Exodus 14:10-31 & 15:20-21

Exodus 14:10-31 & 15:20-21
Easter Vigil A


14:10 As PharaohI drew near,II the IsraelitesIII looked back,IV

Notes on verse 14:10a

I “Pharaoh” = paroh. From Egyptian pr (palace, pharaoh; literally house + great). This is Pharaoh, a title for Egyptian kings. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pharaoh
II “drew near” = qarab. This is to come near, offer, make ready, approach, take.
III “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
IV “looked back” = nasaet + ayin. Literally, “lifted their eyes.” Nasa is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept. Ayin is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).

andV there were the EgyptiansVI advancingVII onVIII them.

Notes on verse 14:10b

V {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
VI “Egyptians” = Mitsri. From the same as mitsrayim (Egypt); perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egyptian.
VII “advancing” = nasa. This is properly pulling up as when one pulls up tent pegs or stakes. This would imply striking tents in order to start a journey. So this could be bring, pullout, set out, journey, or cause to go away.
VIII “on” = achar. From achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.

In greatIX fearX the Israelites cried outXI to the Lord.XII 

Notes on verse 14:10c

IX “great” = meod. Perhaps from the same as uwd (firebrand, a poker). This is very, greatly, exceedingly. It can also mean vehemence, force, abundance.
X “in…fear” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
XI “cried out” = tsaaq. This is to cry out or call together, to shriek. It can mean, by implication, calling for an assembly.
XII “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.

11 They said to Moses,XIII “Was it becauseXIV there were no gravesXV in EgyptXVI

Notes on verse 14:11a

XIII “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
XIV “because” = beli. From balah (to grow old, wear out, waste away, consume, spend). This is properly a failure. So, it could mean without, not yet, unawares, lacking, something that wears out, or because not.
XV “graves” = qeber. From qabar (to bury). This is a place where one is buried such as a grave or tomb.
XVI “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Related to “Egyptians” in v14:10. See note VI above.

that you have taken us awayXVII to dieXVIII in the wilderness?XIX What have you doneXX to us, bringingXXI us out of Egypt? 

Notes on verse 14:11b

XVII “taken…away” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
XVIII “die” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
XIX “wilderness” = midbar. From dabar (to speak, command, declare). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.
XX “done” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
XXI “bringing” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.

12 Is this not the very thingXXII we toldXXIII you in Egypt, ‘Let us aloneXXIV so that we can serveXXV the Egyptians’? For it would have been betterXXVI for us to serve the Egyptians than to die in the wilderness.” 

Notes on verse 14:12

XXII “thing” = dabar. Related to “wilderness” in v14:11. From dabar (see note XIX above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
XXIII “told” = dabar. Related to “wilderness” in v14:11 & “thing” in v14:12. See note XIX above.
XXIV “let…alone” = chadal. This is properly to be flabby – it implies, to stop, fall, end, rest, leave alone, forsake, or desist. Figuratively this can be lacking or idle.
XXV “serve” = abad. This is to work, serve, or compel. It can describe any kind of work or service (including religious devotion).  Also, till or cultivate. Used causatively, it can mean to enslave or keep in bondage.
XXVI “better” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.

13 But Moses said to the people,XXVII “Do not be afraid,XXVIII stand firm,XXIX and seeXXX the deliveranceXXXI

Notes on verse 14:13a

XXVII “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
XXVIII “be afraid” = yare. Same as “in…fear” in v14:10. See note X above.
XXIX “stand firm” = yatsab. This is to set oneself, take a stand, remain, continue, to station or set something in place.
XXX “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
XXXI “deliverance” = yeshuah. From yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue, be safe. Properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. Used causatively, it means to free). This is salvation, deliverance, health, victory, prosperity.

that the Lord will accomplishXXXII for you today,XXXIII for the Egyptians whom you see today you shall neverXXXIV see again.XXXV 

Notes on verse 14:13b

XXXII “accomplish” = asah. Same as “done” in v14:11. See note XX above.
XXXIII “today” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
XXXIV {untranslated} = yasaph. This is to add, increase, continue, exceed.
XXXV {untranslated} = ad + olam. Literally, “even to forever.” Ad is from the same as ad (old, perpetuity, eternity; a duration going back or forward); from adah (to advance or continue; to take away or remove; adorning oneself with ornaments). This is until, while, before. Olam is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).

14 The Lord will fightXXXVI for you, and you have only to keep still.”XXXVII

15 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Why do you cry out to me? Tell the Israelites to go forward.XXXVIII 16 But you lift upXXXIX your staffXL and stretch outXLI

Notes on verses 14:14-16a

XXXVI “fight” = lacham. This is to eat or feed on. Figuratively, it is to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction.
XXXVII “keep still” = charash. This is to scratch, which implies etching or plowing. It can mean to manufacture regardless of materials used. Figuratively, it can be to devise or conceal. It can also have a sense of secrecy. Hence, being silent or left alone. It can also be speechless.
XXXVIII “go forward” = nasa. Same as “advancing” in v14:10. See note VII above.
XXXIX “lift up” = rum. This is to rise or raise, to be high literally or figuratively. So it can also mean to exalt or extol.
XL “staff” = matteh. From natah (to stretch or spread out, extend, bend). This is a staff, rod, branch, or tribe. It could be a rod for discipline or correction. It could be a scepter to indicate authority, a throwing lance, or a walking staff. Figuratively, it could also be something that supports life (like bread).
XLI “stretch out” = natah. Related to “staff” in v14:16. See note XL above.

your handXLII over the seaXLIII and divideXLIV it, that the Israelites may goXLV intoXLVI the sea on dry ground.XLVII 

Notes on verses 14:14-16

XLII “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
XLIII “sea” = yam. Root may mean to roar. This is the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean. It comes from the root in the sense of the roar of crashing surf. This word is sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water. It can mean to the west or to the south.
XLIV “divide” = baqa. This is to break open, breach, divide, rip, shake, tear. It can also mean dash into pieces or being ready to burst.
XLV “go” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XLVI “into” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
XLVII “dry ground” = yabbashah. 14x in OT– word used for dry land in Genesis 1:9-10. From yabesh (to dry up, be withered, be dry; to be ashamed, confused, or disappointed). This is dry land or dry ground.

17 Then IXLVIII will hardenXLIX the heartsL of the Egyptians so that they will go in afterLI them, and so I will gain gloryLII for myself over Pharaoh and allLIII

Notes on verse 14:17a

XLVIII {untranslated} = hen. Related to {untranslated} in v14:10. See note V above.
XLIX “harden” = chazaq. This is to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden.
L “hearts” = leb May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
LI “after” = achar. Same as “on” in v14:10. See note VIII above.
LII “gain glory” = kabad. To be heavy, weighty, or severe. It can also be positive abounding in, rich, or honorable. The Hebrew word for “glory,” kabod, is taken from this root.
LIII “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.

his army,LIV his chariots,LV and his chariot drivers.LVI 18 Then the Egyptians shall knowLVII that I am the Lord, when I have gained glory for myself over Pharaoh, his chariots, and his chariot drivers.”

Notes on verses 14:17b-18

LIV “army” = chel. From chul (whirling around so dancing as in a circle or writhing in pain; used particularly for the pain of childbirth or from writhing due to fear; can also be falling in pain or waiting) OR from chayil (strength, wealth, ability, activity; a soldier or a company of soldiers; goods; a force of people, means, or goods; valor, virtue, or strength); from chul (to be firm, strong, prosperous; to endure). This is an army, entrenchment, fortress, wall, or host.
LV “chariots” = rekeb. From rakab (to ride an animal or in some vehicle; also, bringing on a horse). This is a vehicle, wagon, or chariot. It can be cavalry or an individual rider.
LVI “chariot drivers” = parash. From parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter; can also imply to wound). This is a horse or a person who rides a horse. A chariot driver or cavalry as a collective.
LVII “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.

19 The angelLVIII of GodLIX who was goingLX

Notes on verse 14:19a

LVIII “angel” = malak. This is a messenger, an angel, or a deputy of some kind. Can be used for human messengers literally or for prophets, priests, or teachers as messengers of God. Also used for supernatural messengers i.e. angels.
LIX “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israelites” in v14:10. See note III above.
LX “going” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.

beforeLXI the Israelite armyLXII movedLXIII

Notes on verse 14:19b

LXI “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
LXII “army” = machaneh. From chanah (to decline, bending down, or living in tents; can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle). This is an encampment, whether of people traveling together or soldiers. So, it can be a camp band, or company as well as an army of soldiers. Also can be used of other groups like animals, angels or stars.
LXIII “moved” = nasa. Same as “advancing” in v14:10. See note VII above.

and went behindLXIV them, and the pillarLXV of cloudLXVI moved from in front ofLXVII them and took its placeLXVIII behind them. 

Notes on verse 14:19c

LXIV “behind” = achar. Same as “on” in v14:10. See note VIII above.
LXV “pillar” = ammud. From amad (to stand up in a literal or figurative sense; to establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy). This is a pillar, stand, or platform.
LXVI “cloud” = anan. May be from anan (cover, cloud over; figuratively, acting in a secret way, practicing magic or soothsaying). This is a cloud as something that covers the sky.
LXVII “in front of” = paneh. Same as “before” in v14:19. See note LXI above.
LXVIII “took its place” = amad. Related to “pillar” in v14:19. See note LXV above.

20 It cameLXIX betweenLXX the armyLXXI of Egypt and the armyLXXII of Israel.LXXIII And so the cloud wasLXXIV there

Notes on verse 14:20a

LXIX “came” = bo. Same as “go” in v14:16. See note XLV above.
LXX “between” = bayin. From bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is among, between, interval.
LXXI “army” = machaneh. Same as “army” in v14:19. See note LXII above.
LXXII “army” = machaneh. Same as “army” in v14:19. See note LXII above.
LXXIII “Israel” = Yisrael. Same as “Israelites” in v14:10. See note III above.
LXXIV “was” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v14:10. See note above. See note XII above.

with the darkness,LXXV and it lit upLXXVI the night;LXXVII one did not come nearLXXVIII the otherLXXIX all night.

Notes on verse 14:20b

LXXV “darkness” = choshek. From chashak (to be or become dark). This is literal darkness is contrast to light. Figuratively, it can be obscurity, sorrow, misery, blindness, wickedness, destruction, death. It can also be hiding places. Additionally, it can mean judgment, mourning, ignorance, evil, or sin.
LXXVI “lit up” = or. This is to light, shine, set on fire – to be luminous in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXVII “night” = layil. Properly, this refers to light twisting away. It is used for night or midnight. Figuratively, this can mean adversity.
LXXVIII “come near” = qarab. Same as “drew near” in v14:10. See note II above.
LXXIX “one…the other” = zeh + el +zeh. Literally, “this to this.”

21 Then Moses stretched out his hand over the sea. The Lord drove the sea backLXXX by a strongLXXXI eastLXXXII windLXXXIII all night

Notes on verse 14:21a

LXXX “drove…back” = halak. Same as “going” in v14:19. See note LX above.
LXXXI “strong” = az. From azaz (to be strong, become fixed, be bold, prevail, be impudent; it means to be stout literally or figuratively; a Late Hebrew word). This is strong or mighty. It can also refer to power or vehemence or mean greedy.
LXXXII “east” = qadim. From the same as qedem (front, formerly, before, east, eternal, everlasting, antiquity). This is the front part and so eastward. Sometimes used as a shorthand for the east wind.
LXXXIII “wind” = ruach. This is breath, wind, air, cool, spirit. This is wind, which resembles the breath and so this can be used figuratively for life itself or being frail/mortal/impermanent. It can refer to the air of the sky or the spirit.

and turnedLXXXIV the sea into dry land,LXXXV and the watersLXXXVI were divided. 22 The Israelites wentLXXXVII into the sea on dry ground, the waters forming a wallLXXXVIII for them

Notes on verses 14:21b-22a

LXXXIV “turned” = sim. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
LXXXV “dry land” = charabah. 8x in OT. From chareb (to be waste or desolate, destroyer). This is dry ground, dry, or desert.
LXXXVI “waters” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.
LXXXVII “went” = bo. Same as “go” in v14:16. See note XLV above.
LXXXVIII “wall” = chomah. From the same as cham (father-in-law – one’s husband’s father; perhaps from a root meaning to join). This is a wall – a wall as used for protection.

on their rightLXXXIX and on their left.XC 23 The Egyptians pursuedXCI and wentXCII into the sea after them, all of Pharaoh’s horses,XCIII chariots, and chariot drivers. 

Notes on verses 14:22b-23

LXXXIX “right” = yamin. May be from yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm). This can mean right hand, right side, or south. Since most people are right-handed, the metaphorical usage of this word presumes that the right hand is stronger and more agile. Thus, it is the instrument of power and action.
XC “left” = semol. Perhaps from the same as simlah (mantle, clothes, wrapper); perhaps from semel (image, figure, likeness). This is left, left side, or north as the part that is dark.
XCI “pursued” = radaph. This is to chase after, pursue, hunt, or persecute. It is running after someone or something, generally with hostile motives.
XCII “went” = bo. Same as “go” in v14:16. See note XLV above.
XCIII “horses” = sus. Root may mean to skip as in jump for joy. This is a crane or a swift bird. It is also a horse as leaping.

24 XCIVAt the morningXCV watchXCVI the Lord, in the pillar of fireXCVII and cloud,

Notes on verse 14:24a

XCIV {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “was” in v14:20. See note LXXIV above.
XCV “morning” = boqer. From baqar (to seek, plow, break forth, admire, care for). This refers to the break of day. So it is dawn, early, morning, or morrow.
XCVI “watch” = ashmoreth. 7x in OT. From shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is a watch.
XCVII “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.

looked downXCVIII on the Egyptian armyXCIX and threw the Egyptian armyC into a panic.CI 

Notes on verse 14:24b

XCVIII “looked down” = shaqaph. This is to look down or look out. Properly, it is looking by leaning out a window. It can be peeping or gazing.
XCIX “army” = machaneh. Same as “army” in v14:19. See note LXII above.
C “army” = machaneh. Same as “army” in v14:19. See note LXII above.
CI “threw…into a panic” = hamam. 14x in OT. This is being noisy, confused, thrown into confusion, trouble, cause a commotion, disturb, rout, damage, destroy.

25 He cloggedCII their chariotCIII wheelsCIV so that they turnedCV with difficulty.CVI The Egyptians said, “Let us fleeCVII fromCVIII the Israelites, for the Lord is fighting for them against Egypt.”

Notes on verse 14:25

CII “clogged” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
CIII “chariot” = merkabah. Related to “chariots” in v14:17. From merkab (chariot, saddle, covering; any seat in a vehicle); from rakab (see note LV above). This is a chariot.
CIV “wheels” = ophan. Root might be to revolve so this is a wheel.
CV “turned” = nahag. This is to drive as in driving flocks, but also driving in animal or vehicle like a chariot. It can mean to carry away, lead, drive away, proceed, or guide. It can also relate to behavior and what one is accustomed to.
CVI “difficulty” = kebeduth. Related to “gain glory” in v14:17. 1x in OT. From kabad (see note LII above). This is heaviness or difficulty.
CVII “flee” = nus. This is to flee, vanish away, hide, escape, be displayed.
CVIII “from” = paneh. Same as “before” in v14:19. See note LXI above.

26 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand over the sea, so that the water may come backCIX upon the Egyptians, upon their chariotsCX and chariot drivers.” 27 So Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and atCXI dawn the sea returnedCXII to its normal depth.CXIII As the Egyptians fled beforeCXIV it, the Lord tossedCXV the Egyptians into the sea. 

Notes on verses 14:26-27

CIX “come back” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
CX “chariots” = rekeb. Same as “chariots” in v14:17. See note LV above.
CXI “dawn” = panah + boqer. Panah is related to “before” in v14:19. See note LXI above. Boqer is the same as “morning” in v14:24. See note XCV above.
CXII “returned” = shub. Same as “come back” in v14:26. See note CIX above.
CXIII “normal depth” = ethan. 13x in OT. Root might mean to continue. This is mighty, strong, ever-flowing, enduring, or permanence.
CXIV “before” = qirah. From the same as qara (to happen, meet, bring about). This is any kind of encounter, whether peaceful, hostile, or incidental. It can also mean help or seek.
CXV “tossed” = naar. 11x in OT. This is to shake, toss up and down, tumble around, overthrow, shake off.

28 The waters returned and coveredCXVI the chariotsCXVII and the chariot drivers, the entireCXVIII armyCXIX of Pharaoh that had followedCXX them into the sea;

Notes on verse 14:28a

CXVI “covered” = kasah. This is to cover, conceal, overwhelm. It is to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret.
CXVII “chariots” = rekeb. Same as “chariots” in v14:17. See note LV above.
CXVIII “entire” = kol. Same as “all” in v14:17. See note LIII above.
CXIX “army” = chel. Same as “army” in v14:17. See note LIV above.
CXX “followed” = bo + achar. Bo is the same as “go” in v14:16. See note XLV above. Achar is the same as “on” in v14:10. See note VIII above.

not oneCXXI of them remained.CXXII 29 But the Israelites walkedCXXIII on dry ground throughCXXIV the sea, the waters forming a wall for them on their right and on their left.

Notes on verses 14:28b-29

CXXI “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
CXXII “remained” = shaar. Properly, this is swelling up i.e. being left over, a remnant, remaining, being redundant.
CXXIII “walked” = halak. Same as “going” in v14:19. See note LX above.
CXXIV “through” = tavek. Same as “into” in v14:16. See note XLVI above.

30 Thus the Lord savedCXXV Israel that dayCXXVI fromCXXVII the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the seashore.CXXVIII 

Notes on verse 14:30

CXXV “save” = yasha. Related to “deliverance” in v14:13. See note XXXI above.
CXXVI “day” = yom. Same as “today” in v14:13. See note XXXIII above.
CXXVII {untranslated} = yad. Literally, “from the hand of.” Same as “hand” in v14:16. See note XLII above.
CXXVIII “seashore” = saphah + yam. Saphah is lip, edge, border, bank – used for a boundary. It can also be speech or language. Yam is the same as “sea” in v14:16. See note XLIII above.

31 Israel saw the greatCXXIX workCXXX that the Lord did against the Egyptians. So the people feared the Lord and believedCXXXI in the Lord and in his servantCXXXII Moses.

Notes on verse 14:31

CXXIX “great” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
CXXX “work” = yad. Same as “hand” in v14:16. See note XLII above.
CXXXI “believed” = aman. This is to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful. It is to put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid. This is where the word “amen” comes from.
CXXXII “servant” = ebed. Related to “serve” in v14:12. From abad (see note XXV above). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.

15:20 Then the prophetCXXXIII Miriam,CXXXIV Aaron’sCXXXV sister,CXXXVI

Notes on verse 15:20a

CXXXIII “prophet” = nebiah. 6x in OT– of Miriam, Deborah, Huldah, Noadiah, and Isaiah’s wife. From nabi (prophet, prophecy, speaker; someone inspired). This is to prophesy. Older usages referred to raving, religious ecstasy that sometimes went along with music. In later usage, it was religious teachings that sometimes held prediction. Prophesying is speaking the truth of what is and where it will lead. This word is specifically used for female prophet.
CXXXIV “Miriam” = Miryam. 15x in OT. From marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam.
CXXXV “Aaron’s” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Aaron
CXXXVI “sister” = achot. From the same as ach (brother, kindred, another, other, like). This is sister in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean another or together.

took a tambourineCXXXVII in her hand, and all the womenCXXXVIII went outCXXXIX after her with tambourines and with dancing.CXL 

Notes on verse 15:20b

CXXXVII “tambourine” = toph. 17x in OT. Perhaps from taphaph (to play a drum, timbrel, or tambourine). This is a timbrel or tambourine.
CXXXVIII “women” = ishshah. From ish (man); perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is woman, wife, or female.
CXXXIX “went out” = yatsa. Same as “bringing” in v14:11. See note XXI above.
CXL “dancing” = mecholah. Related to “army” in v14:17. 8x in OT. From machol (round dance); from chul (see note LIV above). This is a dance.

21 And Miriam sangCXLI to them:

“SingCXLII to the Lord, for he has triumphed gloriously;CXLIII
horse and riderCXLIV he has thrownCXLV into the sea.”

Notes on verse 15:21

CXLI “sang” = anah. This is answer, respond, announce, sing, shout, or testify. It means to pay attention, which implies responding and, by extension, starting to talk. Used in a specific sense for singing, shouting, testifying, etc.
CXLII “sing” = shir. From shir (song, singer). This is to sing. It could also refer to one who is singing or leading others in song.
CXLIII “triumphed gloriously” = gaah + gaah. 7x in OT. This is to rise up, grow, lift, exalt, triumph, be majestic. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
CXLIV “rider” = rakab. Related to “chariots” in v14:17 & “chariot” in v14:25. See note LV above.
CXLV “thrown” = ramah. 13x in OT. This is to hurl, shoot, carry, or throw. Figuratively, it is to beguile, delude or betray. It can also refer to an archer.

Image credit: “Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton Catholic Church (Hiawatha, Iowa) – doors, Parting of the Red Sea.” Photo by Nheyob, 2014.

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