1 Peter 2:4-10

1 Peter 2:4-10
A Women’s Lectionary 31


ComeA to him, a livingB stone,C though rejectedD

Notes on verse 4a

A “come” = proserchomai. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
B “living” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
C “stone” = lithos. This is stone in a literal or figurative sense.
D “rejected” = apodokimazo. 9x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + dokimazo (to test, examine, prove; to approve after subjecting to a test to determine if it is real or acceptable; to test in a literal or figurative sense); {from dokimos (what passes the test, approved, acceptable, genuine, verified); from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense) or dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); {from dokos (opinion)}}. This is rejected or disqualified following a test. It is rejected after rigorous investigation and so seen as useless or unworthy.

by mortalsE, F yet chosenG and preciousH in God’sI sight, and 

Notes on verse 4b

E “mortals” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
F {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
G “chosen” = eklektos. From eklego (to choose, select, elect); {from ek (from, from out of) + lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is to select or choose. It is making a personal choice – a favorite.
H “precious” = entimos. 5x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; also esteem or dignity; also precious or valuables); {from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is held in honor so valued, precious, distinguished, or dear.
I “God’s” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

like living stones let yourselves be builtJ into a spiritualK house,L to be a holyM priesthood,N

Notes on verse 5a

J “built” = oikodomeo. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + domeo (to build). This is to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden.
K “spiritual” = pneumatikos. From pneuma (wind, breath, or ghost; a breeze or blast of air, a breath; figuratively, a spirit, the human soul or the part of us that is rational; also angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit); from pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is spiritual, spiritual people, or spiritual things – that which is ethereal or divine or religious.
L “house” = oikos. Related to “built” in v5. See note J above.
M “holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
N “priesthood” = hierateuma. 2x in NT. From hierateuo (to be a priest); {from hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is priesthood.

to offerO spiritual sacrificesP acceptableQ to God through JesusR Christ.S 

Notes on verse 5b

O “offer” = anaphero. 10x in NT. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to carry or lead up as to a goal or particular destination. It can also be used for offering a sacrifice.
P “sacrifices” = thusia. From thuo (to breathe violently, seethe, rage; properly, to rush as breathing heavy; so smoke as in offering an animal sacrifice by fire; by extension, killing or slaying in general). This is a sacrifice or offering. It can refer to the act of sacrifice or the thig being sacrificed. Also, this is sacrifice in a literal or figurative sense.
Q “acceptable” = euprosdektos. Related to “rejected” in v4. 5x in NT. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + prosdechomai (to welcome, await, accept; to receive personally; to expect with confidence or patience); {from pros (at, to, toward, with) + dechomai (see note D above)}. This is welcome, pleasing, approved, or favorable.
R “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
S “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

For it standsT in scripture:U

“See,V I am layingW in ZionX a stone,

Notes on verse 6a

T “stands” = periecho. 2x in NT. From peri (all-around, encompassing, excess) + echo (to have, hold, possess). This is to surround, encompass, contain, or seize.
U “scripture” = graphe. From grapho (to write). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.
V “see” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
W “laying” = tithemi. This is to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense. Properly, it is placing something in a passive or horizontal position.
X “Zion” = Sion. 7x in NT. From Hebrew tsiyyon (Zion – a mountain in Jerusalem as well as another name for Jerusalem itself or the people); related to tsyiyyun (signpost, monument); from tsavah (to charge someone, to command, order); from the same as tsiyyah (dryness drought); from a root meaning parched as desert, dry land. This is Zion – the mountain in Jerusalem, the city, or its people. Also used figuratively to refer to the church.

    a cornerstoneY chosen and precious,
and whoever believesZ in him will not be put to shame.”AA

Notes on verse 6b

Y “cornerstone” = akrogoniaios. 2x in NT. From akron (end, tip, uttermost); {from ake (point, edge)} + gonia (angle, corner; figuratively, a secret place); {from gonu (knee, foot)}. This is corner or cornerstone.
Z “believes” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
AA “put to shame” = kataischuno. 13x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, among) + aischunomai (to dishonor, put to shame, shrink, disfigure); {from aischos (shame, disgrace, disfigurement)}. This is literally to shame down, which is to say disgrace or implying make someone blush. It can be frustrate, dishonor, confound or shame.

This honor,BB then, is for you who believe, but for those who do not believe,CC

“The stone that the buildersDD rejected
    has becomeEE the very headFF of the corner,”GG

Notes on verse 7

BB “honor” = time. Related to “precious” in v4. See note H above.
CC “not believe” = apisteo. Related to “believes” in v6. 8x in NT. From apistos (unbelieving, incredulous, faithless; someone who rejects faith); {from a (not, without) + pistos (faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true; a fullness of faith); {from peitho (see note Z above)}}. This is to intentionally disbelieve, prove false. It can be one who has never believed or a believer who goes astray.
DD “builders” = oikodomeo. Same as “built” in v5. See note J above.
EE “become” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
FF “head” = kephale. This is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from.
GG “corner” = gonia. Related to “cornerstone” in v6. 9x in NT. See note Y above.


“A stone that makes them stumbleHH
    and a rockII that makes them fall.”JJ

Notes on verse 8a

HH “stumble” = proskomma. 6x in NT. From proskopto (to kick against, stumble, strike, beat on, surge against like water does, or take offense; to trip up in a literal or figurative sense); {from pros (at, towards, for) + kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn)}. This is stumbling, obstacle, or something that causes one to stumble. It can also figuratively be a moral embarrassment or something that leads one to fall from faithfulness.
II “rock” = petra. 15x in NT. This is large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff. It can also be cave or stony ground.
JJ “fall” = skandalon. 15x in NT. Perhaps from kampto (to bend or bow). This is a stumbling block, offense, hindrance, or scandal. Properly, this is the part of the trap that triggers it shut on the victim. So, as a snare, it is anything that causes error or offense, something that makes one stumble or traps someone. This is where the word “scandal” comes from.

They stumbleKK because they disobeyLL the word,MM as they were destined to do.NN

Notes on verse 8b

KK “stumble” = proskopto. Related to “stumble” in v8. 8x in NT. See note HH above.
LL “disobey” = apeitheo. Related to “believes” in v6 & “not believe” in v7. 14x in NT. From apeithes (unbelieving, disobedient, spiritually rebellious); {from a (not, without) + peitho (see note Z above)}. This is to disobey or rebel. It refers to those who refuse to be convinced of something – willful disbelief.
MM “word” = logos. Related to “chosen” in v4. From lego (see note G above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
NN “destined to do” = tithemi. Same as “laying” in v6. See note W above.

But you are a chosen people,OO a royalPP priesthood, a holy nation,QQ God’s ownRR people,SS 

Notes on verse 9a

OO “people” = genos. Related to “become” in v7. From ginomai (see note EE above). This is family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense.
PP “royal” = basileios. 2x in NT. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is royal, palace, kingly, regal.
QQ “nation” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
RR “own” = peripoiesis. 5x in NT. From peripoieo (to acquire, earn, preserve, make one’s own); {from peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + poieo (to make, do, construct, cause)}. This is acquisition, possession, preservation.
SS “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.

in order that you may proclaimTT the excellenceUU of him who calledVV you

Notes on verse 9b

TT “proclaim” = exaggello. 2x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (angel, messenger – supernatural or human envoy of God); probably from ago (lead, bring, drive, carry, guide, go)}. This is to proclaim fully and publicly, to publish or celebrate.
UU “excellence” = arete. 5x in NT. Perhaps from the same as arrhen (male, man); from arsen (male, man) or from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is moral goodness, excellence, praise. Properly, it means manliness and so is meant to express valor, virtue, or uprightness.
VV “called” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.

out of darknessWW into his marvelousXX light.YY

10 Once you were not a people,
    but now you are God’s people;
once you had not received mercy,ZZ
    but now you have received mercy.

Notes on verses 9c-10

WW “darkness” = skotos. Perhaps from the base of skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it. This can also mean obscurity.
XX “marvelous” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
YY “light” = phos. From phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is light, a source of light, fire, or radiance. This is light with specific reference to what it reveals. It is luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative.
ZZ “received mercy” = eleeo. From eleos (mercy, pity, tender mercy, or compassion; generally understood in action by word or deed). This is to have pity on, show mercy to, be compassionate; often used for God’s grace. When we sing or say “kyrie eleison” (Lord, have mercy), it is from this root verb.

Image credit: “Roman Amphitheater” by Sara Fuoco, 2010.

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