Psalm 35

Psalm 35


Of David.I

Contend,II O Lord,III with those who contendIV with me;
    fight againstV those who fight against me!

Notes on superscript-verse 1

I “David” = david. From the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
II “contend” = rib. This is properly to toss or grapple. It is used figuratively to mean wrangling and so for arguments, complaints, or disputes. It is used in a legal setting for pleading or defending a case.
III “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
IV “those who contend” = yarib. Related to “contend” in v1. 3x in OT. From rib (see note II above). This is opponent, adversary, strive, contentious.
V “fight against” = lacham. This is to eat or feed on. Figuratively, it is to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction.

Take holdVI of shieldVII and buckler,VIII
    and rise upIX to helpX me!

Notes on verse 2

VI “take hold” = chazaq. This is to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden.
VII “shield” = magen. From ganan (to surround, cover, defend, protect). This is a shield, defense, or figuratively a protector. It can also be used for a crocodile’s hide.
VIII “buckler” = tsinnah. From tsen (root may mean to be prickly; thorn, barb, cactus hedge). This is a hook or barb. It can also be a buckler, shield, target. Figuratively, it can refer to piercing cold.
IX “rise up” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
X “help” = ezrah. From ezer (help, aid, helper); from azar (to help, protect, support, ally; properly, to surround so as to provide aid). This is help, helper, support.

DrawXI the spearXII and javelinXIII, XIV
    against my pursuers;XV
say to my soul,XVI
    “I am your salvation.”XVII

Notes on verse 3

XI “draw” = ruq. 19x in OT. This is to pour out in a literal or figurative sense. It can mean to arm, draw out, cast out, or empty.
XII “spear” = chanith. From chanah (to decline, bending down, or living in tents; can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle). This is a spear or lance as a weapon that is thrust in the same way one pitches a tent.
XIII “javelin” = sagar. This is to shut up, imprison, lock, hand over, or figuratively surrender.
XIV {untranslated} = qirah. From the same as qara (to happen, meet, bring about). This is any kind of encounter, whether peaceful, hostile, or incidental. It can also mean help or seek.
XV “pursuers” = radaph. This is to chase after, pursue, hunt, or persecute. It is running after someone or something, generally with hostile motives.
XVI “soul” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
XVII “salvation” = yeshuah. From yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue, be safe. Properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. Used causatively, it means to free). This is salvation, deliverance, health, victory, prosperity.

Let them be put to shameXVIII and dishonorXIX
    who seek afterXX my life.XXI

Notes on verse 4a

XVIII “put to shame” = bosh. Properly, this means to be pale, which implies shame, disappointment, or confusion.
XIX “dishonor” = kalam. This is bearing shame, bringing dishonor or disgrace, humiliate insult, taunt, embarrass, reproach. Properly, to wound in a figurative sense.
XX “seek after” = baqash. This is to seek, ask, desire, or request. It can be any kind of searching. It can also mean to worship or pray – implies a striving for.
XXI “life” = nephesh. Same as “soul” in v3. See note XVI above.

Let them be turnedXXII back and confoundedXXIII
    who deviseXXIV evilXXV against me.

Notes on verse 4b

XXII “turned” = sug. 14x in OT. This is to turn back, aside, or away. Properly, it means to flinch, which implies moving away or going back. Literally it can mean retreat or figuratively it can mean backslide i.e. apostatize.
XXIII “confounded” = chapher. 17x in OT. Perhaps from the same as chaphar (properly to pry into; to dig search for, sink, or explore). This is to be ashamed, disgraced, embarrassed, confounded – to blush.
XXIV “devise” = chashab. This is properly to braid or interpenetrate. Literally it is to create or to wear. Figuratively, it can mean plotting – generally in a negative sense. More broadly, this can also mean think, consider, or make account of.
XXV “evil” = ra’. From ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.

Let them be like chaffXXVI beforeXXVII the wind,XXVIII
    with the angelXXIX of the Lord driving them on.XXX

Notes on verse 5

XXVI “chaff” = mots. 8x in OT. From muts (to press or squeeze; figuratively to oppress, extortioner). This is chaff as something that was pressed or threshed loose. It can also be an extortioner.
XXVII “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XXVIII “wind” = ruach. This is breath, wind, air, cool, spirit. This is wind, which resembles the breath and so this can be used figuratively for life itself or being frail/mortal/impermanent. It can refer to the air of the sky or the spirit.
XXIX “angel” = malak. This is a messenger, an angel, or a deputy of some kind. Can be used for human messengers literally or for prophets, priests, or teachers as messengers of God. Also used for supernatural messengers i.e. angels.
XXX “driving…on” = dachah. 11x in OT. This is to push down, drive, thrust, totter, trip, or chase. It can also mean to overthrow or refer to an outcast as one has been pushed down/overthrown.

Let their wayXXXI be darkXXXII and slippery,XXXIII
    with the angel of the Lord pursuing them.

Notes on verse 6

XXXI “way” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
XXXII “dark” = choshek. From chashak (to be or become dark). This is literal darkness is contrast to light. Figuratively, it can be obscurity, sorrow, misery, blindness, wickedness, destruction, death. It can also be hiding places. Additionally, it can mean judgment, mourning, ignorance, evil, or sin.
XXXIII “slippery” = chalaqlaqqoth. 4x in OT. From chalaq (to be smooth in a figurative sense; can refer to the stones that were part of casting lots – hence, apportion, share, distribute; figuratively, it can also mean to flatter, slippery). This is slippery, smoothness. Figuratively, flattery, hypocrisy. Since a slippery path is dangerous, it could also be treacherous.

For without causeXXXIV they hidXXXV their netXXXVI for me;
    without cause they dugXXXVII a pitXXXVIII for my life.

Notes on verse 7

XXXIV “without cause” = chinnam. From chen (grace, favor, kindness, beauty, precious); from chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is out of favor, so it can mean without cost, without payment, nothing, vain, or useless.
XXXV “hid” = taman. This is to hide, bury, keep in reserve. It is hiding something by covering it.
XXXVI “net” = resheth. From yarash (inheriting or dispossessing; refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them; by implication, to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish). This is a net used to capture animals.
XXXVII “dug” = chaphar. Perhaps related to “confounded” in v4. See note XXIII above.
XXXVIII “pit” = shachath. From shuach (to bow or sink down in a literal or figurative sense, humble). This is ditch, trap, grave, or hole. Figuratively, it could be destruction or corruption.

Let ruinXXXIX come on them unawares.XL
And let the net that they hid ensnareXLI them;
    let them fall in it—to their ruin.

Notes on verse 8

XXXIX “ruin” = sho. 12x in OT. This is ruin, desolation, storm. It’s from a root that means rushing over – hence a storm and hence devastation.
XL “unawares” = lo + yada. Literally “not knowing.” Yada is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
XLI “ensnare” = lakad. This is to capture, seize, or imprison. It is to catch something in a snare or net or trap. It can also mean to occupy of select something by casting lots.

Then my soul shall rejoiceXLII in the Lord,
    exultingXLIII in his deliverance.XLIV

Notes on verse 9

XLII “rejoice” = gil. Properly, this is twirling around because of a strong feeling whether of rejoicing or from fear. This can be rejoice, be glad or joyful, or to cry.
XLIII “exulting” = sus. This is to rejoice or be glad. Properly, it is to be bright or cheerful.
XLIV “deliverance” = yeshuah. Same as “salvation” in v3. See note XVII above.

10 All my bonesXLV shall say,
    “O Lord, who is like you?
You deliverXLVI the weakXLVII
    from those too strongXLVIII for them,
    the weak and needyXLIX from those who despoilL them.”

Notes on verse 10

XLV “bones” = etsem. From atsam (vast, numerous, strong; to close one’s eyes, to make powerful; to break bones). This is self, life, strength, bone, or substance.
XLVI “deliver” = natsal. This is to snatch someone or something away in a good sense – as rescue, defend, or deliver – or in a bad sense – as strip or plunder.
XLVII “weak” = ani. From anah (to be bowed down; humility or being browbeaten, oppressed, afflicted, or depressed; literal or figurative – depressed in mood or circumstance). This is humble, lowly, poor, or afflicted.
XLVIII “too strong” = chazaq. Related to “take hold” inv2. From chazaq (see note VI above). This is strong, hard, powerful, loud, bold, violent, impudent. It is usually strong in a negative sense.
XLIX “needy” = ebyon. From abah (to consent, obey, want, yield, accept). This is needy, poor, beggar. Someone who is wanting.
L “those who despoil” = gazal. This is snatch, take violently, seize, tear away. It can also mean flay or rob.

11 MaliciousLI witnessesLII rise up;
    they askLIII me about things I do not know.

Notes on verse 11

LI “malicious” = chamas. From chamas (to violate, do violence, to wrong; implies mistreatment). This is violence, cruelty, damage, wrong, injustice, or unrighteous. Violence implies a wrong done. The term is also used to describe unjust gain.
LII “witnesses” = ed. From ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is a witness, testimony, or one who records testimony. It can also refer to a prince.
LIII “ask” = shaal. This is to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request. It can also mean to demand.

12 They repayLIV me evil for good;LV
    my soul is forlorn.LVI

Notes on verse 12

LIV “repay” = shalam. This is to be complete or sound – to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate. So, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated. This is the root verb that “shalom” comes from, the Hebrew word for peace.
LV “good” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
LVI “forlorn” = shekol. 3x in OT. From shakol (to be bereaved, childless, miscarry, unfruitful, deprive, destroy; to bereave literally or figuratively). This is bereavement – specifically, of children. It can also mean spoiling.

13 But as for me, when they were sick,LVII
    I wore sackcloth;LVIII
    I afflictedLIX myselfLX with fasting.

Notes on verse 13a

LVII “were sick” = chalah. Properly, this is to be worn; hence, being weak, sick, or afflicted. It can also mean to grieve or, positively, to flatter or entreat.
LVIII “wore sackcloth” = lebush + saq. Literally, “my clothing sackcloth.” Lebush is from labash (to wrap around, which implies clothing oneself or someone else; wrapping around in a literal or figurative way). This is clothing, apparel. It is garment in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be a euphemism for a wife. Saq is perhaps from shaqaq (to run, rush; by implication having an appetite, seeking greedily). This is sack or sackcloth used as bags for grain and so on. Also worn during times or mourning or when seeking humility. The word “sack” in English is derived from this Semitic root.
LIX “afflicted” = anah. Related to “weak” in v10. See note XLVII above.
LX “myself” = nephesh. Same as “soul” in v3. See note XVI above.

I prayedLXI with head bowedLXII on my bosom,LXIII

Notes on verse 13b

LXI “prayed” = tephillah. From palal (to judge for oneself or in an official capacity; to pray or make supplication, to entreat). This is prayer or intercession. It can also be a hymn.
LXII “bowed” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
LXIII “bosom” = cheq. Root may mean to enclose. This is bosom in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be arms, lap, or midst. It can also be care or cherish.

14     as though I grievedLXIV for a friendLXV or a brother;LXVI

Notes on verse 14a

LXIV “grieved” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
LXV “friend” = rea. From raah (to associate with). This is the same as neighbor in Leviticus 19:18 “love your neighbor as yourself.” This is friend, companion, fellow, neighbor. It is someone with whom you associate, whether more or less close.
LXVI “brother” = ach. This is brother in a literal or figurative sense. It could also be another relative or a close companion.

I went about as one who lamentsLXVII for a mother,LXVIII
    bowed downLXIX and in mourning.LXX

Notes on verse 14b

LXVII “laments” = abel. 8x in OT. From abal (to mourn, bewail). This is mourning or a mourner.
LXVIII “mother” = em. This is a mother as binding a family together or a breeding female animal. It could be mother in a literal or figurative sense.
LXIX “bowed down” = shachah. This is to bow down, make a humble entreaty, to do homage to royalty or to God.
LXX “mourning” = qadar. 17x in OT. This is to be dark, grow black. It can be ashy or otherwise having a dark color. It can also imply mourning, wearing sackcloth.

15 But at my stumblingLXXI they gatheredLXXII in glee,LXXIII
    they gathered together against me;

Notes on verse 15a

LXXI “Stumbling” = tsela. 3x in OT. From tsala (to limp, to curse); perhaps from tsela (rib, side, leaf, plank, side of a person or object; quarter of the sky). This is limping, halting, or stumbling. Figuratively, this is adversity.
LXXII “gathered” = asaph. This is to gather, assemble, or bring. It can also mean to take away, destroy, or remove.
LXXIII “glee” = samach. This is to rejoice or be glad. Properly, it is to brighten up in a literal or figurative sense.

ruffiansLXXIV whom I did not know
    toreLXXV at me without ceasing;LXXVI

Notes on verse 15b

LXXIV “ruffians” = nekeh. 1x in OT. From nakah (to hit whether lightly or severely literal or figurative; beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter). This is a smiter so a ruffian or someone who maligns others.
LXXV “tore” = qara. This is to tear or cut out in a literal or figurative sense. It an also be to revile or to apply eye make up – as though they are made to look larger.
LXXVI “ceasing” = damam. This is to cease, be or become mute, silent, still, cut off, hold peace, be astonished, or die.

16 they impiouslyLXXVII mockedLXXVIII more and more,LXXIX
    gnashingLXXX at me with their teeth.LXXXI

Notes on verse 16

LXXVII “impiously” = chaneph. 13x in OT. From chaneph (to profane, defile, corrupt; usually morally polluted). This is profane, soiled with sin, impious, hypocrite, godless one.
LXXVIII “mocked” = laeg. 2x in OT. From laag (to mock, deride, or laugh; to stammer or speak incomprehensibly as though one were imitating a foreigner; scorn). This is mocking, stammering, buffoon, foreigner.
LXXIX “more and more” = maog. 2x in OT. From the same as uggah (bread cake, round ash cake); perhaps from ug (to gyrate, bake; baking a round cake). This is a cake, bread, feast, parasite.
LXXX “gnashing” = charaq. 5x in OT. This is to gnash or grind the teeth.
LXXXI “teeth” = shen. From shaman (to sharpen, point, pierce; figuratively to teach). This is a tooth, ivory, something sharp, or, figuratively, a cliff.

17 How long, O Lord,LXXXII will you look on?
    RescueLXXXIII meLXXXIV from their ravages,LXXXV
    my lifeLXXXVI from the lions!LXXXVII

Notes on verse 17

LXXXII “Lord” = Adonai. From adon (lord, master, owner); root means to rule or be sovereign. This is the actual Hebrew word for Lord used (in a different form) of humans and (in the present form) of God. It means someone who is in control.
LXXXIII “rescue” = shub. Same as “bowed” in v13. See note LXII above.
LXXXIV “me” = nephesh. Same as “soul” in v3. See note XVI above.
LXXXV “ravages” = sho. Same as “ruin” in v8. See note XXXIX above.
LXXXVI “life” = yachid. 12x in OT. From yachad (to join, be united). This is united, sole, solitary, only, or desolate. It can also mean beloved or darling.
LXXXVII “lions” = kephir. Perhaps from kaphar (to appease, cover, pacify, cancel). This is a young lion – maybe in the sense that it has a mane covering.

18 Then I will thankLXXXVIII you in the greatLXXXIX congregation;XC
    in the mightyXCI throngXCII I will praiseXCIII you.

Notes on verse 18

LXXXVIII “thank” = yadah. From yad (hand). This is to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise. So, it is to praise, give thanks, or make a confession.
LXXXIX “great” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
XC “congregation” = qahal. This is an assembly, congregation, or multitude.
XCI “mighty” = atsum. From atsom (to be many or mighty; could also refer to breaking bones). This is mighty or mighty one. It means powerful, which implies large numbers.
XCII “throng” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
XCIII “praise” = halal. This is to be clear – it originally referred to a sound, then a color. It was to shine and then make a show or boast then to rave. In a causative sense it came to mean celebrate, give glory, sing praise, or be worth of praise. Because of the celebratory nature of the word, it could also mean to give in marriage. This is where Hallelujah comes from.

19 Do not let my treacherousXCIV enemies rejoiceXCV over me,
    or those who hateXCVI me without cause winkXCVII the eye.XCVIII

Notes on verse 19

XCIV “treacherous” = sheqer. This is deception, lie, or disappointment. It can also be something that is vain or wrongfully.
XCV “rejoice” = samach. Same as “glee” in v15. See note LXXIII above.
XCVI “hate” = sane. This is an enemy or foe. It is one that is hated with a personal hatred.
XCVII “wink” = qarats. 5x in OT.  This is to pinch, compress, bite lips, blink eyes maliciously, pinch off some clay to make a vessel.
XCVIII “eye” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).

20 For they do not speak peace,XCIX
    but they conceiveC deceitfulCI wordsCII
    against those who are quietCIII in the land.CIV

Notes on verse 20

XCIX “peace” = shalom. Related to “repay” in v12. From shalam (see note LIV above). This is completeness, soundness, welfare, favor, friend, good health. It is to be safe and figuratively well, happy, at peace, friendly. Abstractly, it includes the ideas of welfare and prosperity (not in excessive wealth, but in having enough).
C “conceive” = chashab. Same as “devise” in v4. See note XXIV above.
CI “deceitful” = mirmah. From ramah (to betray, deceive, beguile). This is deceit, treachery, guile, or fraud.
CII “words” = dabar. Related to “speak” in v20. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
CIII “those who are quiet” = ragea. 1x in OT. From raga (to toss violently, break, or disturb; tossed about as on rough sea or the skin breaking out in skin disease; to shut the eyes and so to settle, east, rest, or quiet) OR form raga (to rest, settle, repose). This is restful, quiet, peaceable.
CIV “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

21 They open wideCV their mouths against me;
    they say, “Aha,CVI Aha,
    our eyes have seen it.”

22 You have seen, O Lord; do not be silent!CVII
    O Lord, do not be farCVIII from me!

Notes on verses 21-22

CV “open wide” = rachab. This is to grow wide or enlarge in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean extend, relieve, rejoice, or speak boldly. This is the verb that Rahab comes from. 
CVI “aha” = heach. 12x in OT. Perhaps from he (behold, now) + ach (ah, oh, alas; used for grief or surprise); {from ahahh (alas, oh; exclamation of pain)}. This is ah, ha, or aha.
CVII “be silent” = charash. This is to scratch, which implies etching or plowing. It can mean to manufacture regardless of materials used. Figuratively, it can be to devise or conceal. It can also have a sense of secrecy. Hence, being silent or left alone. It can also be speechless.
CVIII “be far” = rachaq. This is to widen, become distant, cast, or remove. It can be in a literal or figurative sense.

23 Wake up!CIX BestirCX yourself for my defense,CXI
    for my cause,CXII my GodCXIII and my Lord!

Notes on verse 23

CIX “wake up” = ur. This is to arise, lift, exult, or stir. It is to wake in a literal or figurative sense.
CX “bestir” = quts. See qayits (fruit, harvest, dry season); from quts (summer, clip off). This is arise or watch. It is to awake in a literal or figurative sense.
CXI “defense” = mishpat. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.
CXII “cause” = rib. Related to “contend” and “those who contend” in v1. From rib (see note II above). This is strife or dispute – whether a personal one or one in a court of law.
CXIII “God” = Elohim.

24 VindicateCXIV me, O Lord, my God,
    according to your righteousness,CXV
    and do not let them rejoice over me.

25 Do not let them say to themselves,CXVI
    “Aha, we have our heart’s desire.”CXVII
Do not let them say, “We have swallowed you up.”CXVIII

Notes on verses 24-25

CXIV “vindicate” = shaphat. Related to “defense” in v23. See note CXI above.
CXV “righteousness” = tsedeq. This is rightness, righteousness, vindication. It is everything that is just or ethical. That which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense. It also includes just weights (i.e. true weights). Figuratively, this is justice, righteousness, equity – even prosperity.
CXVI “themselves” = leb. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
CXVII “heart’s desire” = nephesh. Same as “soul” in v3. See note XVI above.
CXVIII “swallowed…up” = bala. This is to swallow, engulf, cover, or destroy.

26 Let allCXIX those who rejoiceCXX at my calamityCXXI
    be put to shame and confusion;CXXII

Notes on verse 26a

CXIX “all” = yachad. From yachad (to join, be united). This is a unit, both, altogether, unitedness, alike.
CXX “who rejoice” = sameach. Related to “glee” in v15. From samach (see note LXXIII above). This is glad, merry.
CXXI “calamity” = ra’. Same as “evil” in v4. See note XXV above.
CXXII “confusion” = chapher. Same as “confounded” in v4. See note XXIII above.

let those who exaltCXXIII themselves against me
    be clothedCXXIV with shameCXXV and dishonor.CXXVI

Notes on verse 26b

CXXIII “exalt” = gadal. This is to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing.
CXXIV “be clothed” = labash. Related to “wore” in v13. See note LVIII above.
CXXV “shame” = bosheth. Related ot “be put to shame” in v4. From bosh (see note XVIII above). This is shame, humiliation, confusion. It is the feeling of shame as well as the thing that caused the shame. It can also refer to an idol.
CXXVI “dishonor” = kelimmah. Related to “dishonor” in v4. From kalam (see note XIX above). This is insult, disgrace, dishonor, humiliation, shame, or reproach.

27 Let those who desireCXXVII my vindicationCXXVIII
    shout for joyCXXIX and be glad,

Notes on verse 27a

CXXVII “desire” = chaphets. 11x in OT. From chaphets (properly, inclined towards or bending to; figuratively, to desire, delight in, or be pleased with). This is to delight in, desire, or show favor.
CXXVIII “vindication” = tsedeq. Same as “righteousness” in v24. See note CXV above.
CXXIX “shout for joy” = ranan. This is a cry of joy or a joyful song. Properly, it is emitting a shrill sound, especially one of joy.

    and say evermore,CXXX
“Great is the Lord,
    who delightsCXXXI in the welfareCXXXII of his servant.”CXXXIII

Notes on verse 27b

CXXX “evermore” = tamid. May come from a word that means to stretch. This word means an indefinite period of time. So, it could be regular or daily. It could also be constantly, continually, always, or perpetually.
CXXXI “delights” = chaphets. Same as “desire” in v27. See note CXXVII above.
CXXXII “welfare” = shalom. Same as “peace” in v20. See note XCIX above.
CXXXIII “servant” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.

28 Then my tongueCXXXIV shall tellCXXXV of your righteousness
    and of your praiseCXXXVI all day long.

Notes on verse 28

CXXXIV “tongue” = lashon. This is tongue, talker, language, or wedge. It can also be a tongue of flame or a water cove.
CXXXV “tell” = hagah. This is to speak, declare, make a sound, imagine, or mutter. It could be a murmur, moan, or growl, whether from delight or anger. It can also mean to study, ponder, or meditate.
CXXXVI “praise” = tehillah. Related to “praise” in v18. From halal (see note XCIII above). This is praise or a song of praise. It is to offer God a hymn, to boast in God. This shares a root with “hallelujah.”

Image credit: “Close-up of Wild Oats Straw with Several Chaffs” by Horia Varlan, 2008

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