Acts 2:14a, 22-32

Acts 2:14a, 22-32
Eastertide A21


14 But Peter,A standing with the eleven, raised his voice and addressedB them, “MenC of JudeaD and all who liveE in Jerusalem,F let this be known to you, and listenG to what I say.H 

Notes on verse 14

A “Peter” = petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
B “addressed” = apophtheggomai. 3x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + phtheggomai (to make a clear sound, proclaim); {related to phegos (light, brightness, splendor); from phaos (light, daylight); from phao (to shine)}. This is to speak clearly, declare.
C “men” = aner. This is man, male, or sir.
D “Judea” = ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
E “live” = katoikeo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + oikeo (to stele or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home);{from oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple)}.
F “Jerusalem” = ierousalem.From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalem (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
G “listen” = enotizomai. 1x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + ou (the ear or hearing). Literally, to give ear, to listen.
H “what I say” = ho + rhema + ego. Literally “my words.” Rhema is from rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.

22 “You that are Israelites,I listenJ to what I have to say:K JesusL of Nazareth,M 

Notes on verse 22a

I “Israelites” = aner + Israelites. Literally “men, Israelites.” 9x in NT. From Israel (Israel, the people an land); from Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land. This is Israelite in a literal or figurative sense.
J “listen” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
K “what I have to say” = ho + logos + houtos. Literally, “these words.” Logos is from lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
L “Jesus” = iesous.From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
M “Nazareth” = nazoraios. 13x in NT. Probably from nazara (Nazareth); perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazarene. See

a man attestedN to you by GodO with deeds of power,P wonders,Q and signsR that God did through him among you, as you yourselves knowS— 

Notes on verse 22b

N “attested” = apodeiknumi. 4x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is demonstrate or show with proof. It is showing that something is what it claims.
O “God” = theos.From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
P “deeds of power” = dunamis.From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
Q “wonders” = teras. 16x in NT. This is a wonder or marvel performed to get bystanders to react. It could also be a portent or omen.
R “signs” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
S “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.

23 this man, handed over to you according to the definiteT planU and foreknowledgeV of God, you crucifiedW and killedX by the hands of those outside the law.Y 

Notes on verse 23

T “definite” = horizo. 8x in NT. From the same as horion (boundary, territory); from horos (limit, boundary). This is to determine, set boundaries, appoint, designate, pre-determined. Literally, this is setting horizons.
U “plan” = boule. 12x in NT. From boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination). This is counsel, plan, purpose, decision. It refers to wisdom that comes from deliberation.
V “foreknowledge” = prognosis. Related to “known” in v14. 2x in NT. From proginosko (to know beforehand, foresee); {from pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience)}. This is foreknowledge or a previous determination.
W “crucified” = prospegnumi. 1x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward). This is to fasten to – used specifically for crucifixion.
X “killed” = anaireo. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to take up or away, which implies taking with violence. So, this is used for murdering, executing, and slaying.
Y “those outside the law” = anomos. 10x in NT. From a (not, without) + nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}. This is literally without law. So, it could refer to someone who disregards authority or one who is not under the law (i.e. a Gentile). It can be lawless, wicked, or a transgressor.

24 But God raised him up,Z having freedAA him from death,BB because it was impossibleCC for him to be heldDD in its power. 

Notes on verse 24

Z “raised…up” = anistemi. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
AA “freed” = luo. This is to loose, release, or untie. Figuratively, it can mean to break, destroy, or annul. This is releasing what had been withheld
BB “death” = odin + thanatos. Litearlly “pain of death.” Odin is 4x in NT. It is related to odune (pain or sorrow or anguish, whether physical or mental); perhaps from duno (to enter, sink into); from duo (to sink). This is labor pains, acute pain, intense suffering.
CC “impossible” = ou + eimi + dunatos. Literally “was not possible.” Related to “deeds of power” in v22.  Dunatos is from dunamai (see note P above). This is mighty or powerful. It speaks of ability of persons, possibility of things. It is what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits. The root verb is also related to miracles i.e. deeds of power.
DD “be held” = krateo. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control. In this sense, it means arrest.

25 For DavidEE says concerning him,

‘I sawFF the LordGG always beforeHH me,
    for he is at my right handII so that I will not be shaken;JJ

Notes on verse 25

EE “David” = dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
FF “saw” = proorao. 4x in NT. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + horao (to see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience; to stare at, which implies clear discernment; by extension, attending to what was seen and learned; to see, often with a metaphorical sense, which can include inward spiritual seeing). This is to foresee, be mindful of, or to set before.
GG “Lord” = kurios.From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
HH “before” = enopion. From en (in, on, at, by with) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen)}. This is literally “in the eye of” and is used for before or in the presence of.
II “right hand” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
JJ “shaken” = saleuo. 15x in NT. From salos (tossing, agitation, rolling – like the sea swells). This is to agitate or shake up. It can mean to disturb, topple, incite, or destroy.

26 therefore my heartKK was glad,LL and my tongue rejoiced;MM
    moreover my fleshNN will liveOO in hope.PP

Notes on verse 26

KK “heart” = kardia.Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
LL “was glad” = euphraino. 14x in NT. From eu (good, well, well done) + phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); {perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb)}. This is to be glad, revel, feast. It is having a positive outlook, rejoicing.
MM “rejoiced” = agalliao. 11x in NT. From agallomai (to exalt, make glorious) {from agan (much, very) + hallomai (to leap or leap up; when referring to water, springing up or bubbling up; to jump or figuratively to gush)}. This is properly joy that prompts you to jump up. It is a full body experience of joy: exulting, rejoicing, or even boasting from joy.
NN “flesh” = sarx.May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).
OO “live” = kataskenoo. 4x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + skenoo (to encamp, pitch a tent, dwell); {from skenos (tent, booth, tabernacle, or dwelling. It could be a cloth hut. This is a tent in a literal or figurative sense ); {perhaps related to skeuos (vessel, tool, container, implement; also vessel in a figurative or literal sense) or perhaps related to skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad)}. This is to encamp or dwell. It is used figuratively for to lodge, stay or rest.
PP “hope” = elpis. From elpo (to anticipate, welcome, expect; usually to anticipate positively). This is expectation, hope, trust, confidence faith. The expectation can be abstract or concrete.

27 For you will not abandonQQ my soulRR to Hades,SS
    or letTT your Holy OneUU experienceVV corruption.WW

Notes on verse 27

QQ “abandon” = egkataleipo. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + kataleipo (to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing)}. This is left behind, left as a remainder, desert, forsake. Properly, it means to leave someone or something wanting or lacking – so, to forsake or cause someone to be helpless in a serious scenario.
RR “soul” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
SS “Hades” = hades. Related to “know” in v22. 10x in NT. From a (not, without) + eido (see note S above). This is Literally, the world that is not seen. It is Hades, hell, the place where the dead reside. It can also refer to the grave.
TT “let” = didomi. Related to “handed over” in v23. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
UU “Holy One” = hosios. 8x in NT. This is righteous, pious, holy, devout, or Holy One. This refers to what is worthy or respect or reverence because it corresponds to a higher law, particularly God’s law. It can be contrasted with dikaios (just according to law and statue) & hieros (formally consecrated) & hagios (pure, sacred, free from ritual defilement).
VV “experience” = horao. Related to “saw” in v25. See note FF above.
WW “corruption” = diaphthora. 6x in NT. From diaphtheiro (to destroy, spoil, corrupt, disintegrate, decay; it can refer to the effect of moral or spiritual impurity); {from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + from phtheiro (to destroy, corrupt, ruin, deteriorate, wither; also used of moral corruption); {from phthio (perish, waste away)}}. This is destruction, corruption, or decay.

28 You have made known to me the waysXX of life;YY
    you will make me fullZZ of gladnessAAA with your presence.’

Notes on verse 28

XX “ways” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey.
YY “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
ZZ “make…full” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its induvial capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
AAA “gladness” = euphrosune. Related to “was…glad” in v26. 2x in NT. From eu (good, well, well done) + phren (see note LL above). This is gladness, rejoicing, or joy.

29 “Fellow Israelites,BBB I mayCCC say to you confidentlyDDD of our ancestorEEE David that he both diedFFF and was buried, and his tombGGG is with us to this day. 

Notes on verse 29

BBB “fellow Israelites” = aner + adelphos. Literally, “men, brothers.” Adelphos is from a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
CCC “may” = exesti. From ek (out, out of) + eimi (to be, exist). This is what is permitted or what is allowed under the law. It can mean what is right, what holds moral authority, or, more broadly, something that is shown out in public.
DDD “confidently” = parresia. From pas (all, every, each) + rhesis (speech); {from rheo (say, speak of, command)}. This is confidence, openness, boldness, outspokenness. It can imply assurance – free speech.
EEE “ancestor” = patriarches. 4x in NT. From patria (lineage, family, kindred, nation); {from pater (father in a literal or figurative sense)} + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is patriarch, founder, or head of a family.
FFF “died” = teleutao. 13x in NT. From teleute (end, finishing, consummation; can also be used for death); from teleo (to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end); from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one). This is to complete or come to the end/end goal. It can also mean to finish life or to meet one’s ultimate fate in heaven or hell.
GGG “tomb” = mnema. 8x in NT. From mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is memorial, tomb, or monument.

30 Since he wasHHH a prophet,III he knew that God had sworn with an oathJJJ to him that he would put one of his descendantsKKK on his throne.LLL 

Notes on verse 30

HHH “was” = huparcho. Related to “ancestor” in v29. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (see note EEE above).  This is to be, to have already, to exist, to be at hand. This is something that one already possesses or that pre-exists.
III “prophet” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet. One who speaks with inspiration from God
JJJ “oath” = horkos. Perhaps related to “definite” in v23. 10x in NT. Related to erkos (fence, enclosure); perhaps related to horion (see note T above). This is a literally a limit – a boundary or restraint that one takes on. Specifically, this is an oat or a vow.
KKK “descendants” = karpos + ho + osphus + autos. Literally “fruit of his loins.” Karpos is perhaps from harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (to choose, take). This is a fruit or vegetable, through sometimes it refers to an animal. Figuratively, it is deeds, results, profits, or gain. Osphus is 8x in NT. It means loins, hips, or genitals.
LLL “throne” = thronos. Probably from thanos (bench); from thrao (to sit). This is throne or seat – the place where the king sits. So, it is used figuratively to mean power, dominion, or a potentate. This is where the word “throne” comes form.

31 Foreseeing this, David spoke of the resurrectionMMM of the Messiah,NNN saying,

‘He was not abandoned to Hades,
    nor did his flesh experience corruption.’

32 This Jesus God raised up, and of that all of us are witnesses.OOO

Notes on verses 31-32

MMM “resurrection” = anastasis. Related to “raised…up” in v24. From anistemi (see note Z above). This is literally standing up or standing again. It is used figuratively for recovering a spiritual truth. It can be raising up, rising, or resurrection.
NNN “Messiah” = christos.From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
OOO “witnesses” = martus. This is a witness whether having heard or seen something. It refers to a witness literally, judicially, or figuratively. By analogy, this is a martyr. This is also where the word “martyr” comes from.

Image Credit: Fresco of Saint Peter from the Église Sainte-Croix de Saint-Servan, commune de Saint-Malo by Louis Duveau, 1854-1855.

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