Luke 24:13-49

Luke 24:13-49
Easter A
Easter Evening – A Women’s Lectionary


13 NowI on that same dayII twoIII of them wereIV

Notes on verse 13a

I {untranslated} = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
II “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
III “two” = duo. This is two or both.
IV “were” = eimi. This is to be, exist.

goingV to a villageVI calledVII Emmaus,VIII

Notes on verse 13b

V “going” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
VI “village” = kome. This is a village as contrasted with a city that has a wall.
VII “called” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
VIII “Emmaus” = Emmaous. 1x in NT. Probably from Hebrew see yem (hot springs); from the same as yam (root may mean to roar; the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean; crashing surf; sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water; can mean to the west or to the south). This is Emmaus, perhaps meaning hot springs or hotness.

IXabout seven milesX from Jerusalem,XI 

Notes on verse 13c

IX {untranslated} = apecho. 19x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + echo (to have, hold, possess). This is to be distant, have fully, abstain, be paid, be distant, be enough. It is having something by detaching it from something else or releasing something else.
X “seven miles” = stadion + hexekonta. Literally, “sixty stadia.” Stadion is 7x in NT. From the same as histemi (to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast). This is a stadium, which was a unit of length. By implication, this would refer to a racing track for a foot race. Hexekonta is 9x in NT. From hex (six) + deka (ten; -teen). This is sixty.
XI “Jerusalem” = Ierousalem. From Hebrew Yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

14 and talkingXII with each other about allXIII these things that had happened.XIV 

Notes on verse 14

XII “talking” = homileo. 4x in NT – 2x in Luke & 2x in Acts. From homilos (crowd) OR from homichle (mist, multitude); {from homou (together); {from homos (same)} + haireomai (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}}. This is to talk, converse, associate with.
XIII “all” = pas. This is all or every.
XIV “happened” = sumbaino. 8x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is to walk together, happen, occur, meet. It could also be things that work together as a unit.

15 XVWhile they were talking and discussing,XVI JesusXVII himself

Notes on verse 15a

XV {untranslated} = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
XVI “discussing” = suzeteo. 10x in NT.  From sun (with, together with) + zeteo (to seek, search for, desire. searching for something by inquiring or investigation; to seek in a literal or figurative sense; to worship God). This is to seek together so a joint investigation, to argue, discuss, or debate.
XVII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

came nearXVIII and went withXIX them, 16 but their eyesXX were keptXXI from recognizingXXII him. 

Notes on verses 15b-16

XVIII “came near” = eggizo. From eggus (nearby or near in time). This is extremely close by – approaching, at hand, immediately imminent.
XIX “went with” = sumporeuomai. Related to “going” in v13. 4x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + poreuomai (see note V above). This is to journey together or assemble.
XX “eyes” = ophthalmos. From optanomai (to appear, be seen by); from horao (become, seem, appear). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.
XXI “kept” = krateo. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control.
XXII “recognizing” = epiginosko. Related to “called” in v13. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + ginosko (see note VII above). This is to perceive, discern, acknowledge, recognize, know exactly because of direct interaction.

17 And he said to them, “WhatXXIII are you discussingXXIV with each other while you walkXXV along?”

Notes on verse 17a

XXIII {untranslated} = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
XXIV “discussing” = antiballo. 1x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). It is to exchange, compare, or bandy words.
XXV “walk” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.

They stood still,XXVI looking sad.XXVII 18 Then oneXXVIII of them, whose nameXXIX was Cleopas,XXX

Notes on verses 17b-18a

XXVI “stood still” = histemi. Related to “miles” in v13. See note X above.
XXVII “looking sad” = skuthropos. 2x in NT. – do not look dismal when you fast in Matthew 6:16 & they stood still looking sad on the walk to Emmaus in Luke 24:17. From skuthros (sullen) + ops (eye, face). This is gloomy or sad-faced. It can refer to looking mournful, downcast, or angry.
XXVIII “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
XXIX “name” = onoma. Same as “called” in v13. See note VII above.
XXX “Cleopas” = Kleopas. 1x in NT. From Cleopatros (celebrating father); {from kleos (fame, glory, credit); {from kleo (to celebrate) or from kaleo (to call, call out, summon by name)} + pater (father in a literal or figurative sense, senior, ancestor)} OR + pas (all, every). This is Cleopas, meaning “glory of the father” or “glory of everything.” This is the same root as Cleopatra. See

answeredXXXI him, “Are you the onlyXXXII strangerXXXIII in Jerusalem who does not knowXXXIV the things that have taken placeXXXV there in these days?” 

Notes on verse 18b

XXXI “answered” = apokrinomai. From apo (from, away from) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is to reply or respond, to draw one’s own conclusions, to speak when one is expected to.
XXXII “only” = monos. Perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is alone, single, remaining, mere, desolate.
XXXIII “stranger” = paroikeo. 2x in NT. From para (by, beside) + oikeo (making a home or living at home; to dwell or indwell, remain, reside, or cohabit); {from oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple)}. This is to sojourn or visit. It is to live as a stranger or foreigner.
XXXIV “know” = ginosko. Related to “called” in v13& “recognizing” in v16. See note VII above.
XXXV “taken place” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v15. See note XV above.

19 He asked them, “What things?”

They replied, “The things about Jesus of Nazareth,XXXVI who wasXXXVII aXXXVIII prophetXXXIX

Notes on verse 19a

XXXVI “Nazareth” = Nazarenos. 6x in NT. Probably from Nazara (Nazareth); perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazarene. See
XXXVII “was” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v15. See note XV above.
XXXVIII {untranslated} = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
XXXIX “prophet” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.

mightyXL in deedXLI and wordXLII before GodXLIII and all the people,XLIV 

Notes on verse 19b

XL “mighty” = dunatos. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is mighty or powerful. It speaks of ability of persons, possibility of things. It is what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits. The root verb is also related to miracles i.e. deeds of power.
XLI “deed” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.
XLII “word” = logos. Same as {untranslated} in v17. See note XXIII above.
XLIII “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XLIV “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.

20 and how our chief priestsXLV and leadersXLVI handed him overXLVII

Notes on verse 20a

XLV “chief priests” = archiereus. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
XLVI “leaders” = archon. Related to “chief priests” in v20. From archo (see note XLV above). This is ruler, leader, magistrate, official, prince, chief.
XLVII “handed…over” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.

to be condemnedXLVIII to deathXLIX and crucifiedL him. 

Notes on verse 20b

XLVIII “condemned” = krima. Related to “answered” in v18. From krino (see note XXXI above). This is judgment, sentence, verdict. Sometimes, this can have a negative sense – condemnation. It is the decision and the full force of its effect negative and positive.
XLIX “death” = thanatos. From thnesko (to die, be dead). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
L “crucified” = stauroo. Related to “miles” in v13 & “stood still” in v17. From stauros (upright stake, cross; literally the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die); from the same as histemi (see note X above). This can be to attach someone to a cross or fencing with stakes. In a figurative sense, it could be to destroy, mortify, or subdue passions/selfishness.

21 But we had hopedLI that he was the one toLII redeemLIII Israel.LIV 

Notes on verse 21a

LI “hoped” = elpizo. From elpis (expectation, hope, trust, confidence, faith; expectation whether abstract or concrete); from elpo (to anticipate, welcome, expect; usually to anticipate positively); from elpomai (to anticipate, expect). This is to expect, trust, hope for, or to wait in an active way.
LII “to” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
LIII “redeem” = lutroo. 3x in NT. From lutron (ransom, the money used to free slaves; also a sacrifice of expiation; figurative for atonement); from luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is to redeem, liberate, release because ransom was paid in full. Figuratively, it is returning something or someone to their rightful owner.
LIV “Israel” = Israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.

Yes, and besidesLV all this, it is now the thirdLVI dayLVII since these things took place. 22 Moreover, some womenLVIII of our group astoundedLIX us.

Notes on verses 21b-22a

LV “besides” = ge. 16x in NT. This is a particle of emphasis – indeed, besides, doubtless, yet, at least.
LVI “third” = tritos. From treis (three). This is third.
LVII {untranslated} = ago. This is lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go.
LVIII “women” = gune. Related to {untranslated} in v15. Perhaps from ginomai (see note XV above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
LIX “astounded” = existemi. Related to “miles” in v13 & “stood still” in v17 & “crucified” in v20. 17x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + histemi (see note X above). This is to displace or take something or someone from standing. Figuratively, it is to be overwhelmed and flabbergasted – as if beside oneself. By extension, it is astonished, amazed, or mad.

They wereLX at the tombLXI earlyLXII this morning, 23 and when they did not findLXIII his bodyLXIV there

Notes on verses 22b-23a

LX “were” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v15. See note XV above.
LXI “tomb” = mnemeion. Related to “only” in v18. From mousikos (to remember); from mneme (memory or mention); from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (see note XXXII above). This is properly a memorial – a tomb, grave, monument.
LXII “early” = orthrinos. Related to “talking” in v14. 1x in NT. Perhaps from the same as oros (mountain, hill); perhaps from airo (see note XII above). This is sunrise, daybreak, early dawn.
LXIII “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
LXIV “body” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.

they cameLXV back and toldLXVI us that they had indeed seenLXVII a visionLXVIII

Notes on verse 23b

LXV “came” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
LXVI “told” = lego. Related to {untranslated} in v17. See note XXIII above.
LXVII “seen” = horao. Related to “eyes” in v16 & “vision” in v23. See note XX above.
LXVIII “vision” = optasia. Related to “eyes” in v16. 4x in NT. From optazomai (be seen) OR from optanomai (see note XX above). This is an appearance or vision – specifically, a supernatural one.

of angelsLXIX who saidLXX that he was alive.LXXI 24 Some of those who were with us wentLXXII to the tomb and found it just as the women had said, but they did not see him.” 

Notes on verses 23c-24

LXIX “angels” = aggelos. Related to {untranslated} in v21. Probably from ago (see note LVII above) + agele (flock, herd, drove); {also from ago (see above)}. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.
LXX “said” = lego. Same as “told” in v23. See note LXVI above.
LXXI “was alive” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
LXXII “went” = aperchomai. Related to “came” in v23. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note LXV above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.

25 Then he said to them, “Oh,LXXIII how foolishLXXIV you are and how slowLXXV

Notes on verse 25a

LXXIII “Oh” = o. 17x in NT. This is O or oh – used to speak to someone or express a strong feeling.
LXXIV “foolish” = anoetos. Related to “called” in v13 & “recognizing” in v16 & “know” in v18. 6x in NT. From a (not, without) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from ginosko (see note VII above)}. This is not thinking or thoughtless. It is not using proper logic to think something through.
LXXV “slow” = bradus. 3x in NT. This is slow. It can mean deliberative, moving at a slow pace, or, figuratively, dull.

of heartLXXVI to believeLXXVII all that the prophets have declared!LXXVIII 

Notes on verse 25b

LXXVI “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
LXXVII “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
LXXVIII “declared” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.

26 Was it not necessaryLXXIX that the MessiahLXXX should sufferLXXXI these things and then enterLXXXII into his glory?”LXXXIII 

Notes on verse 26

LXXIX “was…necessary” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
LXXX “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
LXXXI “suffer” = pascho. Akin to penthos (mourning, sorrow). This is to be acted on for good or ill. It is often used for negative treatment. Properly, it means feeling strong emotions – especially suffering. It can also be the ability to feel suffering.
LXXXII “enter” = eiserchomai. Related to “came” in v23 & “went” in v24. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note LXV above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXIII “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.

27 Then beginningLXXXIV with MosesLXXXV and all the prophets, he interpretedLXXXVI to them the things about himself in all the scriptures.LXXXVII

Notes on verse 27

LXXXIV “beginning” = archomai. Related to “chief priests” & “leaders” in v20. From archo (see note XLV above). This is to begin or rule.
LXXXV “Moses” = Mouses. From Hebrew Mosheh (Moses); from mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
LXXXVI “interpreted” = diermeneuo. 6x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + hermeneuo (to interpret, explain, translate); {probably from Hermes (Greek god who was messenger to the other gods, also god of language); perhaps from ereo (to say, tell, speak)}. This is to explain thoroughly, interpret, or translate.
LXXXVII “scriptures” = graphe. From grapho (to write). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.

28 As they came near the village to which they were going,LXXXVIII he walked ahead as ifLXXXIX he were going on.XC 29 But they urgedXCI him strongly, saying, “StayXCII with us, because it is almost eveningXCIII

Notes on verses 28-29a

LXXXVIII “going” = poreuomai. Same as “going” in v13. See note V above.
LXXXIX “as if” = prospoieo. 1x in NT. From pros (at, towards, for) + poieo (to make, do, construct, cause). This is to attach or pretend that something is so. It can also mean regard.
XC “going on” = poreuomai. Same as “going” in v13. See note V above.
XCI “urged” = parabiazomai. 2x in NT. From para (by, beside) + biazo (to force, use power to seize); {from bia (strength, force, violence); or from bios (life, livelihood, goods, wealth)}. This is to urge, press, use powerful, persuasive words to accomplish a goal.
XCII “stay” = meno. Related to “only” in v18 & “tomb” in v22. See note XXXII above.
XCIII “evening” = hespera. 3x in NT – 1x in Luke & 2x in Acts. From hesperos (related to evening). This is evening or eve.

and the day is now nearly over.”XCIV So he went inXCV to stay with them. 30 When he wasXCVI at the tableXCVII with them,

Notes on verses 29b-30a

XCIV “is…nearly over” = klino. 7x in NT. This is to slant, rest, recline, approach an end, wear. It can be bend in a literal or figurative sense – to lay down, a day ending, causing an opposing army to flee.
XCV “went in” = eiserchomai. Same as “enter” in v26. See note LXXXII above.
XCVI “was” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v15. See note XV above.
XCVII “table” = kataklino. Related to “is…nearly over” in v29. 5x in NT– all of them refer to reclining to eat. From kata (down, against, throughout, over among) + klino (see note XCIV above). This is to sit down or recline, especially to eat whether at a table or on the ground.

he tookXCVIII bread,XCIX blessedC and brokeCI it, and gaveCII it to them. 

Notes on verse 30b

XCVIII “took” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
XCIX “bread” = artos. Related to “talking” in v14 & “early” in v22. Perhaps from airo (see note XXII above). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.
C “blessed” = eulogeo. Related to {untranslated} in v17 & “told” in v23. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + logos (see note XXIII above). Properly, this is speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited. It can mean praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing. This is where “eulogy” comes from.
CI “broke” = klao. 14x in NT. This is to break, to break in pieces as one breaks bread.
CII “gave” = epididomi. Related to “handed…over” in v20. 9x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + didomi (see note XLVII above). This is to deliver, give over, give up, surrender.

31 Then their eyes were opened,CIII and they recognized him, and he vanishedCIV from their sight.CV 32 They said to each other, “Were not our hearts burningCVI within us while he was talkingCVII to us on the road,CVIII while he was opening the scriptures to us?” 

Notes on verses 31-32

CIII “opened” = dianoigo. 8x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + anoigo (to open or open up in a literal or figurative sense; to speak freely); {from ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open)}. This is to open fully. It can mean to open the womb as a firstborn does or figuratively to explain or expound.
CIV “vanished” = aphantos. Related to “prophet” in v19. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + phaino (see note XXXIX above). This is invisible, disappearing, or hidden.
CV “sight” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v15. See note XV above.
CVI “burning” = kaio. 11x in NT. This is to kindle, light, blaze. It is light in a literal or figurative sense.
CVII “talking” = laleo. Same as “declared” in v25. See note LXXXVIII above.
CVIII “road” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.

33 That same hourCIX they got upCX and returnedCXI to Jerusalem,

Notes on verse 33a

CIX “hour” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
CX “got up” = anistemi. Related to “miles” in v13 & “stood still” in v17 & “crucified” in v20 & “astounded” in v22. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note X above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
CXI “returned” = hupostrepho. From hupo (by, under, about) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn back or behind in a literal or figurative sense.

and they found the elevenCXII and their companionsCXIII gathered together.CXIV 

Notes on verse 33b

CXII “eleven” = hendeka. Related to “seven” in v13 & “one” in v18. 6x in NT– all referring to the apostles minus Judas. From heis (see note XXVIII above) + deka (see note X above). This is eleven.
CXIII “their companions” = ho + sun + autos. Literally, “those with them.”
CXIV “gathered together” = sunathroizo. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + athroizo (to be disheartened, dismayed, broken in spirit); {from a (not, without) + thumos (passion, actions that stem from passion or impulse; can be rage, indignation); {from thuo (to breathe violently, seethe, rage; properly, to rush as breathing heavy; so smoke as in offering an animal sacrifice by fire; by extension, killing or slaying in general)}. This is to assemble or gather together.

34 They were saying, “The LordCXV has risenCXVI indeed,CXVII

Notes on verse 34a

CXV “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
CXVI “risen” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
CXVII “indeed” = ontos. Related to “were” in v13. 10x in NT. From eimi (see note IV above). This is really, certainly. It refers to something that matters or that is genuine.

and he has appearedCXVIII to Simon!”CXIX 35 Then they toldCXX what had happened on the road and how he had been made known to them in the breakingCXXI of the bread.

Notes on verses 34b-35

CXVIII “appeared” = horao. Same as “seen” in v23. See note LXVII above.
CXIX “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
CXX “told” = exegeomai. Related to {untranslated} in v21 & “angels” in v23. 6x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + hegeomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); {from ago (see note VII above)}. This is to lead the way, bring forth. Figuratively, it is to unfold or explain something thoroughly to show what is most important. This is where the word “exegesis” comes from.
CXXI “breaking” = klasis. Related to “broke” in v30. 2x in NT. From klao (see note CI above). This is breaking.

36 While they were talkingCXXII about this, Jesus himself stoodCXXIII amongCXXIV them and said to them, “PeaceCXXV be with you.” 

Notes on verse 36

CXXII “talking” = laleo. Same as “declared” in v25. See note LXXXVIII above.
CXXIII “stood” = histemi. Same as “stood still” in v17. See note XXVI above.
CXXIV “among” = en + mesos. Mesos is perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action). This is middle, among, center, midst.
CXXV “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)

37 They wereCXXVI startledCXXVII and terrifiedCXXVIII

Notes on verse 37a

CXXVI “were” = ginomai. Same as {untranslated} in v15. See note XV above.
CXXVII “startled” = ptoeo. 2x in NT– both in Luke. Perhaps related to pipto (to fall literally or figuratively) OR petomai (to fly). This is to scare, frighten, fill with panic, flutter. It is to scare someone so that the behave irrationally.
CXXVIII “terrified” = emphobos. 5x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); {from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight)}. This is to be afraid, fully terrified.

and thoughtCXXIX that they were seeingCXXX a ghost.CXXXI 

Notes on verse 37b

CXXIX “thought” = dokeo. Related to “glory” in v26. See note LXXXIII above.
CXXX “seeing” = theoreo. From theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
CXXXI “ghost” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breathe, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

38 He said to them, “Why are you frightened,CXXXII and why do doubtsCXXXIII ariseCXXXIV in your hearts? 

Notes on verse 38

CXXXII “frightened” = tarasso. 18x in NT. This is trouble, agitate, stir up. It is motion back and forth, creating inner turmoil or confusion, roiling water.
CXXXIII “doubts” = dialogismos. Related to {untranslated} in v17 & “told” in v23 & “blessed” in v30. 14x in NT. From dialogizomai (to consider, have a back and forth debate with an uncertain conclusion; multiple confused minds reinforcing a faulty conclusion); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + logizomai (to compute or reckon up, to count; figuratively, it is coming to a conclusion or decision using logic; taking an inventory in a literal or figurative sense); {from logos (see note XXIII above)}. This is reasoning, plotting, argument, discussion that reinforces faulty reasoning, debate.
CXXXIV “arise” = anabaino. Related to “happened” in v14. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (see note XIV above). This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.

39 LookCXXXV at my handsCXXXVI and my feet;CXXXVII see that it is I myself. TouchCXXXVIII me and see,CXXXIX

Notes on verse 39a

CXXXV “look” = horao. Same as “seen” in v23. See note LXVII above.
CXXXVI “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
CXXXVII “feet” = pous. This is foot in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXVIII “touch” = pselaphao. 4x in NT. Probably from psallo (to twang, play, sing psalms, pluck a stringed instrument such as a harp); {from psao (to rub)} + hapha (to handle). This is to touch, feel, or grope about. It is a light touch to explore, discover, or confirm something with physical contact. It can also figuratively mean search for.
CXXXIX “see” = horao. Same as “seen” in v23. See note LXVII above.

for a ghost does not haveCXL fleshCXLI and bonesCXLII as you seeCXLIII that I have.” 

Notes on verse 39b

CXL “have” = echo. Related to {untranslated} in v13. See note IX above.
CXLI “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).
CXLII “bones” = osteon. 5x in NT. This is bone. It is part of where “osteopath” comes from.
CXLIII “see” = theoreo. Same as “seeing” in v37. See note CXXX above.

40 And when he had said this, he showedCXLIV them his hands and his feet. 41 Yet for all their joyCXLV they were still disbelievingCXLVI and wondering,CXLVII and he said to them, “Have you anything here to eat?”CXLVIII 

Notes on verses 40-41

CXLIV “showed” = deiknumi. This is to show in a literal or figurative sense so it can be to teach, bring, or point out.
CXLV “joy” = chara. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is joy, delight, gladness. Can be understood as the feeling you get when you are aware of grace.
CXLVI “disbelieving” = apisteo. Related to “believe” in v25. 8x in NT. From apistos (unbelieving, incredulous, faithless; someone who rejects faith); {from a (not, without) + pistos (faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true; a fullness of faith); {from peitho (see note LXXVII above)}}. This is to intentionally disbelieve, prove false. It can be one who has never believed or a believer who goes astray.
CXLVII “wondering” = thaumazo. Related to “seeing” in v37. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (see note CXXX above). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
CXLVIII “eat” = brosimos. 1x in NT. From brosis (food and the act of eating; eating in a literal or figurative sense); from bibrosko (to eat); related to bora (food). This is edible or meat.

42 They gave him a pieceCXLIX of broiledCL fish,CLI 43 and he took it and ateCLII in their presence.CLIII

Notes on verses 42-43

CXLIX “piece” = meros. From meiromai (to get your allotment or portion). This is a part, a share, or a portion.
CL “broiled” = optos. 1x in NT. This is roasted or cooked.
CLI “fish” = ichthus. This means fish. It was also an early, secret Christian symbol – the “sign of the fish.” It was short for “Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior” in Greek. See
CLII “ate” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.
CLIII “in…presence” = enopion. Related to “eyes” in v16 & “vision” and “seen” in v23. From en (in, on, at, by with) + ops (see note XXVII above). This is literally “in the eye of” and is used for before or in the presence of.

44 Then he said to them, “These are my words that I spokeCLIV to you while I was still with you—that everythingCLV writtenCLVI about me in the lawCLVII of Moses,

Notes on verse 44a

CLIV “spoke” = laleo. Same as “declared” in v25. See note LXXXVIII above.
CLV “everything” = pas. Same as “all” in v14. See note XIII above.
CLVI “written” = grapho. Related to “scriptures” in v27. See note LXXXVII above.
CLVII “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.

the prophets, and the psalmsCLVIII mustCLIX be fulfilled.”CLX 

Notes on verse 44b

CLVIII “psalms” = psalmos. Related to “touch” in v39. 7x in NT. From psallo (see note CXXXVIII above). This is a psalm, a song sung of praise – generally accompanied by a harp or other stringed instrument. It can also refer to the book of Psalms.
CLIX “must” = dei. Same as “was…necessary” in v26. See note LXXIX above.
CLX “be fulfilled” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.

45 Then he opened their mindsCLXI to understandCLXII the scriptures, 46 and he said to them, “Thus it is written, that the Messiah is to suffer and to riseCLXIII from the deadCLXIV on the third day 

Notes on verses 45-46

CLXI “minds” = nous. Related to “called” in v13 & “recognizing” in v16 & “know” in v18 & “foolish” in v25. See note LXXIV above.
CLXII “understand” = suniemi. From sun (with, together with) + hiemi (to send, put). This is to put together – used figuratively to mean understand, consider, gain insight. It is bringing together facts or notions and synthesizing them into a whole. It is making a summary to arrive at a final conclusion that includes how to apply the insight to life. It can also imply acting piously or being wise.
CLXIII “rise” = anistemi. Same as “got up” in v33. See note CX above.
CLXIV “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.

47 and that repentanceCLXV and forgivenessCLXVI of sinsCLXVII

Notes on verse 47a

CLXV “repentance” = metanoia. Related to “foolish” in v25. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + noieo (see note LXXIV above). This is literally to change one’s mind – to choose to think differently and so to act differently because of a moral compunction. It is an intentional change to the inner self. This word shares a root with the English “paranoia.”
CLXVI “forgiveness” = aphesis. Related to “understand” in v45. 17x in NT. From aphiemi (to send away, release, abandon, lay aside, forgive); {from apo (from, away from) + hiemi (see note CLXII above)}. This is sending away – a release or letting go. So, it can be releasing someone from debt, slavery, or some other obligation – thus, freedom or liberty. Figuratively it can mean to pardon as releasing from the debt of sin.
CLXVII “sins” = hamartia. Related to “piece” in v42. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (see note CXLIX above)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.

is to be proclaimedCLXVIII in his name to all nations,CLXIX beginning from Jerusalem. 48 You are witnessesCLXX of these things. 49 And see,CLXXI I am sendingCLXXII upon you

Notes on verses 47b-49a

CLXVIII “proclaimed” = kerusso. This is to proclaim, preach, publish. Properly, it is to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade.
CLXIX “nations” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
CLXX “witnesses” = martus. This is a witness whether having heard or seen something. It refers to a witness literally, judicially, or figuratively. By analogy, this is a martyr. This is also where the word “martyr” comes from.
CLXXI “see” = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v13. See note I above.
CLXXII “sending” = apostello. Related to “miles” in v13 & “stood still” in v17 & “crucified” in v20 & “astounded” in v22 & “got up” in v33. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (see note X above)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.

what my FatherCLXXIII promised,CLXXIV so stayCLXXV here

Notes on verse 49b

CLXXIII “Father” = Pater. Related to “Cleopas” in v18. See note XXX above.
CLXXIV “what…promised” = epaggelia. Related to {untranslated} in v21 & “angels” in v23 & “told” in v35. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (see note LXIX above)}. This is a summons, promise, or message. It is a formal promise that is officially sanctioned. In the New Testament, this usually refers to a promise made in the Old Testament.
CLXXV “stay” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.

in the cityCLXXVI until you have been clothed withCLXXVII powerCLXXVIII from on high.”CLXXIX

Notes on verse 49c

CLXXVI “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
CLXXVII “clothed with” = enduo. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + duno (to sink into, set like the sun); {from duo (to go down, sink, or set)}. This is to put on as when one puts on clothes. It is the idea of sinking into one’s clothing.
CLXXVIII “power” = dunamis. Related to “mighty” in v19. From dunamai (see note XL above). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
CLXXIX “on high” = hupsos. 6x in NT. From hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond). This is height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted.

Image credit: “Breaking Bread” at the Christa Prema Seva Ashram in Pune, India.

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