2 Peter 1:16-2:2, 15-19

2 Peter 1:16-2:2, 15-19
Narrative Lectionary


1:16 For we did not followI cleverly devisedII mythsIII

Notes on verse 1:16a

I “follow” = exakoloutheo. 3x in NT– all in 2 Peter. From ek (from, from out of) + akoloutheo (to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does); {from a (with, union) + keleuthos (road, way)}. This is to completely follow, imitate, obey.
II “cleverly devised” = sophizo. 2x in NT. From sopos (wise, clever, skilled, learned, cultivated); related to saphes (clear). This is to teach, give wisdom, devise in a clever way.
III “myths” = muthos. 5x in NT. Perhaps from the same as mueo (to initiate someone into the secrets or mysteries of an order; to instruct learn, be disciples; properly, shutting your mouth and eyes to experience mystery); from muo (shutting eyes or mouth). This is a story, idle tale, or myth. It could be a word or a saying. It could be a true narrative or an invented tale or even a falsehood. This is where the word “myth” comes from.

when we made knownIV to you the powerV and comingVI

Notes on verse 1:16b

IV “made known” = gnorizo. From ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is to declare, know, discover, make known.
V “power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
VI “coming” = parousia. From pareimi (to be present, have come) {from para (from beside, by, in the presence of) + eimi (to be, exist)}. This is presence, coming, arrival, advent. Properly, it was the term for an official visit of a king or someone else with formal authority. It is used specifically in the New Testament to refer to Jesus’s second coming.

of our LordVII JesusVIII Christ,IX

Notes on verse 1:16c

VII “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
VIII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
IX “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

but we had beenX eyewitnessesXI of his majesty.XII 

Notes on verse 1:16d

X “been” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
XI “eyewitnesses” = epoptes. 1x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + horao (to see, attend to, stare at). This is an on-looker or an eyewitness.
XII “majesty” = megaleiotes. 3x in NT. From megaleios (splendid, grand, perfection); from megas (big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.). This is magnificence, glory, splendor.

17 For he receivedXIII honorXIV and gloryXV

Notes on verse 1:17a

XIII “received” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
XIV “honor” = time. From tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value). This has to do with worth or something’s perceived value. Literally, it means price, but figuratively, it means the honor or value one sees in someone or something else. It can be esteem or dignity. It can also mean precious or valuables.
XV “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.

from GodXVI the FatherXVII when that voiceXVIII was conveyedXIX to him by the MajesticXX Glory,

Notes on verse 1:17b

XVI “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XVII “Father” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
XVIII “voice” = phone. Probably from phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
XIX “conveyed” = phero. This is to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly. It is to carry in a literal or figurative sense.
XX “Majestic” = megaloprepes. Related to “majesty” in v1:16. 1x in NT. From megas (see note XII above) + prepo (to be proper, right, be conspicuous). This is magnificent, transcendent, sublime. It is that which is appropriate for someone who is great.

saying, “This isXXI my Son,XXII my Beloved,XXIII with whom I am well pleased.”XXIV 

Notes on verse 1:17c

XXI “is” = eimi. Related to “coming” in v1:16. See note VI above.
XXII “Son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
XXIII “Beloved” = agapetos. From agape (love, goodwill, benevolence; God’s divine love); from agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is Beloved or very dear one. It is a title for the Messiah, but also for Christians. Properly, this is one who personally experiences God’s love.
XXIV “am well pleased” = eudokeo. Related to “glory” in v1:17. From eu (good, well, well done) + dokeo (see note XV above). This is to think well of, to be pleased or resolved. Properly, this is what someone finds good or acceptable – approving of some action or generally thinking well of.

18 We ourselves heardXXV this voice comeXXVI from heaven,XXVII while we were with him on the holyXXVIII mountain.XXIX

Notes on verse 1:18

XXV “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
XXVI “come” = phero. Same as “conveyed” in v1:17. See note XIX above.
XXVII “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill); probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
XXVIII “holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
XXIX “mountain” = oros. Related to “heaven” in v1:18. See note XXVII above.

19 So we haveXXX the propheticXXXI messageXXXII more fully confirmed.XXXIII

Notes on verse 1:19a

XXX “have” = echo. This is have, hold, possess.
XXXI “prophetic” = prophetikos. Related to “voice” in v1:17. 2x in NT. From prophetes (prophet or poet; one who speaks with inspiration from God); {from pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note XVIII above); {from phao (see note XVIII above) or phaino (see note XVIII above)}}. This is said by a prophet or related to prophets/prophecy.
XXXII “message” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
XXXIII “more fully confirmed” = bebaios. 9x in NT. From the same as basis (a step; hence, a foot, pace, or base); from baino (to walk or go). Properly, this is ground that is solid enough to walk over. So, this is firm, unshakable. Figuratively, it is guaranteed, valid, sure, steadfast, enduring. Literally and figuratively “solid footing.”

You will doXXXIV wellXXXV to be attentiveXXXVI to this

Notes on verse 1:19b

XXXIV “do” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XXXV “well” = kalos. From kalos (good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy; external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues; a different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good). This is nobly, rightly, well-perceived, seen as appealing, morally pleasing, honorably.
XXXVI “be attentive” = prosecho. Related to “have” in v1:19. From pros (at, toward) + echo (see note XXX above). This is have towards, which is to say to give something your complete attention, beware, be cautious, hold to, turn to.

as to a lampXXXVII shiningXXXVIII in a darkXXXIX place,XL

Notes on verse 1:19c

XXXVII “lamp” = luchnos. 14x in NT. Perhaps from the base of leukos (bright, white, brilliant); from luke (light). This is a lamp that is portable and fueled by oil. It can mean light in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXVIII “shining” = phaino. Related to “voice” in v1:17 & “prophetic” in v1:19. See note XVIII above.
XXXIX “dark” = auchmeros. 1x in NT. From auchmos (dust); probably related to aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is dry and withered, dingy, dusky, gloomy, squalid, dirty, obscure.
XL “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.

until the dayXLI dawnsXLII and the morning starXLIII

Notes on verse 1:19d

XLI “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
XLII “dawns” = diaugazo. 2x in NT. From dia (through, across, because of, thoroughly) + augazo (to shine, look bright, discern); {from auge (brightness, daybreak, radiance)} This is dawn, light that pierces the darkness.
XLIII “morning star” = phosphoros. Related to “voice” in v1:17 & “prophetic” and “shining” in v1:19 & to “conveyed” in v1:17. 1x in NT. From phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); {from phao (see note XVIII above) or phaino (see note XXXVIII above)} + phero (see note XIX  above).  This is something that brings light, like a morning star. It is also where the word “phosphorous” comes from.

risesXLIV in your hearts.XLV 20 FirstXLVI of all you must understandXLVII this,

Notes on verses 1:19e-20a

XLIV “rises” = anatello. 9x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, anew) + tello (to cause to arise); {from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax)}. This is rise, shine, or dawn. It is most often used of the sun. Figuratively, it can mean achieving a goal or reaching consummation after completing the needed steps.
XLV “hearts” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
XLVI “first” = proton. From protos (what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief); from pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is firstly, before, in the beginning, formerly.
XLVII “understand” = ginosko. Related to “made known” in v1:16.  See note IV above.

thatXLVIII no prophecyXLIX of scriptureL

Notes on verse 1:20b

XLVIII {untranslated} = pas. This is all or every.
XLIX “prophecy” = propheteia. Related to “voice” in v1:17 & “prophetic” in v1:19 & to “shining” and “morning star” in v1:19. 19x in NT. From prophetes (see note XXXI above). This is prophecy or prediction. It is when a prophet reveals the truth that they received.
L “scripture” = graphe. From grapho (to write). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.

isLI a matter of one’s ownLII interpretation,LIII 

Notes on verse 1:20c

LI “is” = ginomai. Same as “been” in v1:16. See note X above.
LII “one’s own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
LIII “interpretation” = epilusis. 1x in NT. From epiluo (to loose, solve, explain, decide, interpret); {from epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld)}. This is something that has been rightly unloosed, i.e. release, solution, explanation.

21 because no prophecy ever cameLIV by humanLV will,LVI

Notes on verse 1:21a

LIV “came” = phero. Same as “conveyed” in v1:17. See note XIX above.
LV “human” = anthropos. Related to “eyewitnesses” in v1:16. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note XI above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
LVI “will” = thelema. From thelo (to desire, wise, will, intend). This is the act of will, choice, purpose, or decree.

but men and womenLVII movedLVIII by the Holy SpiritLIX spokeLX from God.

Notes on verse 1:21b

LVII “men and women” = anthropos. Same as “human” in v1:21. See note LV above.
LVIII “moved” = phero. Same as “conveyed” in v1:17. See note XIX above.
LIX “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
LX “spoke” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.

2:1 But false prophetsLXI also aroseLXII among the people,LXIII

Notes on verse 2:1a

LXI “false prophets” = pseudoprophetes. Related to “voice” in v1:17 & “prophetic” in v1:19 & “prophecy” in v1:20 & to “shining” and “morning star” in v1:19. 11x in NT.  From pseudes (false, lying, wicked); {from pseudomai (to lie, deceive, falsify)} + prophetes (see note XXXI above)}. This is false prophet – one who pretends they are prophesying from God or who teaches something that is false, but still attributes it to God.
LXII “arose” = ginomai. Same as “been” in v1:16. See note X above.
LXIII “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.

just as there will be false teachersLXIV among you, who will secretly bring inLXV destructiveLXVI opinions.LXVII

Notes on verse 2:1b

LXIV “false teachers” = pseudodidaskalos. Related to “false prophets” in v2:1. 1x in NT. From pseudes (see note LXI above) + didaskalos (teacher, master); {from didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn)}. This is a false teacher – one who spreads erroneous doctrine.
LXV “secretly bring in” = pareisago. 1x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + eisago (to bring in or introduce; it can be literal or figurative); {from eis (to, into, for, among) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive)}. This is to lead in or introduce by stealth.
LXVI “destructive” = apoleia. 18x in NT. From apollumi (to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently; to cancel or remove); {from apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination)}. This is destruction, loss, something cut off, ruin, perdition. It can be any kind of loss whether tangible, spiritual, or eternal.
LXVII “opinions” = hairesis. Related to “heaven” and “mountain” in v1:18. 9x in NT. From haireo (to take, choose, or prefer); {probably related to airo (see note XXVII above)}. This is a choice, contention, heresy, or sect. It is making a person choice so, by implication, choice of a separate party or faction. It is where the word “heresy” comes from.

They will even denyLXVIII the MasterLXIX who boughtLXX them—bringingLXXI swiftLXXII destruction on themselves. 

Notes on verse 2:1c

LXVIII “deny” = arneomai. From a (not) + rheo (say, speak of). This is to deny, disown, refuse, repudiate someone or a previously held belief, to contradict.
LXIX “Master” = despotes. 10x in NT. Perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is lord, master, despot, sovereign Lord. It is an authority who has unrestricted power and jurisdiction.
LXX “bought” = agorazo. From agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare); from ageiro (to gather). This is to go and buy something at market with a focus on goods being transferred. It can also mean to purchase or redeem.
LXXI “bringing” = epago. Related to “secretly bring in” in v2:1. 3x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + ago (see note LXV above). This is to bring in, inflict, charge.
LXXII “swift” = tachinos. 2x in NT. From tachus (quickly, promptly; without unreasonable delay). This is swift, imminent, soon.

Even so, manyLXXIII will follow their debaucheries,LXXIV and because of these teachers the wayLXXV of truthLXXVI will be maligned.LXXVII

Notes on verse 2:2

LXXIII “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
LXXIV “debaucheries” = aselgeia. 10x in NT. From aselges (brutal) OR from a (not) + selges (temperate). This is wantonness, shocking behavior, wanton violence, acting in an unrestrained and capricious way.
LXXV “way” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
LXXVI “truth” = aletheia. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic). {from a (not, without) + lanthano (unnoticed, concealed)}. Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.
LXXVII “maligned” = blasphemeo. Related to “voice” in v1:17 & “prophetic” in v1:19 & “prophecy” in v1:20 & “false prophets” in v2:1 & to “shining” and “morning star” in v1:19. From blasphemos (blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil); {from perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (see note XVIII above)}}. This is to slander, malign, hurl abuse, speak against, blaspheme, or defame. It is speaking evil or abusive language – not acknowledging what is good or worth reverence/respect.

15 They have leftLXXVIII the straightLXXIX roadLXXX and have gone astray,LXXXI

Notes on verse 2:15a

LXXVIII “left” = kataleipo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing). This is to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve.
LXXIX “straight” = euthus. Related to “am well pleased” in v1:17. 8x in NT. Perhaps from eu (see note XXIV above) + tithemi (to place, lay, set, establish). This is immediately, upright, straight and not crooked.
LXXX “road” = hodos. Same as “way” in v2:2. See note LXXV above.
LXXXI “gone astray” = planao. From plane (wandering – used figuratively for deceit, error, sin, fraudulence, or wandering from orthodoxy); from planos (wandering, misleading, a deceiver or imposter). This is to wander, lead astray, mislead, mistake, seduce, or deceive. Generally used to refer to sin – going off the right path or roaming from truth/virtue. This word shares a root with “planet” (as a heavenly body that wanders).

following the road of BalaamLXXXII son of Bosor,LXXXIII who lovedLXXXIV

Notes on verse 2:15b

LXXXII “Balaam” = Balaam. 3x in NT. From Hebrew Bil’am (Balaam, meaning “not of the people” or “foreigner” or “swallowing up the people” or “destroyer of the people” or “destruction of the people” or “confuser of the people”); {from Probably from bal (not, none, nothing, a failure); {from balah (to grow old, wear out, waste away, consume, spend)} + am (people, folk, nation; also troops or attendants; used figuratively for a flock); {from amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together)} OR from bala (to swallow, engulf, cover, destroy) + am (see above)}. This is Balaam, meaning “not of the people” or “foreigner” or “swallowing up the people” or “destroyer of the people” or “destruction of the people” or “confuser of the people.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Balaam.html
LXXXIII “Bosor” = Bosor. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Beor (Beor, meaning “lamp” or “torch” or “burning” or “consuming”); from baar (burn, consume, heat, remove; to consume by a fire or through eating; can also mean being brutish or wasting). This is Bosor, meaning “burning” or “consuming” or “torch” or “lamp.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Beor.html
LXXXIV “loved” = agapao. Related to “beloved” in v1:17. See note XXIII above.

the wagesLXXXV of doing wrongLXXXVI 16 but was rebukedLXXXVII for his ownLXXXVIII

Notes on verses 2:15c-16a

LXXXV “wages” = misthos. This is wages, pay, or salary. It can also be reward, recompense, or punishment. It is pay for services rendered in a literal or figurative way, either good or bad.
LXXXVI “doing wrong” = adikia. From adikos (unjust, unrighteous, wicked, treacherous); {from a (not, without) + dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known)}. This is injustice, unrighteousness, of some other kind of harm or wrong. It is justice in a legal setting or a morally wrong action or character.
LXXXVII “rebuked” = elegxisecho. Elegxis is 1x in NT From elegcho (to expose, reprove, discipline, convict, or rebuke; using convincing evidence to expose a wrong). This is reproof, refutation. Echo is the same as “have” in v1:19. See note XXX above.
LXXXVIII “his own” = idios. Same as “one’s own” in v1:20. See note LII above.

transgression;LXXXIX a speechlessXC donkeyXCI

Notes on verse 2:16b

LXXXIX “transgression” = paranomia. 1x in NT. From the same as paranomeo (to break the law, transgress); {from para (beside, by, in the presence of) + nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}}. This is lawbreaking, iniquity, or transgression.
XC “speechless” = aphonos. Related to “voice” in v1:17 & “prophetic” in v1:19 & “prophecy” in v1:20 & “false prophets” in v2:1 & “maligned” in v2:2 & to “shining” and “morning star” in v1:19. 4x in NT. From a (not, without) + phone (see note XVIII above) This is without voice, silent, meaningless.
XCI “donkey” = hupozugion. 2x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, one who is subordinate) + zugos (yoke, balance, scales; used metaphorically for a great burden or for that which unites people to perform work in concert; also can connote servitude or obligation); {from zeugnumi (to join, particularly joined with a yoke)}. Literally, this is an animal subject to a yoke or best of burden. So, this can refer to a donkey, mule, or other such animal.

spokeXCII with a human voice and restrainedXCIII the prophet’sXCIV madness.XCV

Notes on verse 2:16c

XCII “spoke” = phtheggomai. Related to “voice” in v1:17 & “prophetic” in v1:19 & “prophecy” in v1:20 & “false prophets” in v2:1 & “maligned” in v2:2 & “speechless” in v2:16 & to “shining” and “morning star” in v1:19. 3x in NT. Perhaps akin to pheggos (light, splendor); akin to phos (see note XLIII above). This is to utter – to make a sound like that of a horse. Figuratively, it is a sound that cannot be understood. It can also be to proclaim.
XCIII “restrained” = koluo. Perhaps from the same as kolazo (to punish, particularly to punish slaves so that they are restricted or chastised); from kolos (docked, dwarf). This is to hinder or prevent, restrain, refuse. It can be prevent, whether through words or actions.
XCIV “prophet’s” = prophetes. Related to “voice” in v1:17 & “prophetic” in v1:19 & “prophecy” in v1:20 & “false prophets” in v2:1 & “maligned” in v2:2 & “speechless” and “spoke” in v2:16 & to “shining” and “morning star” in v1:19. See note XXXI above.
XCV “madness” = paraphronia. 1x in NT. From paraphroneo (to be out of oneself, act irrationally or deranged, be silly or foolish); {from para (by, beside, in the presence of) + phroneo (to think, judge, use one’s mind, have an opinion, shape one’s opinion through action); {from phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb)}}. This is behaving outside one’s mind, insane, irrational.

17 These are waterlessXCVI springsXCVII and mistsXCVIII drivenXCIX by a storm;C

Notes on verse 2:17a

XCVI “waterless” = anudros. 4x in NT. From a (not, without) + hudor (water in a literal or figurative sense); {perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain)}. This is without water – dry or somewhere dry.
XCVII “springs” = pege. 11x in NT. This is a fount in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could be a spring of water, a fountain, or a well. It is also used for a flow of blood. It can mean more generally the source of something: water, blood, fun.
XCVIII “mists” = achlus. 2x in NT. This is becoming dark or dim. It could be mist or a cataract.
XCIX “driven” = elauno. 5x n NT. This is to propel or carry – to drive forward with oars or like the wind does. It can also refer to being driven by a demon.
C “storm” = lailaps. 3x in NT. This is a sudden storm like a squall or a gale.

for them the deepestCI darknessCII has been reserved.CIII 

Notes on verse 2:17b

CI “deepest” = zophos. 5x in NT. Related to gnophos (darkness, gloom, cloud); {from dnophos (darkness) or related to nephos (cloud; figurative for a great crowd or multitude)}. This is darkness, gloom, or mist. It is darkness that includes an eerie feeling. Figuratively, it can mean apocalyptic.
CII “darkness” = skotos. Perhaps from the base of skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it. This can also mean obscurity.
CIII “reserved” = tereo. From teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve. It can also be used f iguratively for spiritual watchfulness. It is guarding something from being lost or harmed – keeping an eye on it. Contrast the Greek phulasso, which is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape. Also contrast koustodia, which generally denotes a fortress or military presence. This word can mean fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining. It can also figuratively mean to remain unmarried.

18 For they speakCIV bombasticCV nonsense,CVI

Notes on verse 2:18a

CIV “speak” = phtheggomai. Same as “spoke” in v2:16. See note XCII above.
CV “bombastic” = huperogkos. 2x in NT. From huper (over, above, beyond) + ogkos (weight, burden, load); {probably related to agkale (the arm, particularly one that is bent to carry a load); from agkos (a bend, ache)}. This is excessive, boastful, oversized, bloated, egotistical.
CVI “nonsense” = mataiotes. 3x in NT. From mataios (vain, useless, worthless, unproductive, or purposeless; figuratively fleeting or idols); from the same as maten (in vain, aimlessly, pointless, fruitless); from mate (a folly) or from massaomai (to chew, gnaw); {from masso (to kneed, squeeze). This is vanity, aimlessness, emptiness, unreality, instability, futility, false religion. It can also mean moral depravity.

and with debasedCVII desiresCVIII of the fleshCIX

Notes on verse 2:18b

CVII “debased” = aselgeia. Same as “debaucheries” in v2:2. See note LXXIV above.
CVIII “desires” = epithumia. From epithmueo (long for, set one’s heart on, yearn, desire); {from epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}}. This is desire, a longing built on passionate emotion or urges. This can be a positive or a negative passion (lust or eagerness).
CIX “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).

they enticeCX people who have justCXI escapedCXII from those who liveCXIII in error.CXIV 

Notes on verse 2:18c

CX “entice” = deleazo. 3x in NT. From delear (bait) OR related to dolos (literally bait, but used figuratively for treachery, stealth, guile, or deceit); {from dello (probably to decoy)}. This is to lure or entice using some bait.
CXI “just” = oligos. This is few or small – it can be a short time or extent, low light, amount, or worth.
CXII “escaped” = apopheugo. 3x in NT– all in 2 Peter. From apo (from, away from) + pheugo (to run away in a literal or figurative sense; to flee, escape, shun, or vanish). This is to flee, break away completely, escape.
CXIII “live” = anastrepho. 9x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn back, return, or overturn. It can also imply busying oneself and so to remain, dwell, behave, or live somewhere.
CXIV “error” = plane. Related to “gone astray” in v2:15. 10x in NT. See note LXXXI above.

19 They promiseCXV them freedom,CXVI but they themselves areCXVII

Notes on verse 2:19a

CXV “promise” = epaggellomai. Related to “secretly bring in” and “bringing” in v2:1. 15x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (see note LXV above)}. This is to proclaim, profess, or make a promise that is fitting.
CXVI “freedom” = eleutheria. 11x in NT. From eleutheros (a free person, at liberty, not a slave; properly, unshackled – figuratively, it is one who has the freedom to choose their destiny. Also, it is one who does not have obligation or liability); probably from erchomai (to come or go). This is liberty or freedom. Particularly, it would be release from slavery. It can also refer to moral freedom.
CXVII “are” = huparcho. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.

slavesCXVIII of corruption,CXIX for people are slavesCXX to whatever mastersCXXI them. 

Notes on verse 2:19b

CXVIII “slaves” = doulos. Related to “Master” in v2:1. Perhaps from deo (see note LXIX above). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
CXIX “corruption” = phthora. 9x in NT. From phtheiro (to destroy, corrupt, perish, waste away; figuratively, moral decay). This is destruction, corruption, or something perishable. It can be spontaneous decay or corruption inflicted on another in a literal or figurative sense.
CXX “are slaves” = douloo. Related to “Master” in v2:1 & “slaves” in v2:19. 8x in NT. From doulos (see note CXVIII above). This is to enslave, cause something to be subject or bound. It focuses on the impact or result of being enslaved. It can be literal or figurative.
CXXI “masters” = hettaomai. 3x in NT. From the same as hesson (less, worse); {from eka (a little)} OR related to hetton (less, worse, weaker); {related to hesson (see above) or from heka (slightly)}. This is to be worse off, overpowered, be treated as less than, to defeat.

Image credit: “The OC” by Joshua Bousel, 2005.

You May Also Like

Leave a Reply