John 4

John 4


Now when JesusI learnedII that the PhariseesIII had heard,IV

Notes on verse 1a

I “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
II “learned” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
III “Pharisees” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
IV “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.

“Jesus is makingV and baptizingVI moreVII disciplesVIII than John”IX (although it was not Jesus himself but his disciples who baptized), 

Notes on verses 1b-2

V “making” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
VI “baptizing” = baptizo. From bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is to submerge, wash, or immerse. Used specially for baptism.
VII “more” = pleion. From polus (much, many, abundant). This is many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent.
VIII “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
IX “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v1. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note I above) + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”

he leftX JudeaXI and startedXII back to Galilee.XIII 

Notes on verse 3

X “left” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
XI “Judea” = Ioudaia. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judea, which was a Roman province.
XII “started” = aperchomai. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (to come or go). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
XIII “Galilee” = Galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.

But he had toXIV goXV through Samaria.XVI 

Notes on verse 4

XIV “had to” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
XV “go” = dierchomai. Related to “started” in v3. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (see note XII above). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.
XVI “Samaria” = Samareia. 11x in NT. From Hebrew Shomron (capital of the northern kingdom of Israel); from shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is Samaria, meaning watch station.

So he cameXVII to a SamaritanXVIII cityXIX calledXX Sychar,XXI

Notes on verse 5a

XVII “came” = erchomai. Related to “started” in v3 & “go” in v4. See note XII above.
XVIII “Samaritan” = Samareia. Same as “Samaria” in v4. See note XVI above.
XIX “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
XX “called” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XXI “Sychar” = Suchar. 1x in NT. From Hebrew shekar (strong wine, strong drink); from shakar (to become drunk or tipsy, be merry, satiate with alcoholic beverage; figuratively, to influence). This is Sychar, perhaps meaning drunkard.

nearXXII the plot of groundXXIII that JacobXXIV had givenXXV to his sonXXVI Joseph.XXVII 

Notes on verse 5b

XXII “near” = plesion. 17x in NT. From pelas (near). This is near, nearby, or neighboring. As one nearby, it can also refer to a neighbor, a member of one’s country, a Christian, or a friend.
XXIII “plot of ground” = chorion. 10x in NT. From chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is place, estate, possession, piece of ground, property.
XXIV “Jacob” = Iakob. From Hebrew Yaaqob (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
XXV “given” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
XXVI “son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
XXVII “Joseph” = Ioseph. From Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases.”

Jacob’s wellXXVIII wasXXIX there, and Jesus, tired outXXX

Notes on verse 6a

XXVIII “well” = pege. 11x in NT. This is a fount in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could be a spring of water, a fountain, or a well. It is also used for a flow of blood. It can mean more generally the source of something: water, blood, fun.
XXIX “was” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
XXX “tired out” = kopiao. From kopos (labor that leads to exhaustion, depletion, weariness, fatigue; working until worn out); from kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is working with effort, whether of the body or mind, growing weary, feeling tired, working hard.

by his journey,XXXI was sittingXXXII by the well. It was about noon.XXXIII

Notes on verse 6b

XXXI “journey” = hodoiporia. 2x in NT. From hodoiporos (traveler); {from hodos (way, road, journey) + poreuomai (to travel, transport, journey, die; emphasizes the personal significance in reaching the destination); from poros (passageway, ford)}. This is journeying or travel.
XXXII “sitting” = kathezomai. 7x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base).  This is to sit down or be sitting.
XXXIII “noon” = horahektos. Literally” sixth hour.” Hora is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from. Hektos is 14x in NT. From hex (six). This is sixth.

A Samaritan womanXXXIV came to drawXXXV water,XXXVI and Jesus saidXXXVII to her, “Give me a drink.”XXXVIII 

Notes on verse 7

XXXIV “woman” = gune. Perhaps from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
XXXV “draw” = antleo. 4x in NT– all in the wedding at Cana (John 2) & the Samaritan woman at the well (John 4). From antlos (ship’s hold; waste water in a ship’s hold). This is to bail out, draw water from a well with a bucket or pitcher.
XXXVI “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.
XXXVII “said” = lego. Same as “called” in v5. See note XX above.
XXXVIII “drink” = pino. This is to drink, literally or figuratively.

(His disciples had goneXXXIX to the city to buyXL food.)XLI 

Notes on verse 8

XXXIX “gone” = aperchomai. Same as “started” in v3. See note XII above.
XL “buy” = agorazo. From agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare); from ageiro (to gather). This is to go and buy something at market with a focus on goods being transferred. It can also mean to purchase or redeem.
XLI “food” = trophe. 16x in NT. Perhaps from trepho (to bring up, rear, nourish, fatten, nurse; properly, to enlarge through proper nourishment). This is nourishment in a literal or figurative sense. By implication, it can be ration or wages.

The SamaritanXLII woman said to him, “How is it that you, a Jew,XLIII askXLIV a drink of me, a woman of Samaria?” (Jews do not share things in commonXLV with Samaritans.)XLVI 

Notes on verse 9

XLII “Samaritan” = Samaritis. Related to “Samaria” in v4. 2x in NT. From Samarites (Samaritan); from Samareia (see note XVI above). This is Samaritan or a Samaritan woman.
XLIII “Jew” = Ioudaios. Related to “Judea” in v3. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (see note XI above). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
XLIV “ask” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.
XLV “share things in common” = sugchraomai. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with; closely identified) + chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request). This is dealing with or using something jointly. Figuratively, it can refer to associating with someone or something.
XLVI “Samaritans” = Samarites. Related to “Samaria” in v4 & “Samaritan” in v9. 9x in NT. See note XLII above.

10 Jesus answered her, “If you knewXLVII the giftXLVIII of GodXLIX and who it is that is saying to you, ‘Give me a drink,’ you would have asked him, and he would have given you livingL water.” 

Notes on verse 10

XLVII “knew” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
XLVIII “gift” = dorea. Related to “given” in v5. 11x in NT. From doron (gift, offering, sacrifice; emphasizes that the gift is given freely, voluntarily); from didomi (see note XXV above). This is a free gift given voluntarily and not received by merit or entitlement. It emphasizes the benevolence of the giver.
XLIX “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
L “living” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

11 The woman said to him, “Sir,LI you haveLII no bucket,LIII and the wellLIV is deep.LV Where do you getLVI that living water? 

Notes on verse 11

LI “sir” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
LII “have” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.
LIII “bucket” = antlema. Related to “draw” in v7. 1x in NT. From antleo (see note XXXV above). This is a vessel one uses to draw water – a bucket.
LIV “well” = phrear. 7x in NT. This is a well, pit, or cistern. Figuratively it is used to refer to the pit in Revelation 9.
LV “deep” = bathus. 4x in NT. Perhaps rom the same root as basis (step, foot); from baino (to walk, go). This is deep or profound in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean very early.
LVI “get” = echo. Same as “have” in v11. See note LII above.

12 Are you greaterLVII than our ancestorLVIII Jacob, who gave us the wellLIX and with his sons and his flocksLX drank from it?” 

Notes on verse 12

LVII “greater” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
LVIII “ancestor” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
LIX “well” = phrear. Same as “well” in v11. See note LIV above.
LX “flocks” = thremma. Related to “food” in v8. 1x in NT. From trepho (see note XLI above). This is literally a nursling, but used for cattle or flocks.

13 Jesus said to her, “EveryoneLXI who drinks of this water will be thirstyLXII again, 14 but those who drink of the water that I will give them will neverLXIII be thirsty.

Notes on verses 13-14a

LXI “everyone” = pas. This is all or every.
LXII “be thirsty” = dipsao. 16x in NT. From dipsa (thirst); from dipsos (thirst). This is thirst in a literal or figurative sense. Can also mean keenly desire.
LXIII “never” = ou + meeis + ho + aion. Literally, “not…to the age.” Aion is from the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.

The water that I will give will becomeLXIV in them a springLXV of water gushing upLXVI to eternalLXVII life.”LXVIII 

Notes on verse 14b

LXIV “become” = ginomai. Related to “woman” in v7. See note XXXIV above.
LXV “spring” = pege. Same as “well” in v6. See note XXVIII above.
LXVI “gushing up” = hallomai. 3x in NT. This is to leap or bubble up.
LXVII “eternal” = aionios. Related to “never” in v14. From aion (see note LXIII above). This is age-long, forever, everlasting. Properly, that which lasts for an age. This is where eon comes from.
LXVIII “life” = zoe. Related to “living” in v10. From zao (see note L above). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

15 The woman said to him, “Sir, give me this water, so that I may never be thirsty or have to keep comingLXIX here to draw water.”

16 Jesus said to her, “Go,LXX callLXXI your husband,LXXII and comeLXXIII back.” 

Notes on verses 15-16

LXIX “coming” = dierchomai. Same as “go” in v4. See note XV above.
LXX “go” = hupago. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (lead, bring, guide, spend, drive, carry). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
LXXI “call” = phoneo. From phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.
LXXII “husband” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
LXXIII “come” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note XVII above.

17 The woman answered him, “I have no husband.”

Jesus said to her, “You are rightLXXIV in saying, ‘I have no husband,’ 18 for you have had fiveLXXV husbands, and the one you have now is not your husband. What you have saidLXXVI is true!”LXXVII 

Notes on verses 17-18

LXXIV “right” = kalos. From kalos (good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy; external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues; a different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good). This is nobly, rightly, well-perceived, seen as appealing, morally pleasing, honorably.
LXXV “five” = pente. This is five.
LXXVI “said” = ereo. Perhaps from rheo (to say, speak of, command). This is to say, tell, speak, mean, command.
LXXVII “true” = alethes. From a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic.

19 The woman said to him, “Sir, I seeLXXVIII that you are a prophet.LXXIX 20 Our ancestors worshipedLXXX on this mountain,LXXXI

Notes on verses 19-20a

LXXVIII “see” = theoreo. From theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
LXXIX “prophet” = prophetes. Related to “call” in v16. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note LXXI above); {from phao (see note LXXI above) or phaino (see note LXXI above)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
LXXX “worshiped” = proskuneo. From pros (advantageous for, at, to, toward, with) + kuneo (to kiss); {may be related to kuno (dog)}. This is to do reverence, kneel, to prostrate oneself in homage, to worship.
LXXXI “mountain” = oros. Perhaps from oro (to rise); perhaps akin to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is mountain or hill.

but you say that the placeLXXXII where people mustLXXXIII worship is in Jerusalem.”LXXXIV 

Notes on verse 20b

LXXXII “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
LXXXIII “must” = dei. Same as “had to” in v4. See note XIV above.
LXXXIV “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

21 Jesus said to her, “Woman, believeLXXXV me, the hourLXXXVI is comingLXXXVII when you will worship the FatherLXXXVIII neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem. 22 You worship what you do not know; we worship what we know, for salvationLXXXIX is from the Jews. 

Notes on verses 21-22

LXXXV “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
LXXXVI “hour” = hora. Same as “noon” in v6. See note XXXIII above.
LXXXVII “coming” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note XVII above.
LXXXVIII “Father” = Pater. Same as “ancestor” in v12. See note LVIII above.
LXXXIX “salvation” = soteria. From soter (a savior, deliverer); from sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue; taking someone from danger to safety; delivering or protecting literally or figuratively); from sos (safe, rescued, well). This is deliverance, salvation, preservation, welfare, prosperity, safety.

23 But the hour is comingXC and is now here when the trueXCI worshipersXCII

Notes on verse 23a

XC “coming” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note XVII above.
XCI “true” = alethinos. Related to “true” in v18. From alethes (see note LXXVII above). This is literally made of truth – that which is true or real, authentic. Something that is true from its source and has integrity.
XCII “worshipers” = proskunetes. Related to “worshipped” in v20. 1x in NT. From proskuneo (see note LXXX above). This is worshiper or adorer.

will worship the Father in spiritXCIII and truth,XCIV for the Father seeksXCV such as these to worship him. 24 God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth.” 

Notes on verses 23b-24

XCIII “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
XCIV “truth” = aletheia. Related to “true” in v18 & “true” in v23. From alethes (see note LXXVII above). Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.
XCV “seeks” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.

25 The woman said to him, “I know that MessiahXCVI is coming”XCVII (who is called Christ).XCVIII

Notes on verse 25a

XCVI “Messiah” = Messias. 2x in NT– both in John. From Hebrew mashiach (the anointed or consecrated one; a king, priest, or saint); from mashach (to smear or anoint; to run oil on, to consecrate).  This is Messiah or Anointed One.
XCVII “coming” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note XVII above.
XCVIII “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

“When he comes,XCIX he will proclaimC all thingsCI to us.” 

Notes on verse 25b

XCIX “comes” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note XVII above.
C “proclaim” = anaggello. Related to “go” in v16. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, by, anew) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (angel, messenger – supernatural or human envoy of God); probably from ago (see note LXX above)}. This is returning with word, reporting, declaring, announcing. It is to tell something all the way, which is to say to tell it clearly.
CI “all things” = hapas. Related to “everyone” in v13. From hama (at once, together with) + pas (see note LXI above) OR from a (with) + pas (see above). This is all; every part working together as a unit.

26 Jesus said to her, “I am he, the one who is speakingCII to you.”

27 Just then his disciples came.CIII They were astonishedCIV that he was speaking with a woman, but no one said, “What do you want?”CV or, “Why are you speaking with her?” 

Notes on verses 26-27

CII “speaking” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.
CIII “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note XVII above.
CIV “astonished” = thaumazo. Related to “see” in v19. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (see note LXXVIII above). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
CV “want” = zeteo. Same as “seeks” in v23. See note XCV above.

28 Then the woman left her water jarCVI and went backCVII to the city. She said to the people,CVIII 

Notes on verse 28

CVI “water jar” = hudria. Related to “water” in v7. 3x in NT. From hudor (see note XXXVI above). This is a large vessel for carrying enough water for a family. So, a pot, jar, or pitcher.
CVII “went back” = aperchomai. Same as “started” in v3. See note XII above.
CVIII “people” = anthropos. Related to “husband” in v16. Probably from aner (see note LXXII above) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.

29 “ComeCIX and seeCX a manCXI who told me everythingCXII I have ever done!CXIII

Notes on verse 29a

CIX “come” = deute. 12x in NT. From deuro (come here, hither, hence, now, until now). This is come, follow – as an exclamatory mood.
CX “see” = horao. Related to “people” in v28. See note CVIII above.
CXI “man” = anthropos. Same as “people” in v28. See note CVIII above.
CXII “everything” = pas. Same as “everyone” in v13. See note LXI above.
CXIII “done” = poieo. Same as “making” in v1. See note V above.

He cannotCXIV be the Messiah,CXV can he?” 30 They leftCXVI the city and were on their wayCXVII to him.

Notes on verses 29b-30

CXIV “cannot” = meti. 17x in NT. From me (not, neither, never; rules out conditional statements and their implications) + tis (someone, anyone, anything). This is asking a question when you expect the answer to be no. It is if not, surely no. But it also keeps a small possibility floating – but could it be?
CXV “Messiah” = Christos. Same as “Christ” in v25. See note XCVIII above.
CXVI “left” = exerchomai. Related to “started” in v3 & “go” in v4 & “came” in v5.
CXVII “were on their way” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note XVII above. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note XII above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.

31 Meanwhile the disciples were urgingCXVIII him, “Rabbi,CXIX eatCXX something.” 

32 But he said to them, “I have foodCXXI to eat that you do not know about.” 

33 So the disciples said to one another, “Surely no one has broughtCXXII him something to eat?” 

Notes on verses 31-33

CXVIII “urging” = erotao. Related to “said” in v18. From eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (see note LXXVI above). This is asking a question or making an earnest request. It is used between someone with whom the asker is close in some sense. So, they anticipate special consideration for their request.
CXIX “Rabbi” = Rhabbi. 15x in NT– 8x in the Gospel of John. From Hebrew rab (chief); from rabab (to be many, increase, multiply). This is a title of respect for a teacher-scholar. Literally, it means great one or honorable sir. It can also be understood as my master or my teacher.
CXX “eat” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.
CXXI “food” = brosis. 11x in NT. From bibrosko (to eat). This is food and the act of eating. It is eating in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXII “brought” = phero. This is to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly. It is to carry in a literal or figurative sense.

34 Jesus said to them, “My foodCXXIII is to do the willCXXIV of him who sentCXXV me and to completeCXXVI his work.CXXVII 

Notes on verse 34

CXXIII “food” = broma. Related to “food” in v32. 17x in NT. From bibrosko (see note CXXI above). This is any kind of food in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXIV “will” = thelema. From thelo (to desire, wise, will, intend). This is the act of will, choice, purpose, or decree.
CXXV “sent” = pempo. This is to send, put forth, or dispatch. This often refers to a temporary errand. It is sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from. By contrast, another Greek word, hiemi, emphasizes the destination and yet another word, stello, focuses on the motion that goes with the sending.
CXXVI “complete” = teleioo. From teleios (going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one; reaching an end and so being complete or “perfect”; also full grown or mature); from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax).  This is finish, accomplish, bring to an end, complete, reach a goal, finish a race, to consummate. It refers to completing stages or phases to get to an ultimate conclusion. It can also mean consecrate or fulfill.
CXXVII “work” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.

35 Do you not say, ‘Four monthsCXXVIII more, then comesCXXIX the harvest’?CXXX ButCXXXI I tellCXXXII you,

Notes on verse 35a

CXXVIII “four months” = tetramenos. 1x in NT. From tessares (four; figuratively, total coverage) + men (a month). This is a span of four months.
CXXIX “comes” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note XVII above.
CXXX “harvest” = therismos. 13x in NT. From therizo (to reap, gather, harvest); from theros (summer; the heat, which implies summer); from thero (to heat). This is harvesting or reaping. By implication, it is the crop that was harvested.
CXXXI {untranslated} = idou. Related to “knew” in v10. This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CXXXII “tell” = lego. Same as “called” in v5. See note XX above.

look aroundCXXXIII you, and seeCXXXIV how the fieldsCXXXV are ripeCXXXVI for harvesting. 

Notes on verse 35b

CXXXIII “look around” = epairo + ho + opthalmos + su. Literally, “lift up your eyes.” Epairo is related to “mountain” in v20. 19x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + airo (see note LXXXI above). This is to lift up or raise in a literal or figurative sense. Figuratively, it could mean to exalt oneself. Ophthalmos is related to “people” in v28 & “see” in v29. From optanomai (see note CVIII above). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.
CXXXIV “see” = theaomai. Related to “see” in v19 & “astonished” in v27. See note LXXXVIII above.
CXXXV “fields” = chora. Related to “plot of ground” in v5. See note XXIII above.
CXXXVI “ripe” = leukos. Related to luke (light). This is bright, white, or brilliant.

36 The reaperCXXXVII is already receivingCXXXVIII wagesCXXXIX

Notes on verse 36a

CXXXVII “reaper” = therizo. Related to “harvest” in v35. See note CXXX above.
CXXXVIII “receiving” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
CXXXIX “wages” = misthos. This is wages, pay, or salary. It can also be reward, recompense, or punishment. It is pay for services rendered in a literal or figurative way, either good or bad.

and is gatheringCXL fruitCXLI for eternal life, so that sowerCXLII and reaper may rejoiceCXLIII together. 

Notes on verse 36b

CXL “gathering” = sunago. Related to “go” in v16 & “proclaim” in v25. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note LXX above). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
CXLI “fruit” = karpos. Perhaps from harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (to choose, take). This is a fruit or vegetable, through sometimes it refers to an animal. Figuratively, it is deeds, results, profits, or gain.
CXLII “sower” = speiro. Probably from spao (to pull or draw like one draws a sword). This is sowing a seed or scattering. It is sowing in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLIII “rejoice” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).

37 For here the sayingCXLIV holdsCXLV true,CXLVI ‘OneCXLVII sows and anotherCXLVIII reaps.’ 

Notes on verse 37

CXLIV “saying” = logos. Related to “called” in v5. From lego (see note XX above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
CXLV “holds” = eimi. Same as “was” in v6. See note XXIX above.
CXLVI “true” = alethinos. Same as “true” in v23. See note XCI above.
CXLVII “one” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
CXLVIII “another” = allos. Same as “one” in v37. See note CXLVII above.

38 I sentCXLIX you to reap that for which you did not labor.CL OthersCLI have labored, and you have enteredCLII into their labor.”CLIII

Notes on verse 38

CXLIX “sent” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
CL “labor” = kopiao. Same as “tired out” in v6. See note XXX above.
CLI “others” = allos. Same as “one” in v37. See note CXLVII above.
CLII “entered” = eiserchomai. Related to “started” in v3 & “go” in v4 & “came” in v5 & “left” in v30. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note XII above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
CLIII “labor” = kopos. Related to “tired out” in v6. 18x in NT. See note XXX above.

39 ManyCLIV SamaritansCLV from that city believed in him because of the woman’s testimony,CLVI “He told me everything I have ever done.” 

Notes on verse 39

CLIV “many” = polus. Related to “more” in v1. See note VII above.
CLV “Samaritans” = Samarites. Same as “Samaritans” in v9. See note XLVI above.
CLVI “woman’s testimony” = ho + logos + ho + gune + martureo. Literally, “the word of the woman testifying.” Logos is the same as “saying” in v37. See note CXLIV above. Gune is the same as “woman” in v7. See note XXXIV above. Martureo is from martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.

40 So when the SamaritansCLVII cameCLVIII to him, they askedCLIX him to stayCLX with them, and he stayed there twoCLXI days.CLXII 41 And many more believed because of his word.CLXIII 

Notes on verses 40-41

CLVII “Samaritans” = Samarites. Same as “Samaritans” in v9. See note XLVI above.
CLVIII “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note XVII above.
CLIX “asked” = erotao. Same as “urging” in v31. See note CXVIII above.
CLX “stay” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.
CLXI “two” = duo. This is two or both.
CLXII “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
CLXIII “word” = logos. Same as “saying” in v37. See note CXLIV above.

42 They said to the woman, “It is no longer because of what you saidCLXIV that we believe, for we have heard for ourselves, and we know that this is trulyCLXV the SaviorCLXVI of the world.”CLXVII

Notes on verse 42

CLXIV “said” = lalia.  Related to “speaking” in v26. 4x in NT. From laleo (see note CII above). This is talk, saying, the way one talks, a dialect.
CLXV “truly” = alethos. Related to “true” in v18 & “true” and “truth” in v23. 18x in NT. From alethes (see note LXXVII above). This is truly, really, surely, truthfully, indeed. Properly, this is saying “in accordance with fact…” – what one is about to say can be proven and is true to reality.
CLXVI “Savior” = soter. Related to “salvation” in v22. See note LXXXIX above.
CLXVII “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.

43 When the two days were over, he wentCLXVIII from that place to Galilee 44 (for Jesus himself had testifiedCLXIX that a prophet has no honorCLXX in the prophet’s ownCLXXI country).CLXXII 

Notes on verses 43-44

CLXVIII “went” = exerchomai. Same as “left” in v30. See note CXVI above.
CLXIX “testified” = martureo. Same as “woman’s testimony” in v39. See note CLVI above.
CLXX “honor” = time. From tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value). This has to do with worth or something’s perceived value. Literally, it means price, but figuratively, it means the honor or value one sees in someone or something else. It can be esteem or dignity. It can also mean precious or valuables.
CLXXI “own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
CLXXII “country” = patris. Related to “ancestor” in v12. 8x in NT. From pater (see note LVIII above) OR from parasemos (marked on the side, wrongly marked a ship’s figurehead); {from para (beside, by, in the presence of) + semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); {from sema (a sign or mark)}}. This is belonging to one’s father or ancestors. It could be hometown, native town, country, or heaven as home.

45 When he cameCLXXIII to Galilee, the GalileansCLXXIV welcomedCLXXV him, since they had seenCLXXVI all that he had done in Jerusalem at the festival,CLXXVII for they, too, had goneCLXXVIII to the festival.

Notes on verse 45

CLXXIII “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note XVII above.
CLXXIV “Galileans” = Galilaios. Related to “Galilee” in v3. 11x in NT. From galilaia (see note XIII above). This is Galilean.
CLXXV “welcomed” = dechomai. This is to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome. It is to receive in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXVI “seen” = horao. Same as “see” in v29. See note CX above.
CLXXVII “festival” = heorte. This is a holiday or feast.
CLXXVIII “gone” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note XVII above.

46 Then he cameCLXXIX again to CanaCLXXX in Galilee, where he had changedCLXXXI the water into wine.CLXXXII

Notes on verse 46a

CLXXIX “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note XVII above.
CLXXX “Cana” = Kana. 4x in NT. Perhaps from Hebrew qaneh (reed, branch, measuring rod); perhaps from qanah (to get, buy, redeem, create, possess). This is Cana, meaning “reed.”
CLXXXI “changed” = poieo. Same as “making” in v1. See note V above.
CLXXXII “wine” = oinos. Perhaps from Hebrew yayin (wine; root means to effervesce). This is wine. It is where the word “oenophile” comes from.

Now there was a royal officialCLXXXIII whose son lay illCLXXXIV in Capernaum.CLXXXV 

Notes on verse 46b

CLXXXIII “royal official” = basilikos. Related to “deep” in v11. 5x in NT. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (see note LV above). This is royal, something suitable to or otherwise connected to a king. It can also be a royal official, the king’s country, attire, or dignity.
CLXXXIV “lay ill” = astheneo. From asthenes (not having strength or weak in a moral sense; sick); {from a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}}. This is sick, feeble, languishing, impotent. Can also refer to moral weakness.
CLXXXV “Capernaum” = Kapernaoum. 16x in NT. From Hebrew kaphar (village with walls); {from the same as kephir (a young lion, village); from kaphar (to appease, cover, pacify, cancel)} + Nachum (Nahum, “comfortable”); {from nacham (a strong breath or sigh; to be sorry, to pity, console, comfort, or repent; also to comfort oneself with thoughts of vengeance)}. This is Capernaum, meaning “Nahum’s village.”

47 When he heard that Jesus had comeCLXXXVI from Judea to Galilee, he wentCLXXXVII and beggedCLXXXVIII him to come downCLXXXIX

Notes on verse 47a

CLXXXVI “come” = heko. This is to come or arrive as at a final destination or goal. It can also mean being present in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXXVII “went” = aperchomai. Same as “started” in v3. See note XII above.
CLXXXVIII “begged” = erotao. Same as “urging” in v31. See note CXVIII above.
CLXXXIX “come down” = katabaino. Related to “deep” in v11 & “royal official” in v46. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note LV above). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.

and healCXC his son, for he was at the point ofCXCI death.CXCII 

Notes on verse 47b

CXC “heal” = iaomai. This is to heal, particularly from a physical illness, but it could also be a spiritual difficulty. This is to cure or make whole in a literal or figurative sense.
CXCI “was at the point of” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
CXCII “death” = apothnesko. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.

48 Then Jesus said to him, “Unless you seeCXCIII signsCXCIV and wondersCXCV you will not believe.” 

49 The official said to him, “Sir, come down before my little boyCXCVI dies.”CXCVII 

Notes on verses 48-49

CXCIII “see” = horao. Same as “see” in v29. See note CX above.
CXCIV “signs” = semeion. Related to “country” in v44. From the same as semaino (see note CLXXII above). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
CXCV “wonders” = teras. 16x in NT. This is a wonder or marvel performed to get bystanders to react. It could also be a portent or omen.
CXCVI “little boy” = paidion. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is a child as one who is still being educated or trained. Perhaps one seven years old or younger. Used figuratively for an immature Christian.
CXCVII “dies” = apothnesko. Same as “death” in v47. See note CXCII above.

50 Jesus said to him, “Go;CXCVIII your son will live.” The man believed the word that Jesus spoke to him and started on his way.CXCIX 51 As he was going down,CC his slavesCCI metCCII him

Notes on verses 50-51a

CXCVIII “go” = poreuomai. Related to “journey” in v6. See note XXXI above.
CXCIX “started on his way” = poreuomai. Same as “go” in v50. See note CXCVIII above.
CC “going down” = katabaino. Same as “come down” in v47. See note CLXXXIX above.
CCI “slaves” = doulos. Related to “had to” in v4. Perhaps from deo (see note XIV above). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
CCII “met” = hupantao. 10x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + antao (to meet with personally) OR from hupo (see above) + anti (opposite, instead of, against). This is to encounter someone or to go to meet them.

and told him that his childCCIII was alive.CCIV 52 So he askedCCV them the hour when he began to recover,CCVI

Notes on verses 51b-52a

CCIII “child” = pais. Related to “little boy” in v49. See note CXCVI above.
CCIV “was alive” = zao. Same as “living” in v10. See note L above.
CCV “asked” = punthanomai. 12x in NT. This is to ask in order to learn. It is not to ask a favor (erotao in Greek), to demand something felt to be owed (aiteo), to search for a hidden thing (zeteo), or to ask for urgent help (deomai). This is to figure something out through questions.
CCVI “began to recover” = kompsoteron + echo. Kompsoteron is related to “world” in v42. 1x in NT. From kopsos (refined, gentlemanly) OR from the base of komizo (see note CLXVII above). This is well-dress, nice, improved health. Echo is the same as “have” in v11. See note LII above.

and they said to him, “YesterdayCCVII at one in the afternoonCCVIII the feverCCIX leftCCX him.” 

Notes on verse 52b

CCVII “yesterday” = chthes. 3x in NT. From echtes (yesterday). This is literally yesterday or some time in the past.
CCVIII “one in the afternoon” = hora + hebdomos. Literally, “seventh hour.” Hora is the same as “noon” in v6. See note XXXIII above. Hebdomos is 9x in NT. From hepta (seven or seventh; figuratively, the number of completeness or perfection) + deka (ten or -teen). This is seventh.
CCIX “fever” = puretos. 6x in NT. From pur (fire, lightning, heat from the sun; figuratively, strife or trials) OR from puresso (fever, on fire); {from pura (fire, fuel burning); from pur (see above)}. This is inflamed or fever.
CCX “left” = aphiemi. Same as “left” in v3. See note X above.

53 The father realizedCCXI that this was the hour when Jesus had said to him, “Your son will live.” So he himself believed, along with his wholeCCXII household.CCXIII 54 Now this was the secondCCXIV sign that Jesus did after comingCCXV from Judea to Galilee.

Notes on verses 53-54

CCXI “realized” = ginosko. Same as “learned” in v1. See note II above.
CCXII “whole” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
CCXIII “household” = oikia. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
CCXIV “second” = deuteros. Related to “two” in v40. From duo (see note CLXI above). This is second, twice, again. It is part of where “Deuteronomy” comes from, which means “second law” or “a repetition of the law.” See
CCXV “coming” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note XVII above.

Image credit: “The well of the samaritan (Shechem), Napulus, Holy Land, (i.e., Nablus, West Bank)” from the Photochrom Print Collection, between 1890 and 1900.

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