Hebrews 5:5-10

Hebrews 5:5-10
Lent B17


So also ChristA did not glorifyB himself in becomingC a high priest,D but was appointed by the one who said to him,

“You are my Son,
    today I have begottenE you”;

Notes on verse 5

A “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
B “glorify” = doxazo. From doxa (glory, opinion, praise, honor, renown; particularly used as a quality of God or manifestation of God – splendor); from dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.
C “becoming” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
D “high priest” = archiereus. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
E “begotten” = gennao. Related to “becoming” in v5. From genna (descent, birth); from genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note C above). This is to beget, give birth to, or bring forth. Properly, it refers to procreation by the father, but was used of the mother by extension. Figuratively, this can mean to regenerate.

as he says also in anotherF place,

“You are a priestG forever,H
    according to the orderI of Melchizedek.”J

Notes on verse 6

F “another” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
G “priest” = hiereus. Related to “high priest” in v5. See note D above.
H “forever” = eis + ho + aion. Literally “to the age.” Aion is from the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.
I “order” = taxis. 9x in NT. From tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is order, arrangement, position, discipline, being orderly, approval, morale. It is used in military settings to describe rank. Later included indication of dignity or character. It is part of the root of the word “taxonomy.”
J “Melchizedek” = Melchisedek. 8x in NT – all in Hebrews. From Hebrew Malki-tsedeq (Melchizedek, meaning “my king is right”); {from melek (king, royal) + tsedeq (rightness, righteousness, just cause, vindication; that which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense; abstractly equity; figuratively prosperity)} This is Melchizedek, “my king is righteous.”

In the days of his flesh,K Jesus offered upL prayersM and supplications,N

Notes on verse 7a

K “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).
L “offered up” = prosphero. From pros (at, to, with, towards, advantageous for) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to offer gifts or sacrifices, to bring up.
M “prayers” = deesis. 18x in NT. From deomai (having an urgent need because one is missing or needing something so it is an earnest appeal or pressing request); from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is a request coming from a deep personal need or want. So, it is supplication or prayer.
N “supplications” = hiketeria. 1x in NT. From the base of hikanos (sufficient, suitable, adequate, competent, ample); from hiko or hikneomai (to reach, come to, attain) OR from hiketes (a suppliant). This refer to an olive branch that one would hold when making a humble request. It signifies an earnest request for peace, help, or reconciliation. This word is supplication or entreaty.

with loudO criesP and tears,Q

Notes on verse 7b

O “loud” = ischuros. From ischuo (to be strong, healthy and vigorous, able, have power, prevail; strength that engages a resisting force); from ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance). This is strong – first of physical strength. Later, also used figuratively for forcible, powerful, mighty, vehement, or sure.
P “cries” = krauge. 6x in NT. From krazo (to cry out, scream, shriek; onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call; figuratively, this is means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt). This is a very emotional shout or cry generally or clamor against someone else. It can express alarm, trouble, or grief.
Q “tears” = dakruon. 10x in NT– 2x of the woman anointing Jesus’ feet, 2x of Paul’s tears about people distorting the truth, 2x of God wiping away ever tear of the saints in heaven, 1x of Paul missing the Corinthians, 1x of remembering Timothy’s tears, 1x of Esau’s tears, 1x of Jesus’ tears. This is tear or teardrop.

to the one who was ableR to saveS him from death,T and he was heardU because of his reverent submission.V 

Notes on verse 7c

R “was able” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
S “save” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.
T “death” = thanatos. This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
U “heard” = eisakouo. 5x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + akouo (listen, hear, understand through hearing). This is hearing deeply and intentionally. It can also mean to obey, heed, or comply – understanding prompting action.
V “reverent submission” = eulabeia. 2x in NT. From eulabes (literally handling well or grasping what is good; cautious or circumspect; by extension, devout, pious, or God fearing); {from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual)}. This is reverence, pious caution, being dedicated to following God’s call to goodness.

Although he was a Son, he learnedW obedienceX through what he suffered;Y 

Notes on verse 8

W “learned” = manthano. This is to learn, ascertain, understand. It is knowledge that one gets from personal experience and it implies reflecting on that experience. It can also focus on gaining knowledge by learning facts. This root is where the Greek word for disciple comes from (mathetes).
X “obedience” = hupakoe. Related to “heard” in v7. 15x in NT. From hupoakouo (to listen, to attend to, or obey; acting subordinate to one who speaks – heeding a command or authority); {from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + akouo (see note U above)}. This is obedience, submissiveness – listening attentively and acting in response.
Y “suffered” = pascho. Akin to penthos (mourning, sorrow). This is to be acted on for good or ill. It is often used for negative treatment. Properly, it means feeling strong emotions – especially suffering. It can also be the ability to feel suffering.

and having been made perfect,Z he became the sourceAA of eternalBB salvationCC for all who obeyDD him, 10 having been designatedEE by GodFF a high priest according to the order of Melchizedek.

Notes on verses 9-10

Z “made perfect” = teleioo. From teleios (going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one; reaching an end and so being complete or “perfect”; also full grown or mature); from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax).  This is finish, accomplish, bring to an end, complete, reach a goal, finish a race, to consummate. It refers to completing stages or phases to get to an ultimate conclusion. It can also mean consecrate or fulfill.
AA “source” = aitios. From the same as aiteo (to ask, demand, beg, desire). This is the cause of something. So it could refer to someone who begins or originates something – as the source or author. It could also be the accused or culprit as one who caused a crime to happen.
BB “eternal” = aionios. Related to “forever” in v6. From aion (see note H above). This is age-long, forever, everlasting. Properly, that which lasts for an age. This is where eon comes from.
CC “salvation” = soteria. Related to “save” in v7. From soter (a savior, deliverer); from sozo (see note S above). This is deliverance, salvation, preservation, welfare, prosperity, safety.
DD “obey” = hupkaouo. Related to “heard” in v7 & “obedience” in v8. See note X above.
EE “designated” = prosagoreuo. 1x in NT. From pros (at, towards, for) + agoreuo (speaking in the assembly) OR from pros (at, towards, for) + related to agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare); {from ageiro (to gather)}. This is to speak to someone by name, designate, call.
FF “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

Image credit: Detail of Melchizedek over the east entrance of the Saint Ladislaus Church in Budapest, Hungary.

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