Luke 19

Luke 19


He enteredI JerichoII and was passing throughIII it. 

Notes on verse 1

I “entered” = eiserchomai. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
II “Jericho” = Hiericho. 7x in NT. From Hebrew Yriychow (Jericho); {perhaps from yareach (moon); {from the same as yerach (month)} OR from ruach (small, breathe, perceive, anticipate, accept, enjoy).}. This is Jericho, meaning either “fragrant” or “moon.”
III “passing through” = dierchomai. Related to “entered” in v1. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (see note I above). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.

2 IVA manV was there namedVI Zacchaeus;VII

Notes on verse 2a

IV {untranslated} = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
V “man” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
VI “named” = onoma + kaleo. Onoma may be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person. Kaleo is related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
VII “Zacchaeus” = Zakchaios. 3x in NT– all in Luke 19. From Hebrew Zakkay (Zakkay, Zaccai, meaning “pure”); from zakak (to be bright, cleanse, transparent; to be morally pure). This is Zacchaeus, meaning “pure” or “innocent.”

he wasVIII a chief tax collectorIX and was rich.X 

Notes on verse 2b

VIII “was” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
IX “chief tax collector” = architelones. 1x in NT. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + telones (tax collector, one who worked for the Romans taking taxes from Jews; also the toll house; literally, “paying at the end”); {from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one)}. This is the head or main tax collector.
X “rich” = plousios. From ploutos (abundance, wealth, or riches; money, possessions, spiritual abundance, or a valuable bestowment); from polus (much, many, abundant) OR pleo (to sail, voyage); {probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow)} OR pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is wealthy, having full resources. It can be a rich person or refer to God’s abundance.

He was tryingXI to seeXII who JesusXIII was,

Notes on verse 3a

XI “trying” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
XII “see” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
XIII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

but on account of the crowdXIV he couldXV not, because he was shortXVI in stature.XVII 

Notes on verse 3b

XIV “crowd” = ochlos. Perhaps from echo (to have, hold, possess). This is a crowd, the common people, a rabble. Figuratively, it can refer to a riot.
XV “could” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
XVI “short” = mikros. This is small in reference to a size or the number of something, least or less. Figuratively, it can refer to little dignity.
XVII “stature” = helikia. 8x in NT. From the same as helikos (of what size, how much; properly, full grown, an adult); from helix (mature, adult, of the same age). This refers to maturity, stature, life span, or being of a suitable age. It could refer to maturity in terms of years or size.

So he ranXVIII ahead and climbedXIX a sycamore treeXX to see him, because he was going toXXI pass that way.XXII 

Notes on verse 4

XVIII “ran” = protrecho. 2x in NT. From pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + trecho (to run, make progress, rush; running like an athlete in a race; figuratively, to work quickly towards a goal in a focused way). This is to run ahead or outrun.
XIX “climbed” = anabaino. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); {from baino (to walk, to go)}. This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
XX “sycamore tree” = sukomorea. 1x in NT. From sukon (fig) + moron (black mulberry). This is a sycamore or fig-mulberry tree.
XXI “was going to” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
XXII “pass that way” = dierchomai. Same as “passing through” in v1. See note III above.

When Jesus cameXXIII to the place,XXIV he looked upXXV and said to him, “Zacchaeus, hurryXXVI and come down,XXVII

Notes on verse 5a

XXIII “came” = erchomai. Related to “entered” and “passing through” in v1. See note I above.
XXIV “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
XXV “looked up” = anablepo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + blepo (to see, used primarily in the physical sense; figuratively, seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, beware, and acting on the visual information). This is to look up or regain sight.
XXVI “hurry” = speudo. 6x in NT– shepherds went with hast to find Mary and Joseph and the child in Luke 2:16. Jesus tells Zacchaeus to hurry down from the tree in Luke 19:5-6. Perhaps from pous (foot in a figurative or literal sense). This is to hurry, urge on, await. It implies eagerness or diligence.
XXVII “come down” = katabaino. Related to “climbed” in v4. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note XIX above). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.

for I mustXXVIII stayXXIX at your houseXXX today.”XXXI 

Notes on verse 5b

XXVIII “must” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
XXIX “stay” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.
XXX “house” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.
XXXI “today” = semeron. From hemera (day, time, daybreak); perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is today, now, at present.

So he hurried downXXXII and was happyXXXIII to welcomeXXXIV him. 

Notes on verse 6

XXXII “down” = katabaino. Same as “come down” in v5. See note XXVII above.
XXXIII “was happy” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).
XXXIV “welcome” = hupodechomai. 4x in NT– including Martha and Zacchaeus welcoming Jesus into their homes in Luke 10:38 & Luke 19:6. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense).  This is to welcome someone as a guest, to entertain them, to have someone in your personal care.

7 AllXXXV who saw it began to grumbleXXXVI and said,XXXVII

Notes on verse 7a

XXXV “all” = pas. This is all or every.
XXXVI “grumble” = diagogguzo. 2x in NT– grumbling of Pharisees and scribes before the Parable of the Lost Sheep in Luke 15:2 & when Jesus agreed to eat with Zacchaeus in Luke 19:7. From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + gogguzo (to murmur or grumble; an onomatopoeia to sound similar to the cooing of doves; figuratively, it is simmering displeasure that is muffled – a dull, constant murmuring). This is to grumble or murmur like the ongoing hum of a dove or bee. It is intense, negative complaining as amplified through a crowd.
XXXVII “said” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.

“He has goneXXXVIII to be the guest ofXXXIX oneXL who is a sinner.”XLI 

Notes on verse 7b

XXXVIII “gone” = eiserchomai. Same as “entered” in v1. See note I above.
XXXIX “to be the guest of” = kataluo. 17x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). Literally, this means thoroughly loosening. It can mean unharnessing or unyoking animals and so to lodge somewhere for a night. It can also mean to disintegrate or demolish in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be destroy, overthrow, abolish, or tear down.
XL “one” = aner. Same as “man” in v2. See note V above.
XLI “sinner” = hamartolos. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. This is sinning, sinful, sinner. It referred to missing the mark or falling short. The term was also used in archery for missing the target.

Zacchaeus stoodXLII there and said to the Lord,XLIII “Look,XLIV half of my possessions,XLV

Notes on verse 8a

XLII “stood” = histemi. This is to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast.
XLIII “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XLIV “look” = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note IV above.
XLV “possessions” = huparcho. Related to “chief tax collector” in v2. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (see note IX above). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.

Lord, I will giveXLVI to the poor,XLVII and if I have defraudedXLVIII anyone of anything, I will pay backXLIX four times as much.”L 

Notes on verse 8b

XLVI “give” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
XLVII “poor” = ptochos. From ptosso (to crouch or cower as a beggar does). This is poor or destitute – someone who is extremely poor and bowed down because of a long struggle under poverty. Properly, it means bent over so figuratively it is someone who is deeply destitute and lacking tangible resources. This is a beggar – as extremely opposite a wealthy person as possible.
XLVIII “defrauded” = sukophanteo. Related to “sycamore tree” in v4. 2x in NT. From sukon (see note XX above) + phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is literally someone who was an informant against people who illegally exported figs from Greece. Figuratively, it is to make a false accusation or defraud. This is where the word “sycophant” comes from.
XLIX “pay back” = apodidomi. Related to “give” in v8. From apo (from, away from) + didomi (see note XLVI above). This is to give back, return, give away. It is to restore as when one makes payment – to rend what is due, to sell.
L “four times as much” = tetraplous. Related to “rich” in v2. 1x in NT. From tessares (four; figuratively, total coverage) + perhaps ploos (voyage, navigation)}; {from pleo (to sail, voyage); probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow)} OR from tessares (four; figuratively, total coverage) + a derivative of pleistos (greatest, large quantity); {from polus (see note X above)}. This is quadruple or fourfold.

Then Jesus said to him, “Today salvationLI has comeLII to this house, because he, too, is a sonLIII of Abraham.LIV 

Notes on verse 9

LI “salvation” = soteria. From soter (a savior, deliverer); from sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue; taking someone from danger to safety; delivering or protecting literally or figuratively); from sos (safe, rescued, well). This is deliverance, salvation, preservation, welfare, prosperity, safety.
LII “come” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
LIII “son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
LIV “Abraham” = Abraam. From Hebrew Abraham (exalted father); from the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (father literal or figurative) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.

10 For the Son of ManLV cameLVI to seek outLVII and to saveLVIII the lost.”LIX

Notes on verse 10

LV “Man” = anthropos. Related to “man” in v2 & “see” in v3. Probably from aner (see note V above) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note XII above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
LVI “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note XXIII above.
LVII “seek out” = zeteo. Same as “trying” in v3. See note XI above.
LVIII “save” = sozo. Related to “salvation” in v9. See note LI above.
LIX “lost” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.

11 As they were listeningLX to this, he went onLXI to tell a parable,LXII because he was nearLXIII JerusalemLXIV

Notes on verse 11a

LX “listening” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
LXI “went on” = prostithemi. 18x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to add, place to, bring together for a reason, or add up.
LXII “parable” = parabole. From paraballo (literally to throw beside, compare, arrive, liken); {from para (by, beside, in the presence of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a parable, comparison, adage. Quite often a tale told or a metaphor to establish a point, but it could be a true story.
LXIII “near” = eggus. Perhaps from agcho (to squeeze). This is nearby or near in time.
LXIV “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

and because they supposedLXV thatLXVI the kingdomLXVII of GodLXVIII was to appearLXIX immediately.LXX 

Notes on verse 11b

LXV “supposed” = dokeo. From dokos (opinion). This is to have an opinion, seem, appear, think, suppose. It deals with a personal judgment. This is the root of the word “doxology.”
LXVI {untranslated} = mello. Same as “was going to” in v4. See note XXI above.
LXVII “kingdom” = basileia. Related to “climbed” in v4 & “come down” in v5. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (see note XIX above). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
LXVIII “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
LXIX “appear” = anaphaino. Related to “defrauded” in v8. 2x in NT. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + phaino (see note XLVIII above). This is to discover, show, come into view.
LXX “immediately” = parachrema. 18x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + chrema (something needed or useful– money, possessions, price); {from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary)}. This is immediately or soon.

12 So he said, “A noblemanLXXI wentLXXII to a distantLXXIII regionLXXIV

Notes on verse 12a

LXXI “nobleman” = anthroposeugenes. Anthropos is the same as “Man” in v10. See note LV above. Eugenes is related to “come” in v9. 3x in NT. From eu (good, well, well done) + ginomai (see note LII above). This is noble or high status birth. It can literally refer to a higher rank or it can be used to speak of a noble nature, which is to say, generous.
LXXII “went” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
LXXIII “distant” = makran. 9x in NT. From makros (long, long lasting); from mekos (length); probably related to megas (great or large). This is far off, remote, far away in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXIV “region” = chora. From chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is space, land, region, fields, open area – the countryside in contrast to the town.

to receiveLXXV royal powerLXXVI for himself and then return.LXXVII 

Notes on verse 12b

LXXV “receive” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
LXXVI “royal power” = basileia. Same as “kingdom” in v11. See note LXVII above.
LXXVII “return” = hupostrepho. From hupo (by, under, about) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn back or behind in a literal or figurative sense.

13 He summonedLXXVIII tenLXXIX of his slavesLXXX

Notes on verse 13a

LXXVIII “summoned” = kaleo. Same as “named” in v2. See note VI above.
LXXIX “ten” = deka. This is ten, a number associated with perfection (to a lesser extent than the number seven). It is where “decade” and “decathlon” come from.
LXXX “slaves” = doulos. Related to “must” in v5. Perhaps from deo (see note XXVIII above). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).

and gave them ten poundsLXXXI and said to them, ‘Do businessLXXXII with these until I come back.’LXXXIII 

Notes on verse 13b

LXXXI “pounds” = mna. 9x in NT– only in Luke 19. From Hebrew maneh (a silver weight for payment – a maneh/mina or pound); from manah (to weigh out, reckon, count, number, set, tell; by implication, it is allotting or providing something officially). This is a silver weight for payment– a mina or pound. It was equivalent to 100 drachma – the same among a common laborer earned for as many days’ work.
LXXXII “do business” = pragmateuomai. 1x in NT. From pragma (action, matter, or business; something done on a regular basis that is done in order to get something done); from prasso (to do or practice – something done on an on-going basis or by habit; to accomplish, attend, or commit). This is to occupy oneself, do business, barter, bear fruit, make a profit.
LXXXIII “come back” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note XXIII above.

14 But the citizensLXXXIV of his country hatedLXXXV him and sentLXXXVI

Notes on verse 14a

LXXXIV “citizens” = polites. 4x in NT. From polis (a city or its inhabitants; is a town of variable size, but one that has walls); probably from the same as polemos (war, quarrel, strife; battle, whether one time or on-going); {from pelomai (to bustle) or from polus (much, many, abundant)}. This is citizen or townsperson
LXXXV “hated” = miseo. From misos (hatred). This word is used in two ways in the New Testament. One has to do with how we prioritize. In order to prioritize something the highest, it means we have to rank other things lower. We cannot have 10 number one priorities. So, the nine that are not number 1, we love less or we value them lower. We make a moral choice the springs from our values about where we put our time, efforts, energy, etc. The other way is detesting or hatred as we normally think of it. This sense has a particular affinity with persecuting the one we hate.
LXXXVI “sent” = apostello. Related to “stood” in v8. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (see note XLII above)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.

a delegationLXXXVII afterLXXXVIII him, saying, ‘We do not wantLXXXIX this man to ruleXC over us.’ 

Notes on verse 14b

LXXXVII “delegation” = presbeia. 2x in NT. From presbeuo (to be mature; to be an elder, representative, or ambassador; figuratively, to a preacher); from presbuteros (an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church); from presbus (old man). This is age, seniority, ambassador, delegation.
LXXXVIII “after” = opiso. Related to “see” in v3 & “man” in v10. From the same as opisthen (after, back, from the rear); probably from opis (back); from optanomai (see note LV above). This is back, behind, after.
LXXXIX “want” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
XC “rule” = basileuo. Related to “climbed” in v4 & “come down” in v5 & “kingdom” in v11. From basileus (see note LXVII above). This is to reign as king, to rule in a literal or figurative sense.

15 XCIWhen he returned,XCII having received royal power, he ordered these slaves to whom he had given the moneyXCIII

Notes on verse 15a

XCI {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as “come” in v9. See note LII above.
XCII “returned” = epanerchomai. Related to “entered” and “passing through” in v1 & “came” in v5. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + anerchomai (to go up, ascend); {from ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + erchomai (see note I above)}. This is to come back or return.
XCIII “money” = argurion. From arguros (silver, whether the metal itself or things made from silver); from argos (shining). This is silver, which implies money – shekel, drachma, etc.

to be summonedXCIV so that he might find outXCV what they had gained by doing business.XCVI 

16 The firstXCVII came forwardXCVIII and said, ‘Lord, your pound has madeXCIX ten more pounds.’ 

Notes on verses 15b-16

XCIV “summoned” = phoneo. Related to “defrauded” in v8 & “appear” in v11. From phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (see note XLVIII above). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.
XCV “find out” = ginosko. Related to “named” in v2. See note VI above.
XCVI “gained by doing business” = diapragmateuomai. Related to “do business” in v13. 1x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + pragmateuomai (see note LXXXII above). This is to earn, examine, get through trading
XCVII “first” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
XCVIII “came forward” = paraginomai. Related to “come” in v9 & “nobleman” in v12. From para (from beside, by) + ginomai (see note LII above). This is to arrive, appear, reach. It implies appearing publicly.
XCIX “made” = prosergazomai. 1x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + ergazomai (to work, labor); {from ergon (work, task, action, employment)}. This is to gain, acquire besides.

17 He said to him, ‘Well done,C goodCI slave! Because you have beenCII trustworthyCIII

Notes on verse 17a

C “well done” = eu. Related to “nobleman” in v12. 6x in NT. See note LXXI above.
CI “good” = agathos. This is good, a benefit, or a good thing. It is good by its very nature, intrinsically good. A different word, kalos, refers to external signs of goodness.
CII “been” = ginomai. Same as “come” in v9. See note LII above.
CIII “trustworthy” = pistos. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true. It is a fullness of faith. This is the same root as the word “faith” in Greek.

in a very small thing,CIV takeCV chargeCVI of ten cities.’CVII 

Notes on verse 17b

CIV “very small thing” = elachistos. Related to “short” in v3. 13x in NT. From elachus (short); used as a superlative for mikros (see note XVI above). This is smallest or littlest in the sense of size, amount, rank, dignity, and so on.
CV “take” = echo. Related to “crowd” in v3. See note XIV above.
CVI “charge” = exousia. Related to “was” in v2. From exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note VIII above)}. This is power to act or weight. It especially denotes moral authority or influence. It can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength.
CVII “cities” = polis. Related to “citizens” in v14. See note LXXXIV above.

18 Then the secondCVIII came,CIX saying, ‘Lord, your pound has madeCX fiveCXI pounds.’ 

19 He said to him, ‘And you, rule overCXII five cities.’ 

Notes on verses 18-19

CVIII “second” = deuteros. From duo (two, both). This is second, twice, again. It is part of where “Deuteronomy” comes from, which means “second law” or “a repetition of the law.” See
CIX “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note XXIII above.
CX “made” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
CXI “five” = pente. This is five. It may be symbolically associated with the Temple or redemption.
CXII {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as “come” in v9. See note LII above.

20 Then the otherCXIII came,CXIV saying, ‘Lord, hereCXV is your pound. I wrappedCXVI it up in a piece of cloth,CXVII 

Notes on verse 20

CXIII “other” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
CXIV “came” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note XXIII above.
CXV “here” = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note IV above.
CXVI “wrapped” = echo + apokeimai. Echo is the same as “take” in v17. See note CV above. Apokeimai is 4x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + keimai (to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined; to lie down literally or figuratively). This is to appoint, put away, store, reserve, await.
CXVII “piece of cloth” = soudarion. 4x in NT. From Latin sudarium (sweat cloth) This is a napkin, face cloth, or handkerchief. It can be used as a towel to wipe sweat from the face or a cloth for the head of a corpse.

21 for I was afraidCXVIII of you, because you are a harshCXIX man;CXX

Notes on verse 21a

CXVIII “was afraid” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.
CXIX “harsh” = austeros. 2x in NT. From hauo (to dry) OR perhaps from aer (air that we breathe); {from aemi (to breathe or blow)}. This is harsh, austere, severe, rough.
CXX “man” = anthropos. Same as “Man” in v10. See note LV above.

you takeCXXI what you did not depositCXXII and reapCXXIII what you did not sow.’CXXIV 

Notes on verse 21b

CXXI “take” = airo. This is to lift up in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could mean to lift, carry, or raise. It could also imply lifting something in order to take it away or remove it. Figuratively, this can be used for raising the voice or level of suspense. It can mean sailing off as raising the anchor. It can also correspond to a Hebrew expression for atonement of sin (lift/remove sin).
CXXII “deposit” = tithemi. Related to “went on” in v11. See note LXI above.
CXXIII “reap” = therizo. From theros (summer; the heat, which implies summer); from thero (to heat). This is to gather or harvest.
CXXIV “sow” = speiro. Probably from spao (to pull or draw like one draws a sword). This is sowing a seed or scattering. It is sowing in a literal or figurative sense.

22 He said to him, ‘I will judgeCXXV you by your own words,CXXVI you wickedCXXVII slave!

Notes on verse 22a

CXXV “judge” = krino. To judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue. This is judging whether it is done in court or in a private setting. Properly, it refers to mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty. It can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.
CXXVI “by your own words” = ek + ho + stoma + su. Literally, “out of your mouth.” Stoma is perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.
CXXVII “wicked” = poneros. From poneo (to toil); related to ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is bad, evil, wicked, malicious, grievous, or toilsome. Properly, it is something that bears pain – it emphasizes the miseries and pains that come with evil. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.

You knew,CXXVIII did you, that I was a harsh man,CXXIX taking what I did not deposit and reaping what I did not sow? 23 Why, then, did you not putCXXX my money into the bank?CXXXI Then when I returned,CXXXII I could have collectedCXXXIII it with interest.’CXXXIV 

Notes on verses 22b-23

CXXVIII “knew” = eido. Related to {untranslated} in v2. See note IV above.
CXXIX “man” = anthropos. Same as “Man” in v10. See note LV above.
CXXX “put” = didomi. Same as “give” in v8. See note XLVI above.
CXXXI “bank” = trapeza. Related to “four times as much” in v8 & “hurry” in v5. 15x in NT. Probably from tessares (see note L above) + peze (by foot or land) or pezos (by foot or land); {from pous (see note XXVI above)}. This is a table – whether for eating or conducting business. Literally, four feet. This is where the word “trapeze” comes from.
CXXXII “returned” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v5. See note XXIII above.
CXXXIII “collected” = prasso. Related to “do business” in v13 & “gained by doing business” in v15. See note LXXXII above.
CXXXIV “interest” = tokos. 2x in NT. From tikto (to produce, bring forth, beget). This is bringing forth or birth. Figuratively, it can refer to interest or usury.

24 He said to the bystanders,CXXXV ‘Take the pound from him and give it to the one who hasCXXXVI ten pounds.’ 

25 (And they said to him, ‘Lord, he has ten pounds!’) 

26 ‘I tell you, to all those who have, more will be given, but from those who have nothing, even what they have will be taken away.CXXXVII 

Notes on verses 24-26

CXXXV “bystanders” = paristemi. Related to “stood” in v8 & “sent” in v14. From para (from beside, by) + histemi (see note XLII above). This is literally to place by stand. It can mean to present, exhibit, appear, bring, stand by, or prove. It can also mean to be ready, to assist, to yield, or to commend.
CXXXVI “has” = echo. Same as “take” in v17. See note CV above.
CXXXVII “taken away” = airo. Same as “take” in v21. See note CXXI above.

27 ButCXXXVIII as for these enemiesCXXXIX of mine who did not want me to rule over them—bringCXL them here and slaughterCXLI them in my presence.’”

Notes on verse 27

CXXXVIII “but” = plen. Related to “rich” in v2 & “four times as much” in v8. From pleion (many, more, great, having a greater value, more excellent); from polus (see note X above). This is yet, nevertheless.
CXXXIX “enemies” = echthros. From echthos (hatred). This is an openly hostile person so an enemy, a foe, or a hated person. This speaks of irreconcilable hostility. It can also mean adversary and/or refer to Satan.
CXL “bring” = ago. This is lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go.
CXLI “slaughter” = katasphazo. 1x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + sphazo (to slay, butcher an animal to eat or for sacrifice, slaughter, maim through violence). This is to kill off or slay.

28 After he had said this, he went onCXLII ahead, going upCXLIII to Jerusalem.CXLIV

29 WhenCXLV he had come nearCXLVI BethphageCXLVII and Bethany,CXLVIII

Notes on verses 28-29a

CXLII “went on” = poreuomai. Same as “went” in v12. See note LXXII above.
CXLIII “going up” = anabaino. Same as “climbed” in v4. See note XIX above.
CXLIV “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. Related to “Jerusalem” in v11. It is the Greek form of the Hebrew. See note LXIV above.
CXLV {untranslated} = ginomai. Same as “come” in v9. See note LII above.
CXLVI “come near” = eggizo. Related to “near” in v11. From eggus (see note LXIII above). This is extremely close by – approaching, at hand, immediately imminent.
CXLVII “Bethphage” = Bethphage. 3x in NT. – all in Jesus’s Palm Sunday entry into Jerusalem. From Aramaic beth phagy (Bethphage, house of unripe figs). This is Bethphage, house of unripe or early figs.
CXLVIII “Bethany” = Bethania. 12x in NT. Related to “Bethphage” in v29. From Aramaic beth anya (house of affliction, misery, wretchedness). This is Bethany.

at the place calledCXLIX the MountCL of Olives,CLI he sent twoCLII of the disciples,CLIII 

Notes on verse 29b

CXLIX “called” = kaleo. Same as “named” in v2. See note VI above.
CL “Mount” = oros. Related to “take” in v21. Perhaps from oro (to rise); perhaps akin to airo (see note CXXI above). This is mountain or hill.
CLI “Olives” = elaia. 15x in NT. This is olive or olive tree. Sometimes, it refers to the chosen people.
CLII “two” = duo. Related to “second” in v18. See note CVIII above.
CLIII “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.

30 saying, “GoCLIV into the villageCLV ahead of you, and as you enterCLVI it

Notes on verse 30a

CLIV “go” = hupago. Related to “bring” in v27. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (see note CXL above). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
CLV “village” = kome. This is a village as contrasted with a city that has a wall.
CLVI “enter” = eisporeuomai. Related to “went” in v12. 18x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + poreuomai (see note LXXII above). 18x in NT. This is to enter or journey in in a literal or figurative sense.

you will findCLVII tiedCLVIII there a coltCLIX that has never been ridden.CLX

Notes on verse 30b

CLVII “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
CLVIII “tied” = deo. Related to “must” in v5 & “slaves” in v13. See note XXVIII above.
CLIX “colt” = polos. 12x in NT– all in Jesus’s Palm Sunday entry into Jerusalem. This is foal, colt, or young donkey.
CLX “never been ridden” = epi + hos + oudeis + popote + anthropos + kathizo. Literally, “on which no person yet has sat.” Anthropos is the same as “Man” in v10. See note LV above. Kathizo is from kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.

UntieCLXI it and bring it here. 31 If anyone asksCLXII you, ‘Why are you untying it?’ just sayCLXIII this, ‘The Lord needsCLXIV it.’” 

Notes on verses 30c-31

CLXI “untie” = luo. Related to “to be the guest of” in v7. See note XXXIX above.
CLXII “asks” = erotao. From eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of). This is asking a question or making an earnest request. It is used between someone with whom the asker is close in some sense. So, they anticipate special consideration for their request.
CLXIII “say” = ereo. Related to “asks” in v31. See note CLXII above.
CLXIV “needs” = chreia + echo. Chreia is related to “immediately” in v11. From chraomai (see note LXX above). This is the is task, business, or affair. It can also be need, want, or destitution. Echo is the same as “take” in v17. See note CV above.

32 So those who were sent departedCLXV and found it as he had told them. 33 As they were untying the colt, its ownersCLXVI asked them, “Why are you untying the colt?” 

34 They said, “The Lord needs it.” 

35 Then they brought it to Jesus, and after throwingCLXVII their cloaksCLXVIII on the colt,

Notes on verses 32-35a

CLXV “departed” = aperchomai. Related to “entered” and “passing through” in v1 & “came” in v5 & “returned” in v15. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note I above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXVI “owners” = kurios. Same as “Lord” in v8. See note XLIII above.
CLXVII “throwing” = epiripto. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + rhipto (to cast, toss fling, or disperse; a quick toss in contrast to another word ballo, intentional hurling, and teino (stretching outward)); {perhaps related to rhapizo (to hit with a rod or to slap); from a derivation of rhabdos (staff, rod, cudgel; a staff that denotes power, royalty, or authority); from rhepo (to let fall, to rap)}. This is to throw or cast in a literal or figurative sense (like casting you anxiety on God).
CLXVIII “cloaks” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.

they set Jesus onCLXIX it. 36 As he rode along,CLXX people kept spreadingCLXXI their cloaks on the road.CLXXII 

Notes on verses 35b-36

CLXIX “set…on” = epibibazo. Related to “climbed” in v4 & “come down” in v5 & “kingdom” in v11 & “rule” in v14. 3x in NT– including the Good Samaritan putting the wounded man on his own animal. From epibaino (to board, a horse or vessel, step on, arrive, go abroad); {from epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + baino (see note XIX above)}. This is to place on.
CLXX “rode along” = poreuomai. Same as “went” in v12. See note LXXII above.
CLXXI “spreading” = hupostronnuo. 1x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, under someone’s authority) + stronnuo (to spread, make a bed). This is to spread under like a carpet.
CLXXII “road” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.

37 Now as he was approachingCLXXIII the path downCLXXIV from the Mount of Olives, the wholeCLXXV multitudeCLXXVI of the disciples

Notes on verse 37a

CLXXIII “approaching” = eggizo. Same as “come near” in v29. See note CXLVI above.
CLXXIV “path down” = katabasis. Related to “climbed” in v4 & “come down” in v5 & “kingdom” in v11 & “rule” in v14 & “set…on” in v35. 1x in NT. From katabaino (to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower, literal or figurative); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note XIX above)}. This is a descent or path down.
CLXXV “whole” = hapas. Related to “all” in v7. From hama (at once, together with) + pas (see note XXXV above) OR from a (with) + pas (see above). This is all; every part working together as a unit.
CLXXVI “multitude” = plethos. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is fullness, multitude, great number.

beganCLXXVII to praiseCLXXVIII God joyfullyCLXXIX with a loudCLXXX voiceCLXXXI for all the deeds of powerCLXXXII that they had seen, 

Notes on verse 37b

CLXXVII “began” = archomai. Related to “chief tax collector” in v2 & “possessions” in v8. From archo (see note IX above). This is to begin or rule.
CLXXVIII “praise” = aineo. 8x in NT. From ainos (praise, saying, story, proverb). This is to praise.
CLXXIX “joyfully” = chairo. Same as “was happy” in v6. See note XXXIII above.
CLXXX “loud” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
CLXXXI “voice” = phone. Related to “defrauded” in v8 & “appear” in v11 & “summoned” in v15. See note XCIV above.
CLXXXII “deeds of power” = dunamis. Related to “could” in v3. From dunamai (see note XV above). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.

38 saying,

“Blessed isCLXXXIII the kingCLXXXIV
    who comesCLXXXV in the name of the Lord!

Notes on verse 38a

CLXXXIII “blessed is” = eulogeo. Related to “nobleman” in v12 & “well done” in v17 & “said” in v7. From eu (see note LXXI above) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (see note XXXVII above)}. Properly, this is speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited. It can mean praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing. This is where “eulogy” comes from.
CLXXXIV “king” = basileus. Related to “climbed” in v4 & “come down” in v5 & “kingdom” in v11 & “rule” in v14 & “set…on” in v35 & “path down” in v37. See note LXVII above.
CLXXXV “comes” = erchomai. See note XXIII above.

    and gloryCLXXXVIII in the highestCLXXXIX heaven!”

Notes on verse 38b

CLXXXVI “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)
CLXXXVII “heaven” = ouranos. Related to “take” in v21 & “Mount” in v29. May be related to oros (see note CL above). This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
CLXXXVIII “glory” = doxa. Related to “supposed” in v11. See note above. From dokeo (see note LXV above). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
CLXXXIX “highest” = hupistos.13x in NT. From hupsos (height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted); from hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond) This is highest, heights, heaven. It can also refer to God as Most High or the Supreme One.

39 Some of the PhariseesCXC in the crowd said to him, “Teacher,CXCI order your disciples to stop.”CXCII 

Notes on verse 39

CXC “Pharisees” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
CXCI “Teacher” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
CXCII “order…to stop” = epitimao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + timao (properly, this is setting a value or price on something, to estimate. Figuratively, it speaks to what level of honor we afford someone or something depending on our personal feeling toward it. By implication, this can mean to revere or honor); {from time (worth or perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something; can be esteem or dignity; can also mean precious or valuables); from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is to render what is due – to assign the value that is appropriate for the situation. So, it could mean to honor or to warn, to rebuke or to charge. Generally, it is a warning meant to guide someone away from doing something wrong or taking the wrong path. It can imply to forbid.

40 He answered, “I tell you, if these were silent,CXCIII the stonesCXCIV would shout out.”CXCV

41 As he came near and saw the city, he weptCXCVI over it, 42 saying, “If you, even you, had only recognizedCXCVII

Notes on verses 40-42a

CXCIII “were silent” = siopao. 10x in NT. From siope (silence or muteness). This is to be silent whether by choice or not. Figuratively, this is being calm as water, keeping one’s peace.
CXCIV “stones” = lithos. This is stone in a literal or figurative sense.
CXCV “shout out” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.
CXCVI “wept” = klaio. This is to weep, lament, or sob. It is weeping aloud.
CXCVII “recognized” = ginosko. Same as “find out” in v15. See note XCV above.

on this dayCXCVIII the things that make for peace! But now they are hiddenCXCIX from your eyes.CC 43 Indeed, the days will comeCCI upon you when your enemies will set up rampartsCCII

Notes on verses 42b-43a

CXCVIII “day” = hemera. Related to “today” in v5. See note XXXI above.
CXCIX “hidden” = krupto. 18x in NT. This is to hide by covering, secret, hidden things. This is the root of the word “cryptography.”
CC “eyes” = ophthalmos. Related to “see” in v3 & “man” in v10 & “after” in v14. From optanomai (see note LV above). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.
CCI “come” = heko. This is to come or arrive as at a final destination or goal. It can also mean being present in a literal or figurative sense.
CCII “ramparts” = charax. 1x in NT. From the same as charagma (an engraving, stamp, sculpture, or brand mark; a mark that shows ownership identification or the mark on a coin or seal); from charasso (to engrave or sharpen). This is a rampart, barricade, a mound used in siege.

aroundCCIII you and surroundCCIV you and hem you inCCV on every side.CCVI 

Notes on verse 43b

CCIII “set up…around” = parembole. Related to “parable” in v11. 11x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + emballo (to throw in, subject to); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + ballo (see note LXII above)}. This is a juxtaposition, camp, barracks.
CCIV “surround” = perikukloo.1x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + kukloo (to surround, besiege, circle around); {from the same as kuklo (circle, ring, around); from kuklos (circle, cycle)}. This is to encircle, encompass, totally blockade. It shares a root with the word “cycle.”
CCV “hem…in” = sunecho. Related to “crowd” in v3 & “take” in v17. 12x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + echo (see note XIV above). This is to hold together or hold fast, to close or press together. It can also be to be struck by an illness, arrested, compressed as by a multitude or a siege. Figuratively, it can mean to compel, perplex, preoccupy, or generally afflict.
CCVI “on every side” = pantothen. Related to “all” in v7 & “whole” in v37. From pas (see note XXXV above). This is everywhere or on all sides.

44 They will crush you to the ground,CCVII you and your childrenCCVIII within you, and they will not leaveCCIX within you one stone upon another,CCX because you did not recognize the timeCCXI of your visitationCCXII from God.”

Notes on verse 44a

CCVII “crush…to the ground” = edaphizo. 1x in NT. From edaphos (basis, base, soil); from hedraios (sitting, well-seated, immovable; figuratively, steadfast, firm, morally fixed); {from hedra (seat)}. This is to raze or crush to the ground.
CCVIII “children” = teknon. Related to “interest” in v23. From tikto (see note CXXXIV above). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.
CCIX “leave” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
CCX “another” = lithos. Same as “stone” in v40. See note CXCIV above.
CCXI “time” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.
CCXII “visitation” = episkope. 4x in NT. From episkeptomai (to look at, look out for, see, select, visit); {from epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + the base of skopos (a mark or goal like the marker at the end of a race; figuratively, other goals or destinations; also, a watch or sentry); {from skeptomai (to peer out, consider, gaze carefully); perhaps related to skapto (to dig or excavate)}}. This is oversight, supervision, visitation. It also came to refer to Christian bishops overseeing the church. It is the same root that “episcopal” comes from.

45 Then he entered the templeCCXIII and began to drive outCCXIV those who were sellingCCXV things there, 

Notes on verse 45

CCXIII “temple” = hieron. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to a god). This is the word for temple.
CCXIV “drive out” = ekballo. Related to “parable” in v11 & “set up…around” in v43. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (see note LXII above). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
CCXV “selling” = poleo. This is to barter or sell. It can also refer to the thing that is sold.

46 and he said, “It is written,CCXVI

‘My house shall be a house of prayer,’CCXVII
    but you have made it a denCCXVIII of robbers.”CCXIX

Notes on verse 46

CCXVI “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
CCXVII “prayer” = proseuche. From proseuchomai (to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate; more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s); {from pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray)}. This is prayer, worship, or a place where one prays.
CCXVIII “den” = spelaion. 6x in NT. From speos (cave, grotto). This is a cavern, which implies a place to hide. So, this word can also mean den or hideout. This is the word used for “den of robbers” in Matthew 21:13. Also, this is where the word “spelunk” comes from.
CCXIX “robbers” = lestes. 15x in NT– 3x “you are making [my house] a den of robbers” when Jesus cleanses the temple, 3x of Jesus’ arrest “did you come for me…as though I were a bandit?”; 3x of bandits crucified on Jesus’ left and right; 2x of the man falling into the hands of robbers in the Good Samaritan parable; 2x of the Good Shepherd speech (anyone who doesn’t come in by the gate is a bandit) in John 10:1, 8; 1x of Barabbas as a bandit; and 1x Paul writes he is in danger from bandits. From leis (booty); from leizomai (to plunder). This is a bandit or thief – one who steals by violence/force out in the open as opposed to by stealth. These were part of armed gangs.

47 Every day he was teachingCCXX in the temple. The chief priests,CCXXI the scribes,CCXXII and the leadersCCXXIII of the peopleCCXXIV

Notes on verse 47a

CCXX “teaching” = didasko. Related to “Teacher” in v39. See note CXCI above.
CCXXI “chief priests” = archiereus. Related to “chief tax collector” in v2 & “possessions” in v8 & “began” in v37 & “temple” in v45.From archo (see note IX above) & + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (see note CCXIII above)} This is a high or chief priest.
CCXXII “scribes” = grammateus. Related to “written” in v46. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (see note CCXVI above). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.
CCXXIII “leaders” = protos. Same as “first” in v16. See note XCVII above.
CCXXIV “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.

kept lookingCCXXV for a way to killCCXXVI him, 48 but they did not find anything they could do,CCXXVII for allCCXXVIII the people were spellboundCCXXIX by what they heard.

Notes on verses 47b-48

CCXXV “kept looking” = zeteo. Same as “trying” in v3. See note XI above.
CCXXVI “kill” = apollumi. Same as “lost” in v10. See note LIX above.
CCXXVII “do” = poieo. Same as “made” in v18. See note CX above.
CCXXVIII “all” = hapas. Same as “whole” in v37. See note CLXXV above.
CCXXIX “were spellbound” = ekkremannumi. 1x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + kremannumi (to hang, suspend, depend). This is to hang from, pay close attention.

Image credit: “The Parable of the Talents” by Jan Frearks van der Bij, 1962. Photo by Ytzen, 2013.

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