Deuteronomy 23

Deuteronomy 23


1 “No one whose testicles are crushedI or whose penisII is cut offIII

Notes on verse 1a

I “testicles are crushed” = patsa + dakkah. Patsa is 3x in OT. This is to bruise, split, wound. Dakkah is 1x in OT. From dakah (to crush or break; to collapse whether in the body or in the mind; to crouch or be contrite) OR from dakka (crushed, powder, contrite, destruction); {from daka (to crush or break into pieces; to bruise, be contrite or oppressed, to destroy, be humble)}. This is a crushing, wounded, mutilated.
II “penis” = shophkah. 1x in OT. From shaphak (to pour out, gust, or slip; to pour as blood, a drink offering, or molten metal; to create a mound; figuratively, killing or spending money). This is a pipe that pours or gushes, which is to say a penis.
III “cut off” = karat. This is to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant (idiom for making a covenant is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume.

shall comeIV into the assemblyV of the Lord.VI

Notes on verse 1b

IV “come” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
V “assembly” = qahal. This is an assembly, congregation, or multitude.
VI “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.

“Those born of an illicit unionVII shall not come into the assembly of the Lord. EvenVIII to the tenthIX generation,X none of their descendants shall come into the assembly of the Lord.

Notes on verse 2

VII “born of an illicit union” = mamzer. 2x in OT. This may come a word that means to alienate. It refers to a child born outside of marriage or is born of a marriage where the father is Jewish and the mother isn’t.
VIII “even” = gam. This is also, moreover, again.
IX “tenth” = asiri. From the same as eser (ten, -teen); perhaps from asar (to tithe, render a tenth of). This is a tenth.
X “generation” = dor. From dur (to move in a circle, which implies living somewhere or remaining there; it can also be the sense of piling or heaping up). This is a revolution of time, which is to say, an age or generation. It can also be a dwelling or one’s posterity.

“No AmmoniteXI or MoabiteXII shall come into the assembly of the Lord even to the tenth generation. None of their descendants shall come into the assembly of the Lord forever,XIII 

Notes on verse 3

XI “Ammonite” = Ammoni. 17x in OT. From Ammon (Ammon, Ammonite; perhaps meaning “tribal”); {from im (with, against, before, beside); {perhaps from amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together)} OR from am (people or nation; a tribe, troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals); {from amam (see above)}}. This is Ammonite or like the Ammonites.
XII “Moabite” = Moabi. 16x in OT. From Moab (Moab or Moabite; meaning “from her faither” or “seed of a father” or “desirable land”); perhaps from ab (father, ancestor, grandfather; father in a literal or figurative sense). This is Moabite or Moab. See
XIII “forever” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).

becauseXIV they did not meetXV you with foodXVI and waterXVII

Notes on verse 4a

XIV “because” = dabar. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
XV “meet” = qadam. Perhaps from qedem (front, formerly, before, east, eternal, everlasting, antiquity). This is to come in front or be in front and so meet, anticipate, confront, receive, or rise. It sometimes means to meet for help.
XVI “food” = lechem. From lacham (to eat, feed on). This is bread, food, loaf. It can refer to food more generally for people or for animals.
XVII “water” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.

on your journey outXVIII of EgyptXIX and because they hiredXX against you

Notes on verse 4b

XVIII “journey out” = derek + yatsa. Derek is from darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life. Yatsa is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
XIX “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
XX “hired” = sakar. From sakar (to hire, reward, earn). This is wages, payment, service, salary, worth, reward, or benefit.

BalaamXXI sonXXII of Beor,XXIII

Notes on verse 4c

XXI “Balaam” = Bilam. Related to “Ammonite” in v3. Probably from bal (not, none, nothing, a failure); {from balah (to grow old, wear out, waste away, consume, spend)} + am (see note XI above)} OR from bala (to swallow, engulf, cover, destroy) + am (see above). This is Balaam, meaning “not of the people” or “foreigner” or “swallowing up the people” or “destroyer of the people” or “destruction of the people” or “confuser of the people.” See
XXII “son” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
XXIII “Beor” = Beor. 10x in OT. From baar (burn, consume, heat, remove; to consume by a fire or through eating; can also mean being brutish or wasting). This is Beor, meaning “a lamp” or “a torch” or “burning” or “consuming.” See

from PethorXXIV of Mesopotamia,XXV to curseXXVI you. 

Notes on verse 4d

XXIV “Pethor” = Pethor. 2x in OT. Perhaps from pathar (to interpret dreams). This is Pethor, meaning “interpreter” or “interpreter of dreams.” See
XXV “Mesopotamia” = Aram-naharayim. 5x in OT. From Aram (Aram, Syria, Mesopotamia – meaning elevated or citadel); {perhaps from ‘armon (any fortified building – castle, citadel, palace) OR from rum (to be high, rise, exalt self, extol, be haughty; to rise literally or figuratively)} + nahar (stream, river, or flood; particularly the Nile or Euphrates; figuratively, prosperity); from nahar (to flow, sparkle, be cheerful)}. This is “Aram of the Two Rivers,” a name for Mesopotamia referring to the Tigris and Euphrates. See
XXVI “curse” = qalal. This is to be little, insignificant, swift. It can also mean to bring down in esteem, create contempt, curse.

(Yet the Lord your GodXXVII refusedXXVIII to heedXXIX Balaam; the Lord your God turnedXXX the curseXXXI

Notes on verse 5a

XXVII “God” = Elohim. From eloah (God, a god); from el (God, a god). This is most commonly used as a name for God. Technically, it’s in the plural, i.e. gods. It can also mean great, mighty, judge, or ruler.
XXVIII “refused” = lo + abah. Abah is to breathe after, be willing, obey, accept, be content with, satisfy.
XXIX “heed” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
XXX “turned” = haphak. This is to turn, overturn, change, return, turn over, pervert.
XXXI “curse” = qelalah. Related to “curse” in v4. From qalal (see note XXVI above). This is cursing or vilification.

into a blessingXXXII for you, because the Lord your God lovedXXXIII you.) You shall never promoteXXXIV

Notes on verses 5b-6a

XXXII “blessing” = barakah. From barak (to kneel, bless; blessing God as part of worship and adoration; blessing humans to help them; can be used as a euphemism to say curse God). This is blessing, which implies prosperity or peace.
XXXIII “loved” = aheb. This is to love, beloved, friend. It is to have affection for sexually or otherwise.
XXXIV “promote” = darash. This is seek, ask, inquire, care for. Generally it means following in pursuit or following as part of a search, which implies seeking or asking. Also used specially to mean worship.

their welfareXXXV or their prosperityXXXVI as long as you live.XXXVII

Notes on verse 6b

XXXV “welfare” = shalom. From shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is completeness, soundness, welfare, favor, friend, good health. It is to be safe and figuratively well, happy, at peace, friendly. Abstractly, it includes the ideas of welfare and prosperity (not in excessive wealth, but in having enough).
XXXVI “prosperity” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
XXXVII “as long as you live” = kol + yom + olam. Kol is from kalal (to complete). This is all or every. Yom has a root that may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time. Olam is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).

“You shall not abhorXXXVIII any of the Edomites,XXXIX for they are your kin.XL You shall not abhor any of the Egyptians,XLI because you wereXLII an alienXLIII residing in their land.XLIV 

Notes on verse 7

XXXVIII “abhor” = taab. From toebah (abomination, loathsome, something morally disgusting or abhorrent). This is to abhor, despise, to reject, to act abominably.
XXXIX “Edomites” = Adomi. 11x in OT. From Edom (Edom or Idumaea); from adom (to be red or flushed). This is Edomite, meaning “red.”
XL “kin” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
XLI “Egyptians” = Mitsri. Related to “Egypt” in v4. From the same as mitsrayim (see note XIX above). This is Egyptian.
XLII “were” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1. See note VI above.
XLIII “alien” = ger. From gur (to abide or sojourn; to leave the road to lodge or for any other reason). This is sojourner, guest, stranger, foreigner.
XLIV “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

The childrenXLV of the thirdXLVI generation that are bornXLVII to them may come into the assembly of the Lord.

“When you are encampedXLVIII against your enemies,XLIX

Notes on verses 8-9a

XLV “children” = ben. Same as “son” in v4. See note XXII above.
XLVI “third” = shelishi. From shalosh (three, fork, triad). This is third or one-third of something.
XLVII “born” = yalad. This is to bear or bring forth. It can mean to act as midwife or to show one’s lineage. This is often used for birth or begetting.
XLVIII “encamped” = yatsa + machaneh. Yatsa is the same as “journey out” in v4. See note XVIII above. Machaneh is from chanah (to decline, bending down, or living in tents; can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle). This is an encampment, whether of people traveling together or soldiers. So, it can be a camp band, or company as well as an army of soldiers. Also can be used of other groups like animals, angels or stars.
XLIX “enemies” = oyeb. From ayab (to hate or be hostile to). This is a foe or enemy as one that you are hostile to.

you shall guardL against everyLI evilLII thing.LIII

Notes on verse 9b

L “guard” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.
LI “every” = kol. Same as “as long as you live” in v6. See note XXXVII above.
LII “evil” = ra’. From ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.
LIII “thing” = dabar. Same as “because” in v4. See note XIV above.

10 “IfLIV oneLV of you becomesLVI uncleanLVII

Notes on verse 10a

LIV {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “were” in v7. See note XLII above.
LV “one” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
LVI “becomes” = hayah. Same as “were” in v7. See note XLII above.
LVII “unclean” = lotahor. Tahor is from taher (bright, which implies being pure or clean; to purge, cleanse, or purify; clean in a ritual sense or a moral one (i.e. moral or holy)). This is clean or pure in a literal, ritual, or ethical sense.

because of a nocturnalLVIII emission,LIX then he shall goLX outsideLXI the camp;LXII he must not come withinLXIII the camp. 

Notes on verse 10b

LVIII “nocturnal” = layil. Properly, this refers to light twisting away. It is used for night or midnight. Figuratively, this can mean adversity.
LIX “emission” = qareh. 1x in OT. From qarah (happen). This is a chance, accident, or emission.
LX “go” = yatsa. Same as “journey out” in v4. See note XVIII above.
LXI “outside” = chuts. Root may mean to sever. So, this is something that is separated by a wall – the outside, the street, a field, highway, or abroad.
LXII “camp” = machaneh. Same as “encamped” in v9. See note XLVIII above.
LXIII “within” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.

11 WhenLXIV eveningLXV comes,LXVI he shall washLXVII himself with water, and when the sunLXVIII has set,LXIX

Notes on verse 11a

LXIV {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “were” in v7. See note XLII above.
LXV “evening” = ereb. This is evening, night, or dusk.
LXVI “comes” = panah. This is to turn, regard, appear, look, prepare.
LXVII “wash” = rachats. This is to wash, wash away – it can be complete or partial.
LXVIII “sun” = shemesh. This is sun or toward the east. Its root may mean being brilliant. Figuratively, this could be a ray or an arch.
LXIX “set” = bo. Same as “come” in v1. See note IV above.

he may comeLXX back intoLXXI the camp.

12 “You shall haveLXXII a designated areaLXXIII outside the camp to which you shall go.LXXIV 

Notes on verses 11b-12

LXX “come” = bo. Same as “come” in v1. See note IV above.
LXXI “into” = tavek. Same as “within” in v10. See note LXIII above.
LXXII “have” = hayah. Same as “were” in v7. See note XLII above.
LXXIII “area” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
LXXIV {untranslated} = chuts. Same as “outside” in v10. See note LXI above.

13 With your toolsLXXV you shall have a trowel;LXXVI whenLXXVII you relieveLXXVIII yourself outside,

Notes on verse 13a

LXXV “tools” = azen. 1x in OT. From the same as ozen (ear, hearing, audience, show; properly, broadness – applied to its ear in reference to its shape); perhaps from azan (properly, to expand or broaden one’s ear i.e. listen intently, pay attention, heed). This is implement, tool, weapon.
LXXVI “trowel” = yathed. This may come from a word that means to pin securely. This is a peg, a tent peg, a pin.
LXXVII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “were” in v7. See note XLII above.
LXXVIII “relieve” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.

you shall dig a holeLXXIX with it andLXXX then cover upLXXXI your excrement.LXXXII 

Notes on verse 13b

LXXIX “dig a hole” = chaphar. This is properly to pry into. It can also mean to dig search for, sink, or explore.
LXXX {untranslated} = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
LXXXI “cover up” = kasah. This is to cover, conceal, overwhelm. It is to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret.
LXXXII “excrement” = tseah. Related to “journey out” in v4. 2x in OT. Perhaps from yatsa (see note XVIII above). This is filth, issue, or poop.

14 Because the Lord your God travelsLXXXIII along withLXXXIV your camp, to saveLXXXV you

Notes on verse 14a

LXXXIII “travels” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
LXXXIV “with” = qereb. Perhaps from qarab (to come near or approach). This is among, in the midst, before, the center It is the inward part, whether literal or figurative. It can also be used for the heart, the site of thoughts and feelings. This word is also used as a technical term for the entrails of the animals who are sacrificed.
LXXXV “save” = natsal. This is to snatch someone or something away in a good sense – as rescue, defend, or deliver – or in a bad sense – as strip or plunder.

and to hand overLXXXVI your enemies toLXXXVII you, therefore your camp must be holy,LXXXVIII

Notes on verse 14b

LXXXVI “hand over” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
LXXXVII “to” = paneh. Related to “comes” in v11. From panah (see note LXVI above). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
LXXXVIII “holy” = qadosh. From qodesh (set apart and so sacred; God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart; things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy); related to qadash (set apart, consecrated, hallowed, sanctified; something or someone set apart for a holy purpose or use – ceremonially or morally clean). This is sacred or holy in a ritual or moral sense. As a noun, it refers to a holy one (like a saint or angel), a holy place (the sanctuary), or God (the Holy One).

so that he may not seeLXXXIX anythingXC indecentXCI among you and turn awayXCII fromXCIII you.

Notes on verse 14c

LXXXIX “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
XC “anything” = dabar. Same as “because” in v4. See note XIV above.
XCI “indecent” = ervah. From arah (to be bare, empty, raze, uncover, discover, demolish). This is nakedness, nudity – particularly as a reference to genitals, shame, or blemish.
XCII “turn away” = shub. Same as {untranslated} in v13. See note LXXX above.
XCIII “from” = achar. From achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.

15 “You shall not returnXCIV to their ownersXCV slavesXCVI who have escapedXCVII to you from their owners. 

Notes on verse 15

XCIV “return” = sagar. This is to shut up, imprison, lock, hand over, or figuratively surrender.
XCV “owners” = adon. From a root that means ruling or being sovereign. This is lord, master, or owner.
XCVI “slaves” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
XCVII “escaped” = natsal. Same as “save” in v14. See note LXXXV above.

16 They shall resideXCVIII with you, in your midst,XCIX in any placeC they chooseCI

Notes on verse 16a

XCVIII “reside” = yashab. Same as “relieve” in v13. See note LXXVIII above.
XCIX “midst” = qereb. Same as “with” in v14. See note LXXXIV above.
C “place” = maqom. From qum (to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.
CI “choose” = bachar. This is to choose, appoint, try, excellent.

in any oneCII of your towns,CIII wherever they please;CIV you shall not oppressCV them.

Notes on verse 16b

CII “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
CIII “towns” = shaar. May be related to sha’ar (to calculate or reckon; may come from a root that means to open up or split). This is a gate, door, or other opening like a port.
CIV “please” = tob. Same as “prosperity” in v6. See note XXXVI above.
CV “oppress” = yanah. 19x in OT. This is to do wrong, oppress, destroy, mistreat, or suppress. It can imply violence or anger.

17 “None of the daughtersCVI of IsraelCVII shall serveCVIII in an illicit shrine;CIX none of the sons of Israel shall serve in an illicit shrine.CX 

Notes on verse 17

CVI “daughters” = bat. Related to “son” in v4. From ben (see note XXII above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
CVII “Israel” = Yisrael. Related to “God” in v5. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (see note XXVII above). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
CVIII “serve” = hayah. Same as “were” in v7. See note XLII above.
CIX “illicit shrine” = qedeshah. Related to “holy” in v14. 5x in OT. From qadesh (unclean, cult prostitute, idolatry); from the same as qodesh (see note LXXXVIII above). This is a female devotee, temple prostitute, or whore.
CX “illicit shrine” = qadesh. Related to “holy” in v14 & “illicit shrine” in v17. 6x in OT. See note CIX above.

18 You shall not bringCXI the feeCXII of a prostituteCXIII or the wagesCXIV of a dogCXV

Notes on verse 18a

CXI “bring” = bo. Same as “come” in v1. See note IV above.
CXII “fee” = ethnan. 11x in OT. Perhaps from ethnah (wages, reward, present); from tanah (to hire; bargain with a prostitute). This is earnings, money, payment, reward.
CXIII “prostitute” = zanah. This is to fornicate, commit adultery, be a prostitute. Figuratively, it can mean committing idolatry.
CXIV “wages” = mechir. Related to “from” in v14. 15x in OT. From the same as machar (tomorrow or later; deferred time; indefinitely or the time to come); perhaps from achar (see note XCIII above) OR the root may mean to buy. This is price, payment, wage, sale, cost, or worth.
CXV “dog” = keleb. This is yelping or attacking. It can also refer to a dog or it can be a term used for a male prostitute.

into the houseCXVI of the Lord your God in payment for anyCXVII vow,CXVIII forCXIX bothCXX of these are abhorrentCXXI to the Lord your God.

Notes on verse 18b

CXVI “house” = bayit. Related to “son” in v4 & “daughters” in v17. Probably from banah (see note XXII above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
CXVII “any” = kol. Same as “as long as you live” in v6. See note XXXVII above.
CXVIII “vow” = neder. From nadar (to vow or promise). This is a vow – literally, that which was promised.
CXIX {untranslated} = gam. Same as “even” in v2. See note VIII above.
CXX “both” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
CXXI “abhorrent” = toebah. Related to “abhor” in v7. Perhaps from taab (see note XXXVIII above). This is something that instills one with moral contempt or disgust. It can mean abhorrence and is often in reference to idolatry or idols.

19 “You shall not charge interestCXXII on loans to another Israelite,CXXIII interestCXXIV on money,CXXV interest on provisions,CXXVI

Notes on verse 19a

CXXII “charge interest” = nashak. 16x in OT. This is bite or sting as from a snake. Figuratively, it is lending with interest.
CXXIII “another Israelite” = ach. Same as “kin” in v7. See note XL above.
CXXIV “interest” = neshek. Related to “charge interest” in v19. 12x in OT. From nashak (see note CXXII above). This is interest or usury.
CXXV “money” = keseph. From kasaph (to long for, be greedy; to become pale). This is silver or money.
CXXVI “provisions” = okel. From akal (to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume; eating in a literal or figurative sense). This is food, supply of provisions, the act of eating, or the time when one eats.

interest on anythingCXXVII that is lent.CXXVIII 20 On loans to a foreignerCXXIX you may charge interest, but on loans to another Israelite you may not charge interest, so that the Lord your God may blessCXXX you

Notes on verses 19b-20a

CXXVII “anything” = kol + dabar. Kol is the same as “as long as you live” in v6. See note XXXVII above. Dabar is the same as “because” in v4. See note XIV above.
CXXVIII “lent” = nashak. Same as “charge interest” in v19. See note CXXII above.
CXXIX “foreigner” = nokri. From neker (strange; to act foreign or strange; to disguise; can also be misfortune or unexpected calamity); from nakar (to recognize, examine, take notice, show, scrutinize). This is foreign, alien, stranger, extraordinary, adulteress. It is strange in many different senses – foreign, not being one’s relative, different, wonderful, relating to adultery.
CXXX “bless” = barak. Related to “blessing” in v5. See note XXXII above.

in allCXXXI your undertakingsCXXXII in the land that you are about to enterCXXXIII and possess.CXXXIV

Notes on verse 20b

CXXXI “all” = kol. Same as “as long as you live” in v6. See note XXXVII above.
CXXXII “undertakings” = mishloach + yad. Mishloach is 10x in OT. From shalach (to send, send for, forsake, give a slave freedom). This is a sending out, an undertaking, a putting forth. Yad is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
CXXXIII “enter” = bo. Same as “come” in v1. See note IV above.
CXXXIV “possess” = yarash. This is inheriting or dispossessing. It refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them. By implication, it can mean to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish.

21 “If you makeCXXXV a vow to the Lord your God, do not postponeCXXXVI fulfillingCXXXVII it, for the Lord your God will surely requireCXXXVIII it of you,

Notes on verse 21a

CXXXV “make” = nadar. Related to “vow” in v18. See note CXVIII above.
CXXXVI “postpone” = achar. Related to “from” in v14 & “wages” in v18. 17x in OT. See note XCIII above.
CXXXVII “fulfilling” = shalam. Related to “welfare” in v6. See note XXXV above.
CXXXVIII “surely require” = darash + darash. Same as “promote” in v6. See note XXXIV above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”

and you would incurCXXXIX guilt.CXL 22 But if you refrainCXLI from vowing,CXLII you will not incur guilt. 23 Whatever your lipsCXLIII utterCXLIV

Notes on verses 21b-23a

CXXXIX “incur” = hayah. Same as “were” in v7. See note XLII above.
CXL “guilt” = chet. From chata (to miss, sin, bear blame, to forfeit, lack). This is sin, fault, or punishment of sin.
CXLI “refrain” = chadal. This is properly to be flabby – it implies, to stop, fall, end, rest, leave alone, forsake, or desist. Figuratively this can be lacking or idle.
CXLII “vowing” = nadar. Same as “make” in v21. See note CXXXV above.
CXLIII “lips” = saphah. This is lip, edge, border, bank – used for a boundary. It can also be speech or language.
CXLIV “utter” = motsa. Related to “journey out” in v4 & “excrement” in v13. From yatsa (see note XVIII above). This is going forth as an act or the site from which something goes forth. It could mean exiting a place or the place where one exits. It can also be a source or a produce. Specifically, it can be a spring or fountain, the dawn as the rising of the sin, an export, gate mine, and so on.

you must diligently perform,CXLV just as you have freelyCXLVI vowed to the Lord your God withCXLVII your own mouth.CXLVIII

Notes on verse 23b

CXLV “diligently perform” = shamar + asah. Shamar is the same as “guard” in v9. See note L above. Asah is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
CXLVI “freely” = nedabah. From nadab (to offer willingly, volunteer, freely give, be willing). This is a freewill offering, something giving spontaneously.
CXLVII {untranslated} = dabar. Related to “because” in v4. See note XIV above.
CXLVIII “mouth” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.

24 “If you goCXLIX into your neighbor’sCL vineyard,CLI

Notes on verse 24a

CXLIX “go” = bo. Same as “come” in v1. See note IV above.
CL “neighbor’s” = rea. From raah (to associate with). This is the same as neighbor in Leviticus 19:18 “love your neighbor as yourself.” This is friend, companion, fellow, neighbor. It is someone with whom you associate, whether more or less close.
CLI “vineyard” = kerem. This is a vineyard, garden, vines, or a vintage.

you may eatCLII your fillCLIII of grapes,CLIV

Notes on verse 24b

CLII “eat” = akal. Related to “provisions” in v19. See note CXXVI above.
CLIII “fill” = soba. 8x in OT. From saba (to be satisfied or full in a literal or figurative sense; to have plenty of). This is abundance, fullness, satisfaction. Properly, it is being sated – having enough food. Figuratively, it is fullness of joy.
CLIV “grapes” = enab. 19x in OT. Root may mean to bear fruit. This is a grape, raisin, or wine. It can be used for the literal crop or as a metaphor for God’s relationship with Israel.

as many as you wish,CLV but you shall not putCLVI any in a container.CLVII

Notes on verse 24c

CLV “wish” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
CLVI “put” = natan. Same as “hand over” in v14. See note LXXXVI above.
CLVII “container” = keli. From kalah (to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed). This is something that was prepared – any implement, utensil, article, vessel, weapon, or instrument. Also includes jewels, weapons, bags, carriages, and furniture.

25 “If you goCLVIII into your neighbor’s standing grain,CLIX you may pluckCLX the earsCLXI

Notes on verse 25a

CLVIII “go” = bo. Same as “come” in v1. See note IV above.
CLIX “standing grain” = qamah. Related to “place” in v16. 10x in OT. From qum (see note C above). This is something that arises, a stalk. It is used for grains.
CLX “pluck” = qataph. 5x in OT. This is to pluck, break off, strip, cut down.
CLXI “ears” = melilah. 1x in OT. From malal (to rub, scrape) OR from Aramaic melal (to speak, say, utter); {corresponding to Hebrew malal (to say, speak; often used in a poetic sense)}. This is a head or ear – as parts of grain.

with your hand,CLXII but you shall not putCLXIII a sickleCLXIV to your neighbor’s standing grain.

Notes on verse 25b

CLXII “hand” = yad. Same as “area” in v12. See note LXXIII above.
CLXIII “put” = nuph. This is to rock back and forth, wave, sprinkle, quiver, beckon, offer, present.
CLXIV “sickle” = chermesh. 2x in OT– both in Deuteronomy. From charam (slit, disfigure) OR from charam (to ban, destroy, devote, seclude; to dedicate to a religious purpose, often for destruction). This is a sickle.

Image credit: “Many Species. One Planet. One Future” by Nishanth Jois, 2010.

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