2 Corinthians 2

2 Corinthians 2


So I made upI my mindII not to make another visitIII that causesIV you grief.V 

Notes on verse 1

I “made up” = krino. To judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue. This is judging whether it is done in court or in a private setting. Properly, it refers to mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty. It can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.
II Literally, “I judged this within myself.”
III “make…visit” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
IV “that causes” = en. Literally, “in.”
V “grief” = lupe. 16x in NT. This is pain, whether physical or mental. It includes grief, sorrow, distress, or a heavy heart.

For if I cause you grief,VI who is there to make me gladvII but the one whom I have grieved?VIII 

Notes on verse 2

VI “cause…grief” = lupeo. Related to “grief” in v1. From lupe (see note V above). This is to be sad, grieve, distress, hurt, feel pain. It can be used for deep pain or severe sorrow as well as the pain that accompanies childbirth.
VII “make…glad” = euphraino. 14x in NT. From eu (good, well, well done) + phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); {perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb)}. This is to be glad, revel, feast. It is having a positive outlook, rejoicing.
VIII “grieved” = lupeo. Same as “cause…grief” in v2. See note VI above.

And I wroteIX as I did,X so that when I came,XI I might not sufferXII grief from those who should have madeXIII me rejoice,XIV

Notes on verse 3a

IX “wrote” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
X “as I did” = houtos + autos. Literally, “this same.”
XI “came” = erchomai. Same as “make…visit” in v1. See note III above.
XII “suffer” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
XIII “made” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
XIV “rejoice” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).

for I am confidentXV about allXVI of you, that my joyXVII would beXVIII the joy of all of you. 

Notes on verse 3b

XV “am confident” = peitho. This is to have confidence, to urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust. It is the root from which the Greek word for faith is drawn (pistis).
XVI “all” = pas. This is all or every.
XVII “joy” = chara. Related to “rejoice” in v3. From chairo (see note XIV above). This is joy, delight, gladness. Can be understood as the feeling you get when you are aware of grace.
XVIII “be” = eimi. This is to be, exist.

For I wrote you out of muchXIX distressXX and anguishXXI of heartXXII

Notes on verse 4a

XIX “much” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
XX “distress” = thlipsis. From thlibo (to press in on and make narrow, rub together, constrict; figuratively to oppress or afflict). This is pressure that hems us in – used often of internal pressure that makes us feel like we have no other options and are confined or restricted. So, this is persecution, affliction, trouble, distress, and anguish. There is a different word, stenoxoria, that refers to external pressure that we feel from what’s going on.
XXI “anguish” = sunoche. Related to “suffer” in v3. 2x in NT. From sunecho (to hold together or hold fast, to close or press together; to be struck by an illness, arrested, compressed as by a multitude or a siege; figuratively, to compel, perplex, preoccupy, afflict); {from sun (with, together with) + echo (see note XII above)}. This is anguish or anxiety. It is something in hard circumstances where someone feels trapped or restrained. Hence, it is distress.
XXII “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.

and with manyXXIII tears,XXIV not to cause you grief but to let you knowXXV the abundantXXVI loveXXVII that I haveXXVIII for you.

Notes on verse 4b

XXIII “many” = polus. Same as “much” in v4. See note XIX above.
XXIV “tears” = dakruon. 10x in NT– 2x of the woman anointing Jesus’ feet, 2x of Paul’s tears about people distorting the truth, 2x of God wiping away ever tear of the saints in heaven, 1x of Paul missing the Corinthians, 1x of remembering Timothy’s tears, 1x of Esau’s tears, 1x of Jesus’ tears. This is tear or teardrop.
XXV “know” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
XXVI “abundant” = perissos. 17x in NT. From perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is abundantly, exceedingly, far more, or all the more. This is going beyond what is anticipated or past the upper limit.
XXVII “love” = agape. From agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is love, goodwill, benevolence. It is God’s divine love or human love that mirrors God’s love.
XXVIII “have” = echo. Same as “suffer” in v3. See note XII above.

But if anyone has caused grief, he has causedXXIX it not to me but to some extentXXX—not to exaggerateXXXI it—to all of you. 

Notes on verse 5

XXIX “caused” = lupeo. Same as “cause…grief” in v2. See note VI above.
XXX “some extent” = meros. From meiromai (to get your allotment or portion). This is a part, a share, or a portion.
XXXI “exaggerate” = epibareo. 3x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + bareo (heavy, press, weigh down, or burden); {from barus (heavy, burdensome; figuratively, violent, oppressive; that which presses down on someone so that they cannot move freely); from the same as baros (weight, burden in a literal or figurative sense; authority); from the same as basis (foot, step, pace) {from baino (to walk to go)}.This is to weigh down, put a burden on. It can refer to expense or being severe to someone.

This punishmentXXXII by the majorityXXXIII is enoughXXXIV for such a person;XXXV 

Notes on verse 6

XXXII “punishment” = epitimia. 1x in NT. From epitimao (to render what is due – to assign the value that is appropriate for the situation; to honor, warn, rebuke, charge; a warning to guide someone away from doing something wrong or taking the wrong path; to forbid); {from epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + timao (properly, this is setting a value or price on something, to estimate. Figuratively, it speaks to what level of honor we afford someone or something depending on our personal feeling toward it. By implication, this can mean to revere or honor); {from time (worth or perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something; can be esteem or dignity; can also mean precious or valuables); from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}}. This is punishment or penalty.
XXXIII “majority” = pleion. Related to “much” in v4. From polus (see note XIX above). This is many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent.
XXXIV “enough” = hikanos. From hikneomai (to reach, come to, attain). This is sufficient, suitable, adequate, competent, ample.
XXXV “such a person” = toioutos. From toios (such) + houtos (this, they, that, third person pronoun); {probably from ho (the) + autos (he, she, self, they, same)}. This is of this kind, such, like. It could refer to one’s character or individuality.

so now insteadXXXVI you should forgiveXXXVII and consoleXXXVIII him,

Notes on verse 7a

XXXVI “instead” = tounantion + mallon. Tounantion is 3x in NT. From ho (the) + enantion (in the presence of); {from enantios (opposite; figuratively, an adversary); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + antios (set against)} OR from enanti (before); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + anti (opposite, instead of, against)}}. This is instead, on the contrary. Mallon is rather, more than, or better.
XXXVII “forgive” = charizomai. Related to “rejoice” and “joy” in v3. From charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); from chairo (see note XIV above). This is to extend grace or favor, to grant forgiveness, to pardon or rescue.
XXXVIII “console” = parakaleo. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.

so that heXXXIX may not be overwhelmedXL by even worseXLI grief. So I urgeXLII you to reaffirmXLIII your love for him. 

Notes on verses 7b-8

XXXIX “he” = toioutos. Same as “such a person” in v6. See note XXXV above.
XL “overwhelmed” = katapino. 7x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is literally to drink down – to gulp something down whole, devour, destroy, consume, or overwhelm. It is to drink down in a literal or figurative sense.
XLI “by even worse” = perissos. Related to “abundant” in v4. See note XXVI above.
XLII “urge” = parakaleo. Same as “console” in v7. See note XXXVIII above.
XLIII “reaffirm” = kuroo. 2x in NT. From the same as kurios (a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord); from kuros (authority, supremacy). This is to ratify, assure, reaffirm. This is to cause something to be authoritative.

I wrote for this reason: to testXLIV you and to knowXLV, XLVI

Notes on verse 9a

XLIV “test” = dokime. 8x in NT. From dokimos (what passes the test, approved, acceptable, genuine, verified); from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense) or dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); {from dokos (opinion)}  This is something that is being proved or tried in the sense of being tested. It can refer to the ordeal itself or imply something that has passed the test – that is genuine, trustworthy, or of good character.
XLV “know” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
XLVI Literally, “so that I might know your proof.”

whether you are obedientXLVII in everything.XLVIII 10 Anyone whom you forgive, I also forgive. In fact, what I have forgiven, if I have forgiven anything, has been for your sake in the presenceXLIX of Christ.L 

Notes on verses 9b-10

XLVII “obedient” = hupekoos. 3x in NT. From hupakouo (to listen, attend to, obey; acting subordinate to one who speaks – heeding a command or authority); {from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + akouo (listen, hear, understand through hearing)}. This is obedient or listening to with attention.
XLVIII “everything” = pas. Same as “all” in v3. See note XVI above.
XLIX “presence” = prosopon. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
L “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

11 And we do this so that we may not be outwittedLI by Satan,LII for we are not ignorantLIII of his designs.LIV

Notes on verse 11

LI “be outwitted” = pleonekteo. Related to “much” in v4 & “majority” in v6 & to “suffer” in v3 & “anguish” in v4. 5x in NT. From pleonektes (one who covets more, covetousness, avariciousness, one who defrauds or harms others’ rights; one eager for gain); {from pleion (many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent); from polus (see note XIX above) + echo (see note XII above)}. This is to overreach, outwit, defraud, exploit, want more, lust for someone else’s possessions. It can also be to take advantage of.
LII “Satan” = Satanas. From Hebrew satan (adversary, Satan); from satan (to be an adversary, attack, accuse, resist). This is Satan, the adversary, or an adversary.
LIII “are…ignorant” = agnoeo. Related to “know” in v4 & “designs” in v11. From a (not) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from noos (mind); probably from the base as ginosko (see note XXV above)}. This is unaware not to know. Sometimes it is willful ignorance, but other times it is simply not knowing.
LIV “designs” = noema. Related to “know” in v4. 6x in NT. From noeo (to think, understand, conceive, realize, see; one who thinks things through sufficiently to reach a conclusion or value judgment; moral reasoning.); {from nous (see note LIII above)}. This is thought, scheme, feeling, heart, purpose, understanding, perception, intellect. It is what the mind produces – the result of thinking.

12 When I came to TroasLV to proclaim the good newsLVI of Christ, a doorLVII was openedLVIII for me in the Lord,LIX 

Notes on verse 12

LV “Troas” = Troas. 6x in NT. From Troias (Trojan); from Tros (Troy). This is Troas, a city in Troy’s plain. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%CE%A4%CF%81%CF%89%CE%AC%CF%82#Ancient_Greek
LVI “good news” = euaggelion. Related to “make…glad” in v2. From eu (see note VII above) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel); {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (to bring, lead, carry, guide)}. This is literally “the good news,” used for the gospel. This is also where “evangelism” comes from.
LVII “door” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.
LVIII “opened” = anoigo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open). This is to open in literal or figurative sense.
LIX “Lord” = Kurios. Related to “reaffirm” in v8. See note XLIII above.

13 but my mindLX could not restLXI because I did not findLXII my brotherLXIII TitusLXIV there.

Notes on verse 13a

LX “mind” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
LXI “rest” = echo + anesis. Echo is the same as “suffer” in v3. See note XII above. Anesis is 5x in NT. From aniemi (to send up, loosen, sink, abandon, forbear, slacken, desert); {from ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + hiemi (to send)}. This is some kind of loosening or ease. It can also be a relief, freedom, or indulgence.
LXII “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
LXIII “brother” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
LXIV “Titus” = Titos. 14x in NT. From Latin Titus (Titus, meaning “honorable” or “strong” or “of the giants”). This is Titus or Titius, meaning “honorable” or “strong” or “of the giants.” See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Titus

So I said farewellLXV to them and went onLXVI to Macedonia.LXVII

Notes on verse 13b

LXV “said farewell” = apotasso. 6x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is to say goodbye, to dismiss someone, renounce, give up, set apart, forsake.
LXVI “went on” = exerchomai. Related to “make…visit” in v1. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note III above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
LXVII “Macedonia” = Makedonia. From makedonia (Macedonia, highland); from makednos (high or tall). This is Macedonia in Greece. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Macedonia

14 But thanksLXVIII be to God,LXIX who in Christ alwaysLXX leads us in triumphal processionLXXI

Notes on verse 14a

LXVIII “thanks” = charis. Related to “rejoice” and “joy” in v3 & “forgive” in v7. See note XXXVII above.
LXIX “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
LXX “always” = pantote. Related to “all” in v3. From pas (see note XVI above) + tote (then, whether past or future); {from hote (when); from ho (the)}. This is literally every when. It is always, at all times.
LXXI “leads…in triumphal procession” = thriambeuo. 2x in NT. From thriambos (holiday song sung to Bacchus) OR from throeo (to be disturbed, unsettled, troubled; feeling the desire to scream from fear, very upset, startled); {from throos (noise, tumult) + haptomai (a touch that has an impact on what is being touched – it has an influence on the recipient so that the recipient is changed)}. This is to triumph. It is conquering another and parading them publicly as a prisoner. Alternately, it could be a noisy procession in honor of Bacchus.

and through us spreadsLXXII in everyLXXIII placeLXXIV

Notes on verse 14b

LXXII “spreads” = phaneroo. From phaneros (visible, apparent, clear, shining); from phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); from phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is to make visible or clear, to make known. Properly, it is to illumine and so to make apparent or bring into open view.
LXXIII “every” = pas. Same as “all” in v3. See note XVI above.
LXXIV “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.

the fragranceLXXV that comes from knowingLXXVI him. 15 For we are the aromaLXXVII of Christ to God among those who are being savedLXXVIII and among those who are perishing:LXXIX 

Notes on verses 14c-15

LXXV “fragrance” = osme. 6x in NT. From ozo (to stink, to emit a scent – generally an unpleasant one). This is an aroma or fragrance. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXVI “knowing” = gnosis. Related to “know” in v4 & “designs” and “are ignorant” in v11. From ginosko (see note XXV above). This is knowing, knowledge, understanding, wisdom. It is direct knowledge – working knowledge that links theory and application.
LXXVII “aroma” = euodia. Related to “make…glad” in v2 & “good news” in v12 & to “fragrance” in v14. 3x in NT. From eu (see note VII above) + ozo (see note LXXV above). This is fragrance, sweet smell, aroma.
LXXVIII “saved” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.
LXXIX “perishing” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.

16 to the one groupLXXX a fragrance from deathLXXXI to death, to the other a fragrance from lifeLXXXII to life. Who is qualifiedLXXXIII for these things? 

Notes on verse 16

LXXX {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
LXXXI “death” = thanatos. From thnesko (to die, be dead). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
LXXXII “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
LXXXIII “qualified” = hikanos. Same as “enough” in v6. See note XXXIV above.

17 For we are not peddlersLXXXIV of God’s wordLXXXV like so many, but as persons of sincerity,LXXXVI as persons sent from God, we are speakingLXXXVII in Christ beforeLXXXVIII God.

Notes on verse 17

LXXXIV “peddlers” = kapeleuo. 1x in NT. From kapelos (huckster, peddler). This is to trade in something, to cheat someone as a merchant, to corrupt.
LXXXV “word” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
LXXXVI “sincerity” = eilikrineia. Related to “made up” in v1. 3x in NT. From eilikrines (unmixed, pure; something that is seen in the sunlight or full light and judged positively; also, full light that brings insight or discernment); {perhaps from heile (ray of the sun) + krino (see note I above)}. This is something seen clearly in the sun’s light. So, it is clearness, purity, or sincerity – referring to inner motives that are pure.
LXXXVII “speaking” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.
LXXXVIII “before” = katenanti. Related to “instead” in v7. 8x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + enanti (see note XXXVI above). This is ahead, opposite, in the presence of, before, over against.

Image credit: “St. Paul the Apostle.” Photo by Ted, 2011.

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