2 Timothy 1:5-10

2 Timothy 1:5-10
Epiphany – A Women’s Lectionary


I am remindedA of your sincereB faith,C

Notes on verse 5a

A “reminded” = hupomnesis + lambano. Literally, “having taken remembrance.” Hupomnesis is 3x in NT. From hupomimnesko (to remind – memory that comes to mind because it has been suggested; to call attention to); {from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + mimnesko (to remind or remember; memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful; not incidentally or accidentally remembering); from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure).}. This is reminder, remembrance, recollection. Lambano does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
B “sincere” = anupokritos. 6x in NT. From a (not, without) + hupokrinomai (to answer, pretend, respond as an actor on stage; figuratively, to lie) {from hupo (by, under, about) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.)} Properly, this is unhypocritical – not phony. It speaks to actions that are sincere and genuine without guile.
C “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.

a faith that livedD firstE in your grandmotherF LoisG and your motherH EuniceI and now, I am sure,J lives in you. 

Notes on verse 5b

D “lived” = enoikeo. 5x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home); {from oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple)}. This is to dwell in, whether remaining in a specific status or condition. It can also mean at home.
E “first” = proton. From protos (what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief); from pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is firstly, before, in the beginning, formerly.
F “grandmother” = mamme. 1x in NT. In earlier Greek, this word was used for mother, but by the time of this letter, it was commonly used to refer to a grandmother.
G “Lois” = Lois. 1x in NT. Perhaps related to Loion (better); {from lan (to hold, see)} OR from Hebrew layish (lion) OR from Hebrew lo + ish (no man). This is Lois. It may mean “best” or “most beautiful” or “lion” or “without husband.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Lois.html
H “mother” = meter. This is mother in a literal or figurative sense.
I “Eunice” = Eunike. 1x in NT. From eu (good, well, well done) + nike (victory, conquest; figurative for what makes one successful). This is Eunice, a name meaning “victorious.” It is related to “Nicodemus” and the brand “Nike.”
J “am sure” = peitho. Related to “faith” in v5. See note C above.

For this reasonK I remindL you to rekindleM

Notes on verse 6a

K “reason” = aitia. From aiteo (to ask, demand, beg, desire). This is a cause or reason. It can also be a legal crime, accusation, guilt, or case.
L “remind” = anamimnesko. Related to “reminded” in v5. 6x in NT. From ana (up, again, among, anew) + mimnesko (see note A above). This is to remind, admonish; to follow the path of memory.
M “rekindle” = anazopureo. 1x in NT. From ana (up, again, among, anew) + zoon (literally a thing that is alive; so, an animal or living creature); {from zao (to live literally or figuratively)} + pur (fire, fiery; figurative for strife or trials). This is to rekindle, fan a fire, or stir it up.

the giftN of GodO that isP within you through the laying onQ of my hands;R

Notes on verse 6b

N “gift” = charisma. 17x in NT. From charizomai (to show favor, kindness, or grace, to pardon, forgive); from charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); from chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, undeserved favor, a free gift, or a spiritual gift. It is the working of grace, some spiritual gift or religious qualification. It could be some kind of miraculous endowment.
O “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
P “is” = eimi. This is to be or exist.
Q “laying on” = epithesis. 4x in NT. From epithemi (to lay on, put, supply, attack; to put on innocently or aggressively); {from epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position)}. This is to impose, attack, or lay on hands. Biblically, it is always used for the blessing of the laying on of hands.
R “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.

for God did not giveS us a spiritT of cowardice,U

Notes on verse 7a

S “give” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
T “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
U “cowardice” = deilia. 1x in NT. From deilos (fearful, timid, faithless, fear of losing); {from deos (fear, reverence) or deido (to fear)}. This is cowardice or reticence.

but rather a spirit of powerV and of loveW and of self-discipline.X

Notes on verse 7b

V “power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
W “love” = agape. From agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is love, goodwill, benevolence. It is God’s divine love or human love that mirrors God’s love.
X “self-discipline” = sophronismos. 1x in NT. From sophronizo (to discipline, encourage, live in balance, be moderated); from sophron (temperate, self-controlled, sound because in balance); {from the same as sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue; taking someone from danger to safety; delivering or protecting literally or figuratively); {from sos (safe, rescued, well)} + phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); {perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb)}}. This is self-control, prudence, one who behaves sensibly according to what a situation warrants. More specifically, it is one who follows God’s will to behave in a sound way.

Do not be ashamed,Y then, of the testimonyZ about our LordAA or of me his prisoner,BB but join with me in sufferingCC for the gospel,DD relying on the power of God, 

Notes on verse 8

Y “be ashamed” = epaischunomai. 11x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aischuno to dishonor, put to shame, shrink, disfigure); {from aischos (shame, disgrace, disfigurement)}. This is to be ashamed or disgraced. It is a personal humiliation or dishonor – a shame that matches an error.
Z “testimony” = marturion. 19x in NT. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is something that counts as evidence whether a witness, testimony, or other proof.
AA “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
BB “prisoner” = desmios. 17x in NT. From desomon (a chain, bond, impediment; being in jail, a ligament); from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is a binding or one who is bound. So, it can be a prisoner or captive.
CC “join with me in suffering” = sugkakopatheo. 2x in NT– both in 2 Timothy. From sun (with, together with) + kakopatheo (to experience hardship or evil – to suffer); {from the same as kakopatheia (suffering, distress, hardship; undergoing evil); {from kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character) + pathos (passion, lust, suffering, something that happens to you, strong feelings); {from pascho (to be acted on for good or ill; often used for negative treatment; properly, feeling strong emotions – especially suffering; can also be the ability to feel suffering)}}. This is to endure suffering or hardship with someone.
DD “gospel” = euaggelion. Related to “Eunice” in v5. From eu (see note I above) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel); {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (to bring, lead, carry, guide)}. This is literally “the good news,” used for the gospel. This is also where “evangelism” comes from.

who savedEE us and calledFF us with a holyGG calling,HH

Notes on verse 9a

EE “saved” = sozo. Related to “self-discipline” in v7. See note X above.
FF “called” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
GG “holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
HH “calling” = klesis. Related to “called” in v9. 11x in NT. From kaleo (see note FF above). This is a calling or invitation. In the Bible, this word always refers to a call from God.

not according to our worksII but according to his ownJJ purposeKK and grace.LL

Notes on verse 9b

II “works” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.
JJ “own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
KK “purpose” = prothesis. Related to “laying on” in v6. 12x in NT. From protithemi (to set before, purpose, plan, determine, put in a public display); {from pro (before, earlier than, ahead, prior) + tithemi (see note Q above)}. This is a setting forth – a proposal, predetermination, purpose. It can also mean something that is sacred or consecrated so it can be used for the showbread or sacred bread.
LL “grace” = charis. Related to “gift” in v6. See note N above.

This grace was given to us in ChristMM JesusNN before the ages began,OO 

Notes on verse 9c

MM “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
NN “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
OO “ages began” = chronos + aionios. Chronos is time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time. Aionios is from aion (an age, length of time). This is age-long, forever, everlasting. Properly, that which lasts for an age. This is where eon comes from.

10 but it has now been revealedPP through the appearingQQ of our SaviorRR Christ Jesus,

Notes on verse 10a

PP “revealed” = phaneroo. From phaneros (visible, apparent, clear, shining); from phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); from phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is to make visible or clear, to make known. Properly, it is to illumine and so to make apparent or bring into open view.
QQ “appearing” = epiphaneia. Related to “revealed” in v10. 6x in NT. From epiphanes (manifest, visible, glorious, memorable); from epiphaino (to shine on, give light to); {from epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + phaino (see note PP above)}. This is manifestation, epiphany, or appearance. It can be used specially for the first or second coming of Christ. It is where the word “epiphany” comes from.
RR “Savior” = Soter. Related to “self-discipline” in v7 & “saved” in v9. From sozo (see note X above). This is savior, deliverer, preserver.

whoSS abolishedTT deathUU

Notes on verse 10b

SS {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
TT “abolished” = katargeo. Related to works” in v9. From kata (down, against, according to, among) + argeo (to delay, linger, be at rest, be idle, do nothing); {from argos (inactive, idle, lazy, thoughtless, useless, unemployed, unprofitable) {from a (not) + ergon (see note II above)}}. This is making something inactive or bringing it to nothing. So, it could mean making something inoperative or powerless, annulling, or severing. It can also mean to make something ineffective or invalid.
UU “death” = thanatos. This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.

and brought lifeVV and immortalityWW to lightXX through the gospel.

Notes on verse 10c

VV “life” = zoe. Related to “rekindle” in v6. From zao (see note M above). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
WW “immortality” = aphtharsia. 8x in NT. From aphthartos (imperishable, undecaying, immortal, incorruptible); {from a (not, without) + phtheiro (to destroy, corrupt, ruin, deteriorate, wither; also used of moral corruption); from phthio (perish, waste away)}. This is incorruptibility – not able to decay. So, it is used for immortality. Figuratively, it can also mean genuineness.
XX “brought…to light” = photizo. Related to “revealed” and “appearing” in v10. 11x in NT. From phos (see note PP above) This is to shine or give light, illumine or reveal. Properly, it is to enlighten in a literal or figurative sense. It can mean to brighten up or to make one see.

Image credit: “Brittnee” by Aftab Uzzaman, 2010.

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