x in NT. From skotos (darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it; obscurity); from skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is to darken or obscure in a literal or figurative sense.
LXV “forever” = dia + pas. Literally, “for ever.” Pas is all or every.
LXVI “bent” = sugkampto. Related to “bowed” in v4 & “stumbling block” in v9. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + kampto (see note XXXIII above). This is to bend together, bow, or oppress.

11 So I ask, have they stumbledLXVII so as to fall?LXVIII By no means! But through their stumblingLXIX salvationLXX

Notes on verse 11a

LXVII “stumbled” = ptaio. 5x in NT. Perhaps from pipto (to fall literally or figuratively). This is to stumble or cause to stumble. It can also refer to sinning or giving offense or failing.
LXVIII “fall” = pipto. Related to “stumbled” in v11. See note LXVII above.
LXIX “stumbling” = paraptoma. Related to “stumbled” and “fall” in v11. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + pipto (see note LXVII above). This is properly, falling away after having been devout or faithful. So, this is a lapse, sin, slip, transgression, offense. It is a deviation from what is true – it could be accidental or unconscious.
LXX “salvation” = soteria. From soter (a savior, deliverer); from sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue; taking someone from danger to safety; delivering or protecting literally or figuratively); from sos (safe, rescued, well). This is deliverance, salvation, preservation, welfare, prosperity, safety.

has come to the gentiles,LXXI so as to make IsraelLXXII jealous.LXXIII 

Notes on verse 11b

LXXI “gentiles” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
LXXII “Israel” = autos. Literally, “them.”
LXXIII “make…jealous” = parazeloo. 4x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + zeloo (jealous, eager for, burning with zeal, deeply committed, envy); {from zelos (eagerness or zeal on the one hand or rivalry and jealousy on the other; burning anger or burning love) perhaps from from zeo (to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow; used figuratively for being fervent or earnest)}. This is to provoke to jealousy or anger.

12 Now if their stumblingLXXIV means richesLXXV for the worldLXXVI

Notes on verse 12a

LXXIV “stumbling” = paraptoma. Same as “stumbling” in v11. See note LXIX above.
LXXV “riches” = ploutos. From polus (much, many, abundant) OR pleo (to sail, voyage); {probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow)} OR pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is abundance, wealth, or riches. It could refer to money/possessions or spiritual abundance. It can also be used for a valuable bestowment.
LXXVI “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.

and if their lossLXXVII means riches for gentiles, how much moreLXXVIII will their full inclusionLXXIX mean!

Notes on verse 12b

LXXVII “loss” = hettema. 2x in NT. From hettaomai (to be inferior, worsen, be defeated; to be vanquished in a literal or figurative sense); from the same as hesson or hetton (inferior, worse, less); {from eka (slightly, little)}. This is a defect, failure, shortcoming or defeat. It is a deterioration or loss.
LXXVIII “more” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.
LXXIX “full inclusion” = pleroma. 18x in NT. From pleroo (to fill, make full or complete; properly, filling something up to the maximum extent or induvial capacity; used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill); from pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is fullness, supply, completion, superabundance, or multitude.

13 Now I am speakingLXXX to you gentiles. Inasmuch asLXXXI I am an apostleLXXXII to the gentiles,

Notes on verse 13a

LXXX “speaking” = lego. Same as “ask” in v1. See note I above.
LXXXI {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
LXXXII “apostle” = apostolos. From apostello (to send, send away, send forth as a messenger, to commission); {from apo (from, away from) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {probably from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand firm)}}. This is a messenger – someone sent out on a mission as an envoy or delegate. It can also refer to someone set at liberty. Generally, this is a messenger who is meant to be a representative of the one who sent them. They are thus, set apart on a mission literally or figuratively.

I celebrateLXXXIII my ministryLXXXIV 14 in order to make my own peopleLXXXV jealous and thus saveLXXXVI some of them. 

Notes on verses 13b-14

LXXXIII “celebrate” = doxazo. From doxa (glory, opinion, praise, honor, renown; particularly used as a quality of God or manifestation of God – splendor); from dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.
LXXXIV “ministry” = diakonia. Perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute) {related to dio (put to flight)}. This is service, ministry, attending someone, service. It can mean serving someone at a table or otherwise as their servant/slave. It is also used for people who serve/minister in temples, as well as the work of Christian ministry. Figuratively, this word can mean money given for charity. This shares a root with “deacon” and is where the word “diaconate” comes from.
LXXXV “people” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).
LXXXVI “save” = sozo. Related to “salvation” in v11. See note LXX above.

15 For if their rejectionLXXXVII is the reconciliationLXXXVIII of the world, what will their acceptanceLXXXIX be

Notes on verse 15a

LXXXVII “rejection” = apobole. 2x in NT. From apoballo (to throw off, cast aside; figuratively, to lose or abandon); {from apo (from, away from) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a throwing away, a rejection or loss.
LXXXVIII “reconciliation” = katallage. 4x in NT. From katallasso (to reconcile, change, or exchange; a moment when two parties come together in reconciliation and both parties change because of it); {from kata (down, against, among) + allasso (to change, transform) {from allos (other, another; another of a similar kind or type)}. This is reconciliation or atonement.
LXXXIX “acceptance” = proslempsis. 1x in NT. From proslambano (to take aside, accept, receive, or welcome; to take in a friendly or hospitable sense or to eat (i.e. take food)); {from pros (at, to, toward, with) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual)}. This is a receiving or glad acceptance.

but lifeXC from the dead?XCI 16 If the part of the dough offered as first fruitsXCII is holy,XCIII

Notes on verses 15b-16a

XC “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
XCI “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.
XCII “part of the dough offered as first fruits” = aparche. 8x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + arche (origin, beginning, rule; can refer to the power of a magistrate or a king; it is the first thing as being the starting point or the most important); {from archomai (to begin or rule); from archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power)}. This is first fruit or gift. It is the beginning of sacrifice – so the first crops of the season. It is also used figuratively of early converts in a specific location.
XCIII “holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.

then the whole batchXCIV is holy; and if the rootXCV is holy, then the branchesXCVI also are holy.

17 But if some of the branches were broken off,XCVII and you, a wild olive shoot,XCVIII

Notes on verses 16b-17a

XCIV “whole batch” = phurama. 5x in NT. From phurao (to mis). This is something mixed together like bread dough or a lump of clay.
XCV “root” = rhiza. 17x in NT. This is a root literally or figuratively so it would be the root of what comes from it – shoot, source, descendant. This is where the word “rhizome” comes from.
XCVI “branches” = klados. 11x in NT. From klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread). This is a branch, twig, or bough. It can also refer to descendants.
XCVII “broken off” = ekklao. Related to “branches” in v16. 3x in NT – all in Romans 11. From ek (from, from out of) + klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread). This is to break off or cut out.
XCVIII “wild olive shoot” = agrielaios. 2x in NT – both in Romans 11. From agrios (related to the country or fields; natural, wild, or fierce); {from agros (a field as a place where one grows crops or pastures cattle; a farm or lands); perhaps from ago (to bring, lead, carry, guide)} + elaia (the olive tree or that which it produces; can also refer to the Mount of Olives). This is a wild olive tree.

were graftedXCIX among the others to shareC the richCI root of the olive tree,CII, CIII 

Notes on verse 17b

XCIX “grafted” = egkentrizo. 6x in NT – all in Romans 11. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + kentron (a sting or sharp point; figuratively, poison or death); {from kenteo (to prick)}. This is to graft in with a puncture.
C “share” = sugkoinonos. 4x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + koinonos (partner, companion, partaker, sharer); {from koinos (common, shared, unclean, ritually profane); probably from sun (with, together with)} This is co-partner, someone with whom you share something together – a close companion.
CI “rich” = piotes. 1x in NT. From pion (fat); perhaps related to pino (to drink in a literal or figurative sense). This is fatness or richness.
CII “olive tree” = elaia. Related to “wild olive shoot” in v17. 15x in NT. See note XCVIII above.
CIII {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as “by no means” in v1. See note V above.

18 do not boast overCIV the branches. If you do boast, remember: you do not supportCV the root, but the root supports you. 19 You will say,CVI “Branches were broken off so that I might be grafted in.” 20 That is true.CVII

Notes on verses 18-20a

CIV “boast over” = katakauchaomai. 4x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, throughout) + kauchaomai (literally holding one’s head high – to boast proudly or to glory, joy, exult, rejoice; can be boasting in a positive or negative sense); {perhaps from auchen (neck) OR from aucheo (to boast) + euchomai (to wish, request, pray to God)}. This is to boast over or exult over, to glory, rejoice, triumph over. It is lifting up or boasting over one thing at the expense of something else in a bad way. It can be false superiority or arrogance.
CV “support” = bastazo. Perhaps from the base of basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is to lift in a literal of figurative sense. It can also mean take up, carry, bear, or remove. Figuratively, it can mean declare, endure, or sustain.
CVI “say” = ereo. Perhaps from rheo (to say, speak of, command). This is to say, tell, speak, mean, command.
CVII “true” = kalos. From kalos (good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy; external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues; a different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good). This is nobly, rightly, well-perceived, seen as appealing, morally pleasing, honorably.

They were broken off on account of unbelief,CVIII but you standCIX on account of belief.CX 

Notes on verse 20b

CVIII “unbelief” = apistia. 11x in NT. From apistos (unbelieving, incredulous, faithless; someone who rejects faith); {from a (not, without) + pistos (faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true; a fullness of faith); {from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust)}}. This is unfaithfulness, distrust, disbelief, disobedience.
CIX “stand” = histemi. Related to “apostle” in v13. See note LXXXII above.
CX “belief” = pistis. Related to “unbelief” in v20. From peitho (see note CVIII above). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.

So do not becomeCXI arrogant,CXII but be afraid.CXIII 

Notes on verse 20c

CXI “become” = phroneo. From phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb). This is to think, judge, use one’s mind, have an opinion, shape one’s opinion through action. It refers to one’s insight or inner perspective expressing itself through behavior.
CXII “arrogant” = hupselos. 12x in NT– in Matthew’s and Luke’s Temptation story as well as Matthew and Mark’s Transfiguration accounts. From hupsos (height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted); from hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond). This is high, lofty, or exalted. It can be lofty in elevation or in character.
CXIII “be afraid” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.

21 For if God did not spareCXIV the naturalCXV branches, neither will he spare you. 22 NoteCXVI then the kindnessCXVII

Notes on verses 21-22a

CXIV “spare” = pheidomai. 10x in NT. This is to spare, refrain, or to treat with leniency.
CXV “natural” = phusis. Related to “tribe” in v1. 14x in NT. From phuo (see note X above). This is inherent nature, origin, species, growth, descent, natural disposition, condition. It shares a root with the word “physical.”
CXVI “note” = idou. Related to “know” in v2. From eido (see note XIII above). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CXVII “kindness” = chrestotes. Related to “divine reply” in v4. 10x in NT. From chrestos (useful, good, well-fitted, benevolent, kind, gracious; also a name given to slaves in the ancient world); from chraomai (see note XXIX above). This is properly useable, good or ready for service – just what one needs to meet real needs. Figuratively, this speaks of moral excellence, strong character, uprightness, kindness, integrity.

and the severityCXVIII of God:CXIX severity toward those who have fallen but God’s kindness toward you, if you continue inCXX his kindness; otherwise you also will be cut off.CXXI 

Notes on verse 22b

CXVIII “severity” = apotomia. 2x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + apotomos (sharply, abruptly, severity); {from apo (from, away from) + temno (to cut)}. This is sharpness, abruptness, severity, or rigor.
CXIX {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v13. See note LXXXI above.
CXX “continue in” = epimeno. Related to “alone” in v3. 17x in NT. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + meno (see note XXIV above). This is to remain, terry, continue, or persevere. It denotes persistence in pursing a goal or task.
CXXI “be cut off” = ekkopto. 10x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is to cut off, down, out, or away. It can also mean to remove, prevent, hinder, or frustrate.

23 And even those of Israel, if they do not continue in unbelief, will be grafted in, for God hasCXXII the powerCXXIII to graft them in again. 24 For if you have been cutCXXIV from what is by natureCXXV

Notes on verses 23-24a

CXXII “has” = eimi. Same as “am” in v1. See note VI above.
CXXIII “power” = dunatos. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is mighty or powerful. It speaks of ability of persons, possibility of things. It is what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits. The root verb is also related to miracles i.e. deeds of power.
CXXIV “cut” = ekkopto. Same as “be cut off” in v22. See note CXXI above.
CXXV “nature” = phusis. Same as “natural” in v21. See note CXV above.

a wild olive treeCXXVI and grafted, contrary to nature, into a cultivated olive tree,CXXVII how much more will these natural branches be grafted back into their ownCXXVIII olive tree.CXXIX

Notes on verse 24b

CXXVI “wild olive tree” = agrielaios. Same as “wild olive shoot” in v17. See note XCVIII above.
CXXVII “cultivated olive tree” = kallielaios. Related to “true” in v20 & to “wild olive shoot” and “olive tree” in v17. 1x in NT. From kalos (see note CVII above) + elaia (see note XCVIII above). This is a cultivated olive tree.
CXXVIII “own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
CXXIX “olive tree” = elaia. Same as “olive tree” in v17. See note CII above.

25 I wantCXXX you to understandCXXXI this mystery,CXXXII

Notes on verse 25a

CXXX “want” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
CXXXI “understand” = ouagnoeo. Literally, “not…be ignorant.” Agnoeo is related to “foreknew” in v2. From a (not) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from noos (mind); probably from the base as ginosko (see note XII above)}. This is unaware not to know. Sometimes it is willful ignorance, but other times it is simply not knowing.
CXXXII “mystery” = musterion. From mustes (an initiate); from mueo (to initiate someone into the secrets or mysteries of an order; to instruct learn, be disciples; properly, shutting your mouth and eyes to experience mystery); from muo (shutting eyes or mouth). This is a mystery or a secret doctrine that requires initiation to learn. In the New Testament, the plans of God were hidden until they were revealed in Christ through the Gospel. It is also used of Christian revelation in a broad sense rather than referring to something that cannot be known. This is the root of the word “mystery.”

brothersCXXXIII and sisters, so that you may not claim to beCXXXIV wiserCXXXV than you are:CXXXVI

Notes on verse 25b

CXXXIII “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
CXXXIV “claim to be” = eimi. Same as “am” in v1. See note VI above.
CXXXV “wiser” = phronimos. Related to “become” in v20. 14x in NT. From phroneo (see note CXI above). This is wise in a practical sense, prudent, or sensible. It is savvy, rooted in our own point of view, thoughtful. It can also mean conceited.
CXXXVI “than you are” = en + heautou. Literally, “in yourselves.”

a hardeningCXXXVII has comeCXXXVIII upon partCXXXIX of Israel until the full numberCXL of the gentiles has come in.CXLI 

Notes on verse 25c

CXXXVII “hardening” = porosis. Related to “hardened” in v7. 3x in NT– in Mark, Romans, and Ephesians and all in the expression “hardness of heart.” From poroo (see note XLVII above). This is hardness or callousness. Figuratively, it can refer to being numb or obtuse – imperceptive.
CXXXVIII “come” = ginomai. Same as “by no means” in v1. See note V above.
CXXXIX “part” = meros. From meiromai (to get your allotment or portion). This is a part, a share, or a portion.
CXL “full number” = pleroma. Same as “full inclusion” in v12. See note LXXIX above.
CXLI “come in” = eiserchomai. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.

26 And in this way allCXLII Israel will be saved, as it is written,

“Out of ZionCXLIII will comeCXLIV the Deliverer;CXLV

Notes on verse 26a

CXLII “all” = pas. Same as “forever” in v10. See note LXV above.
CXLIII “Zion” = Sion. 7x in NT. From Hebrew tsiyyon (Zion – a mountain in Jerusalem as well as another name for Jerusalem itself or the people); related to tsyiyyun (signpost, monument); from tsavah (to charge someone, to command, order); from the same as tsiyyah (dryness drought); from a root meaning parched as desert, dry land. This is Zion – the mountain in Jerusalem, the city, or its people. Also used figuratively to refer to the church.
CXLIV “come” = heko. This is to come or arrive as at a final destination or goal. It can also mean being present in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLV “Deliverer” = Rhuomai. 18x in NT– including from the Lord’s prayer “deliver us from evil”. Related to eruo (to draw or drag) OR related to rheo (to flow, overflow). This is to rescue or set free. It is to deliver from danger, to snatch up.

    he will banishCXLVI ungodlinessCXLVII from Jacob.”CXLVIII

Notes on verse 26b

CXLVI “banish” = apostrepho. 9x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn away from so it could be to leave, to reject, remove, or even desert. It places a focus on one’s personal commitment to this turning back and rejecting.
CXLVII “ungodliness” = asebeia. 6x in NT. From a (not, without) + sebomai (to worship, revere, adore; properly, hold in respect or high personal regard; reverence or awe shown by someone who is devout). This is ungodliness, impiety, irreverence, or wickedness. Properly, this is a lack of respect – not giving honor when it is warranted. It implies wickedness.
CXLVIII “Jacob” = Iakob. From Hebrew Yaaqob (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.

27 “And this is my covenantCXLIX with them,
    when I take awayCL their sins.”CLI

Notes on verse 27

CXLIX “covenant” = diatheke. From diatithemi (to place separately – to make a will or covenant; this is arranging ahead of time how things will be accomplished); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position)}. This is a will, covenant, contract, or agreement.
CL “take away” = aphaireo. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is remove, take away, cut in a literal or figurative sense.
CLI “sins” = hamartia. Related to “part” in v25. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (see note CXXXIX above)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.

28 As regardsCLII the gospelCLIII they are enemiesCLIV for your sake,

Notes on verse 28a

CLII {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v13. See note LXXXI above.
CLIII “gospel” = euaggelion. Related to “wild olive shoot” in v17. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel); {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (see note XCVIII above)}. This is literally “the good news,” used for the gospel. This is also where “evangelism” comes from.
CLIV “enemies” = echthros. From echthos (hatred). This is an openly hostile person so an enemy, a foe, or a hated person. This speaks of irreconcilable hostility. It can also mean adversary and/or refer to Satan.

but as regards electionCLV they are belovedCLVI for the sake of their ancestors,CLVII 

Notes on verse 28b

CLV “election” = ekloge. Same as “chosen” in v5. See note XXXVIII above.
CLVI “beloved” = agapetos. From agape (love, goodwill, benevolence; God’s divine love); from agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is Beloved or very dear one. It is a title for the Messiah, but also for Christians. Properly, this is one who personally experiences God’s love.
CLVII “ancestors” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.

29 for the giftsCLVIII and the callingCLIX of God are irrevocable.CLX 

Notes on verse 29

CLVIII “gifts” = charisma. Related to “grace” in v5. 17x in NT. From charizomai (to show favor, kindness, or grace, to pardon, forgive); from charis (see note XXXIX above). This is grace, undeserved favor, a free gift, or a spiritual gift. It is the working of grace, some spiritual gift or religious qualification. It could be some kind of miraculous endowment.
CLIX “calling” = klesis. 11x in NT. From kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is a calling or invitation. In the Bible, this word always refers to a call from God.
CLX “irrevocable” = ametameletos. 2x in NT. From a (not, without) + metamelomai (to regret or repent; changing your mind – generally used in a positive sense; often, experiencing an emotion that causes you to change your mind such that you care afterwards); {from meta (with, among, behind, beyond) + melo (to think about something, take an interest; to care or worry about something)}. This is literally not repented of so it could mean not having regret or irrevocable. It is also not changing one’s mind or level of concern/interest in something. It is something done from deep conviction.

30 Just as you were once disobedientCLXI to God but have now received mercyCLXII because of their disobedience,CLXIII 

Notes on verse 30

CLXI “were…disobedient” = apeitheo. Related to “unbelief” and “belief” in v20. 14x in NT. From apeithes (unbelieving, disobedient, spiritually rebellious); {from a (not, without) + peitho (see note CVIII above)}. This is to disobey or rebel. It refers to those who refuse to be convinced of something – willful disbelief.
CLXII “received mercy” = eleeo. From eleos (mercy, pity, tender mercy, or compassion; generally understood in action by word or deed). This is to have pity on, show mercy to, be compassionate; often used for God’s grace. When we sing or say “kyrie eleison” (Lord, have mercy), it is from this root verb.
CLXIII “disobedience” = apeitheia. Related to “unbelief” and “belief” in v20 & “were…disobedient” in v30. 7x in NT. From apeithes (see note CLXI above). This is willful unbelief, stubbornly unpersuaded, disobeying.

31 so also they have now been disobedient in order that, by the mercyCLXIV shown to you, they also may now receive mercy. 32 For God has imprisonedCLXV all in disobedience so that he may be mercifulCLXVI to all.

33 OCLXVII the depthCLXVIII of the richesCLXIX

Notes on verses 31-33a

CLXIV “mercy” = eleos. Related to “received mercy” in v30. See note CLXII above.
CLXV “imprisoned” = sugkleio. 4x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + kleio (to close, lock, shut). This is to shut in, enclose, shut up completely. It can also mean to make subject to.
CLXVI “be merciful” = eleeo. Same as “received mercy” in v30. See note CLXII above.
CLXVII “O” = O. 17x in NT. This is O or oh – used to speak to someone or express a strong feeling.
CLXVIII “depth” = bathos. 8x in NT. From bathus (deep in a literal or figurative sense); from the same root as basis (step, foot). This is depth, fullness, profundity, or immensity. This is where the term “bathysphere” comes from, but not the English word “bath.”
CLXIX “riches” = ploutos. Same as “riches” in v12. See note LXXV above.

and wisdomCLXX and knowledgeCLXXI of God! How unsearchableCLXXII

Notes on verse 33b

CLXX “wisdom” = sophia. From sophos (wise, clever, skilled, learned, cultivated); related to saphes (clear). This is skill, wisdom, insight, intelligence, clarity. It is wisdom as applied through a practical skill or shrewdness. It is not thoughtfulness or the mere gaining of intelligence for its own sake. Sophia is wisdom in action for everyday living.
CLXXI “knowledge” = gnosis. Related to “foreknew” in v2 & “understand” in v25. From ginosko (see note XII above). This is knowing, knowledge, understanding, wisdom. It is direct knowledge – working knowledge that links theory and application.
CLXXII “unsearchable” = anexeraunetos. Related to “say” in v19. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + exeraunao (to search thoroughly and diligently); {from ek (from, from out of) + eraunao (to search or examine); {perhaps from ereo (see note CVI above}}. This is something that cannot be understood, even by thorough investigation. So, it is inscrutable, unfathomable, elusive.

are his judgmentsCLXXIII and how inscrutableCLXXIV his ways!CLXXV

Notes on verse 33c

CLXXIII “judgment” = krima. From krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is judgment, sentence, verdict. Sometimes, this can have a negative sense – condemnation. It is the decision and the full force of its effect negative and positive.
CLXXIV “inscrutable” = anexichniastos. 2x in NT. From a (not, without) + exichniazo (to track out); {from ek (from, from out of) + ichnos (track; footsteps, whether literal or figuratively in the sense of making a path of example for others to emulate); {from hikneomai (to reach, come to, attain)}}. This is untraceable or incomprehensible.
CLXXV “ways” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.

34 “For who has knownCLXXVI the mindCLXXVII of the Lord?
    Or who has been his counselor?”CLXXVIII
35 “Or who has given a giftCLXXIX to him,
    to receive a gift in return?”CLXXX

Notes on verses 34-35

CLXXVI “known” = ginosko. Related to “foreknew” in v2 & “understand” in v25 & “knowledge” in v33. See note XII above.
CLXXVII “mind” = nous. Related to “foreknew” in v2 & “understand” in v25 & “knowledge” in v33 & “known” in v34. See note CXXXI above.
CLXXVIII “counselor” = sumboulos. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + boule (counsel, plan, purpose, decision; wisdom that comes from deliberation); {from boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination)}. This is an advisor or counselor in an official capacity.
CLXXIX “given a gift” = prodidomi. Related to “gave” in v8 & “retribution” in v9. 1x in NT. From pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + didomi (see note XLIX above). This is to give first or betray.
CLXXX “receive a gift in return” = antapodidomi. Related to “gave” in v8 & “retribution” in v9 & “given a gift” in v35. 7x in NT. From antapodidomi (to pay back, recompense); {from anti (opposite, instead of, against) + apodidomi (to give back, return, give away; to restore as when one makes payment – to rend what is due, to sell); {from apo (from, away from) + didomi (see note XLIX above)}}. This is retribution, return, requital.

36 For from him and through him and to him are all things.CLXXXI To him be the gloryCLXXXII forever.CLXXXIII Amen.CLXXXIV

Notes on verse 36

CLXXXI “all things” = pas. Same as “forever” in v10. See note LXV above.
CLXXXII “glory” = doxa. Related to “celebrate” in v13.See note LXXXIII above.
CLXXXIII “forever” = eis + ho + aion. Literally, “to the ages.” Aion is from the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.
CLXXXIV “amen” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.

Image credit: “Earthquake, Wind, and Fire” by Jeff Anderson, Siku, and Richard Thomas of Edge Group – Lion Hudson.

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