Romans 14

Romans 14


WelcomeI those who are weakII in faithIII 

Notes on verse 1a

I “welcome” = proslambano. 12x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take aside, accept, receive, or welcome. It can be to take in a friendly or hospitable sense or to eat (i.e. take food).
II “weak” = astheneo. From asthenes (not having strength or weak in a moral sense; sick); {from a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}}. This is sick, feeble, languishing, impotent. Can also refer to moral weakness.
III “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.

but not for the purpose of quarrelingIV over opinions.V SomeVI believeVII

Notes on verses 1b-2a

IV “quarreling” = diakrisis. 3x in NT. From diakrino (to judge, separate, contend, investigate, thoroughly judge); {from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging)}. This is discernment, passing judgment, or deciding.
V “opinions” = dialogismos. 14x in NT. From dialogizomai (to consider, have a back and forth debate with an uncertain conclusion; multiple confused minds reinforcing a faulty conclusion); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + logizmai (to compute or reckon up, to count; figuratively, it is coming to a conclusion or decision using logic; taking an inventory in a literal or figurative sense); {from logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; here, word as an account or accounting; can also be a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); from lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is reasoning, plotting, argument, discussion that reinforces faulty reasoning, debate.
VI {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
VII “believe” = pisteuo. Related to “faith” in v1. From pistis (see note III above). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.

in eatingVIII anything,IX while the weak eatX only vegetables.XI Those who eatXII must not despiseXIII

Notes on verses 2b-3a

VIII “eating” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.
IX “anything” = pas. This is all or every.
X “eat” = esthio. This is to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust.
XI “vegetables” = lachanon. 4x in NT. From lachaino (to dig). This is a vegetable, herb, or other plant in a garden.
XII “eat” = esthio. Same as “eat” in v2. See note X above.
XIII “despise” = exoutheneo. 11x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + oudeis (no one, none, nothing; ruling out absolutely); {from oude (and not, neither, not even) {from ou (not, no) + de (but, and, now, indeed)} + heis (one, first, alone)}. Properly, this is casting someone or something out as nothing, consider someone or something nothing – of no account. This would be to treat someone with utter contempt or to ignore them.

those who abstain,XIV and those who abstain must not pass judgmentXV on those who eat,XVI for GodXVII has welcomed them. 

Notes on verse 3b

XIV “abstain” = me + esthio. Literally, “not eating.” Esthio is the same as “eat” in v2. See note X above.
XV “pass judgment” = krino. Related to “quarreling” in v1. See note IV above.
XVI “eat” = esthio. Same as “eat” in v2. See note X above.
XVII “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

Who areXVIII you to pass judgment on slavesXIX of another?XX

Notes on verse 4a

XVIII “are” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
XIX “slaves” = oiketes. 5x in NT. From oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home); from oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is a servant working in a house.
XX “another” = allotrios. 14x in NT. From allos (other, different, another; this is one more of the same kind or a similar type). This is something or someone that belongs to others. By extension, this is another, stranger, foreign, or foreigner.

It is before their ownXXI lordXXII that they standXXIII or fall.XXIV

Notes on verse 4b

XXI “own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
XXII “lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XXIII “stand” = steko. 11x in NT. From histemi (to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast). This is to stand fast or be stationary. Figuratively, it can mean to persevere.
XXIV “fall” = pipto. This is to fall literally or figuratively.

And they will be upheld,XXV for the LordXXVI is ableXXVII to make them stand.XXVIII

Notes on verse 4c

XXV “upheld” = histemi. Related to “stand” in v4. See note XXIII above.
XXVI “Lord” = Kurios. Same as “lord” in v4. See note XXII above.
XXVII “is able” = dunateo. 3x in NT – 1x in Romans & 2x in 2 Corinthians. From dunatos (mighty or powerful; ability of persons, possibility of things; what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits); from dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is being able or powerful. It is the same root as the Greek word for “miracle.”
XXVIII “stand” = histemi. Same as “upheld” in v4. See note XXV above.

SomeXXIX judgeXXX one dayXXXI to be better than another,XXXII while others judge allXXXIII days to be alike.

Notes on verse 5a

XXIX {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note VI above.
XXX “judge” = krino. Same as “pass judgment” in v3. See note XV above.
XXXI “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
XXXII “another” = hemera. Same as “day” in v5. See note XXXI above.
XXXIII “all” = pas. Same as “anything” in v2. See note IX above.

Let allXXXIV be fully convincedXXXV in their own minds.XXXVI 

Notes on verse 5b

XXXIV “all” = hekastos. Perhaps from hekas (separate). This is each one, any, every. It is every individual as a distinct entity as opposed to those counted as a group in small sets.
XXXV “be fully convinced” = plerophoreo. 6x in NT. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, or occupied with); {from pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity)} + phoreo (to bear constantly or habitually or repeatedly; it can mean to wear or carry a burden); {from phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is to fulfills, fully convince, satisfy, accomplish, fully assure. It can be to fully convince by using evidence or to make full.
XXXVI “minds” = nous. From noos (mind) OR from the same as ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect. It can refer to God’s mind or human minds – thoughts, feelings, will, or reflective thinking.

Those who observeXXXVII the day, observe it for the Lord.XXXVIII Also those who eat,XXXIX

Notes on verse 6a

XXXVII “observe” = phroneo. From phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb). This is to think, judge, use one’s mind, have an opinion, shape one’s opinion through action.
XXXVIII Some manuscripts add, “not observing the day to the Lord not observing” = me + phroneo + ho + hemera + kurios + ou + phroneo. Phroneo is the same as “observe” in v6. See note XXXVII above. Hemera is the same as “day” in v5. See note XXXI above. Kurios is the same as “lord” in v4. See note XXII above.
XXXIX “eat” = esthio. Same as “eat” in v2. See note X above.

eatXL for the Lord, since they give thanksXLI to God, while those who abstain, abstain for the Lord and give thanks to God.

For we do not liveXLII to ourselves, and we do not dieXLIII to ourselves. If we live, we live to the Lord, and if we die, we die to the Lord; so then, whether we live or whether we die, we are the Lord’s. 

Notes on verses 6b-8

XL “eat” = esthio. Same as “eat” in v2. See note X above.
XLI “give thanks” = eucharisteo. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); {from chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards)}. This is giving thanks, being thankful. It is a recognition that God’s grace is good and actively showing gratitude. It can also be used for saying grace before eating. This is where “eucharist” comes from.
XLII “live” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
XLIII “die” = apothnesko. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.

For to this end ChristXLIV died and lived again,XLV so that he might be LordXLVI of both the deadXLVII and the living.

Notes on verse 9

XLIV “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
XLV “lived again” = zao. Same as “live” in v7. See note XLII above.
XLVI “be Lord” = kurieuo. Related to “lord” in v4. 7x in NT. From kurios (see note XXII above). This is to be lord of, rule, lord over.
XLVII “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.

10 Why do you pass judgment on your brotherXLVIII or sister? Or you, why do you despise your brother or sister? For we will allXLIX stand beforeL the judgment seatLI of God. 

Notes on verse 10

XLVIII “brother” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
XLIX “all” = pas. Same as “anything” in v2. See note IX above.
L “stand before” = paristemi. Related to “stand” and “upheld” in v4. From para (from beside, by) + histemi (see note XXIII above). This is literally to place by stand. It can mean to present, exhibit, appear, bring, stand by, or prove. It can also mean to be ready, to assist, to yield, or to commend.
LI “judgment seat” = bema. 12x in NT. From the same as basis (a pace, base, step, foot); from baino (to walk, go). This is a place that is raised and has steps such as where a tribunal would meet to mete out justice. It also refers literally to the chair from which such justice would come whether for reward or punishment. This word was borrowed into Jewish religious practice from Byzantine Greek (from the same root) to describe the raised area of the synagogue from which the Torah was proclaimed – the bima. See

11 For it is written,LII

“As I live, saysLIII the Lord, everyLIV kneeLV shall bowLVI to me,

Notes on verse 11a

LII “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
LIII “says” = lego. Related to “opinions” in v1. See note V above.
LIV “every” = pas. Same as “anything” in v2. See note IX above.
LV “knee” = gonu. 12x in NT. This is knee.
LVI “bow” = kampto. 4x in NT. This is to bend or bow.

    and every tongueLVII shall give praiseLVIII to God.”

12 So then, eachLIX one of us will be heldLX accountable.LXI

Notes on verses 11b-12

LVII “tongue” = glossa. Root refers to a point that sticks out. This is tongue in a literal sense, but can also refer to language or a nation that speaks a different language. Figuratively, it can also refer to speaking in tongues or speech inspired by the Spirit.
LVIII “give praise” = exomologeo. Related to “opinions” in v1 & “says” in v11. 10x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + homologeo (to agree, speak the same, declare, promise, praise, celebrate; to align with, express the same conclusion, endorse); {from homologos (of one mind); {from homos (the same) + lego (see note V above)}}. This is agree, consent, or acknowledge. It can also be confess, give thanks, or praise. It includes an open, public, unabashed declaration.
LIX “each” = hekastos. Same as “all” in v5. See note XXXIV above.
LX “held” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
LXI “accountable” = logos. Related to “opinions” in v1 & “says” and “give praise” in v11. See note V above.

13 Let us therefore no longer pass judgment on one another, but resolveLXII insteadLXIII never to putLXIV a stumbling blockLXV or hindranceLXVI in the way of a brother or sister. 

Notes on verse 13

LXII “resolve” = krino. Same as “pass judgment” in v3. See note XV above.
LXIII “instead” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.
LXIV “put” = tithemi. This is to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense. Properly, it is placing something in a passive or horizontal position.
LXV “stumbling block” = proskomma. 6x in NT. From proskopto (to kick against, stumble, strike, beat on, surge against like water does, or take offense; to trip up in a literal or figurative sense); {from pros (at, towards, for) + kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn)}. This is stumbling, obstacle, or something that causes one to stumble. It can also figuratively be a moral embarrassment or something that leads one to fall from faithfulness.
LXVI “hindrance” = skandalon. Related to “bow” in v11. 15x in NT. Perhaps from kampto (see note LVI above). This is a stumbling block, offense, hindrance, or scandal. Properly, this is the part of the trap that triggers it shut on the victim. So, as a snare, it is anything that causes error or offense, something that makes one stumble or traps someone. This is where the word “scandal” comes from.

14 I knowLXVII and am persuadedLXVIII in the Lord JesusLXIX

Notes on verse 14a

LXVII “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
LXVIII “persuaded” = peitho. Related to “faith” in v1 & “believe” in v2. See note III above.
LXIX “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

that nothing is uncleanLXX in itself, but it is unclean for anyone who considersLXXI it unclean. 15 If your brother or sister is distressedLXXII by what you eat,LXXIII

Notes on verses 14b-15a

LXX “unclean” = koinos. 14x in NT. From sun (with, together with). This is common, shared – something for ordinary or everyday use. It can also denote unclean, unholy, or profane – unholy rather than something reserved for a sacred purpose.
LXXI “considers” = logizomai. Related to “opinions” in v1 & “says” and “give praise” in v11 & “accountable” in v12. From logos (see note V above). This is this is to compute or reckon up, to count; figuratively, it is coming to a conclusion or decision using logic; taking an inventory in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXII “distress” = lupeo. From lupe (pain, whether physical or mental; grief, sorrow, distress, a heavy heart). This is to be sad, grieve, distress, hurt, feel pain. It can be used for deep pain or severe sorrow as well as the pain that accompanies childbirth.
LXXIII “eat” = broma. 17x in NT. From bibrosko (to eat); related to bora (food); perhaps from bosko (to feed or pasture a flock; figuratively, to nourish spiritually). This is any kind of food in a literal or figurative sense.

you are no longer walkingLXXIV in love.LXXV Do not let what you eatLXXVI

Notes on verse 15b

LXXIV “walking” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.
LXXV “love” = agape. From agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is love, goodwill, benevolence. It is God’s divine love or human love that mirrors God’s love.
LXXVI “eat” = broma. Same as “eat” in v15. See note LXXIII above.

cause the ruinLXXVII of one for whom Christ died.LXXVIII 16 So do not let your goodLXXIX be slandered.LXXX 

Notes on verses 15c-16

LXXVII “cause the ruin” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.
LXXVIII “died” = apothnesko. Same as “die” in v7. See note XLIII above.
LXXIX “good” = agathos. This is good, a benefit, or a good thing. It is good by its very nature, intrinsically good. A different word, kalos, refers to external signs of goodness.
LXXX “slandered” = blasphemeo. From blasphemos (blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil); {from perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (to say, declare, speak comparatively through contrasts, bring to light); from phao (to shine)}}. This is to slander, malign, hurl abuse, speak against, blaspheme, or defame. It is speaking evil or abusive language – not acknowledging what is good or worth reverence/respect.

17 For the kingdomLXXXI of God is not foodLXXXII and drinkLXXXIII but righteousnessLXXXIV

Notes on verse 17a

LXXXI “kingdom” = basileia. Related to “judgment seat” in v10. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (see note LI above). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
LXXXII “food” = brosis. Related to “eat” in v15. 11x in NT. From bibrosko (see note LXXIII above). This is food and the act of eating. It is eating in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXIII “drink” = posis. 3x in NT. From pino (to drink, literally or figuratively). This is drinking itself or something one drinks.
LXXXIV “righteousness” = dikaiosune. From dikaios (correct, righteous – implies innocent; this is that which conforms to God’s notion of justice, uprightness); from dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is judicial or divine approval of character or action. This is righteousness, justice, justness, divine righteousness.

and peaceLXXXV and joyLXXXVI in the HolyLXXXVII Spirit.LXXXVIII 

Notes on verse 17b

LXXXV “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)
LXXXVI “joy” = chara. Related to “give thanks” in v6. From chairo (see note XLI above). This is joy, delight, gladness. Can be understood as the feeling you get when you are aware of grace.
LXXXVII “Holy” = Hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
LXXXVIII “Spirit” = Pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

18 The one who servesLXXXIX Christ in this way is acceptableXC to God and has humanXCI approval.XCII 

Notes on verse 18

LXXXIX “serves” = douleuo. From doulos (a servant or for a slave, enslaved; someone who belongs to someone else, but could be voluntary to pay off debt or involuntary – captured in war and enslaved; a metaphor for serving Christ); perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is to be a slave, serve, do service, obey, be devoted.
XC “acceptable” = euarestos. Related to “give thanks.” 9x in NT. From eu (see note XLI above) + aresko (to please or be agreeable; implies voluntarily serving others, satisfying others, or making good to win their favor or approval; often used for moral agreement; being agreeable or trying to be agreeable); {perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is literally well-pleasing – often used of something that is pleasing or acceptable to God.
XCI “human” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XCII “approval” = dokimos. 7x in NT. From dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense) or dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); {from dokos (opinion)}. This is what passes the test, approved, acceptable, genuine, verified.

19 Let us then pursueXCIII what makes for peace and for mutualXCIV upbuilding.XCV 

Notes on verse 19

XCIII “pursue” = dioko. From dio (put to flight). This is chase or pursue in an aggressive fashion. By implication, it is persecute. It can also be used positively for eagerly pursuing something.
XCIV “mutual” = allelon. Literally, “one another.”
XCV “upbuilding” = oikodome. 18x in NT. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + doma (house, housetop; often used to refer to the roof) {from demo (to build a house)}. This is the act of building, structure, architecture, a building, upbuilding. It is a building that is used as a home. Figuratively, this refers to spiritual progress – becoming a person who is a better home in which God can reside.

20 Do not, for the sake of food,XCVI destroyXCVII the workXCVIII of God.

Notes on verse 20a

XCVI “food” = broma. Same as “eat” in v15. See note LXXIII above.
XCVII “destroy” = kataluo. 17x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). Literally, this means thoroughly loosening. It can mean unharnessing or unyoking animals and so to lodge somewhere for a night. It can also mean to disintegrate or demolish in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be destroy, overthrow, abolish, or tear down.
XCVIII “work” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.

EverythingXCIX is indeedC clean,CI but it is wrongCII

Notes on verse 20b

XCIX “everything” = pas. Same as “anything” in v2. See note IX above.
C “indeed” = men. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note VI above.
CI “clean” = katharos. This is clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying.
CII “wrong” = kakos. This is bad, evil, harm, ill. It is evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm. It refers to deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character. Can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue.

to make someoneCIII stumbleCIV by what you eat;CV 21 it is goodCVI not to eatCVII meatCVIII

Notes on verses 20c-21a

CIII “someone” = anthropos. Same as “human” in v18. See note XCI above.
CIV “stumble” = proskomma. Same as “stumbling block” in v13. See note LXV above.
CV “eat” = esthio. Same as “eat” in v2. See note X above.
CVI “good” = kalos. This is good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy. This is external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues. A different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good.
CVII “eat” = phago. Same as “eating” in v2. See note VIII above.
CVIII ] “meat” = kreas. 2x in NT – in Romand & 1 Corinthians. This is flesh or meat.

or drinkCIX wineCX or do anything that makes your brother or sister stumble.CXI, CXII 

Notes on verse 21b

CIX “drink” = pino. Related to “drink” in v17. See note LXXXIII above.
CX “wine” = oinos. Perhaps from Hebrew yayin (wine; root means to effervesce). This is wine. It is where the word “oenophile” comes from.
CXI “stumble” = proskopto. Related to “stumbling block” in v13. 8x in NT. See note LXV above.
CXII Some manuscripts add, “or be upset or be weakened” = e + skandalizo + e + astheneo. Skandalizo is related to “bow” in v11 & “hindrance” in v13. From skandalon (see note LVI above). This is to put a stumbling block in someone’s way. Figuratively, causing someone to sin or preventing them from good action. It can also mean to shock or offend. Literally, this is falling into a trap or tripping someone up. So, here, enticing someone to sin or apostasy. Astheneo is the same as “weak” in v1. See note II above.

22 HoldCXIII the convictionCXIV that you haveCXV as your own beforeCXVI God.

Notes on verse 22a

CXIII “hold” = echo. Same as “have” in v22. See note CXV below.
CXIV “conviction” = pistis. Same as “faith” in v1. See note III above.
CXV “have” = echo. This is have, hold, possess.
CXVI “before” = enopios. Related to “human” in v18. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + ops (see note XCI above). This is literally “in sight of.” It means before in a literal or figurative sense.

BlessedCXVII are those who do not condemnCXVIII themselves because of what they approve.CXIX 

Notes on verse 22b

CXVII “blessed” = makarios. From makar (happy); from mak– (to become long or large). This is blessed, happy, fortunate. It is when God’s grace/abundance is extended.
CXVIII “condemn” = krino. Same as “pass judgment” in v3. See note XV above.
CXIX “approve” = dokimazo. Related to “approval” in v18. From dokimos (see note XCII above). This is to test, examine, prove. It is to approve after subjecting to a test to determine if it is real or acceptable. It is to test in a literal or figurative sense.

23 But those who have doubtsCXX are condemnedCXXI if they eatCXXII because they do not act from faith, for whateverCXXIII does not proceed from faith is sin.CXXIV

Notes on verse 23

CXX “have doubts” = diakrino. Related to “quarreling” in v1 & “pass judgment” in v3. 19x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + krino (see note IV above). This is to judge, separate, contend, investigate, thoroughly judge.
CXXI “condemned” = katakrino. Related to “quarreling” in v1 & “pass judgment” in v3 & “have doubts” in v23. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + krino (see note IV above). This is judging down, which is to say to vote guilty or deserving of punishment, to condemn. This is a decisive judgment of guilt. It can also be to damn someone.
CXXII “eat” = phago. Same as “eating” in v2. See note VIII above.
CXXIII “whatever” = pas. Same as “anything” in v2. See note IX above.
CXXIV “sin” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.

Image credit: “Hope for Ukraine” by Don Komarechka, 2023.

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