Mark 14:32-15:47

Mark 14:32-15:47
A Women’s Lectionary – Palm Sunday 20


14:32 They wentI to a placeII calledIII Gethsemane;IV

Notes on verse 14:32a

I “went” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
II “place” = chorion. 10x in NT. From chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is place, estate, possession, piece of ground, property.
III “called” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
IV “Gethsemane” = Gethsemani. 2x in NT. From Hebrew gath (wine press); {perhaps from nagan (to strike a stringed instrument, to pluck or play it)} + shemen (fat, oil, grease, olive oil – often with perfume; figurative for fertile, lavish, rich); {from shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat)}. This is Gethsemane, meaning oil-press, an olive orchard.

and he saidV to his disciples,VI “SitVII here while I pray.”VIII 

Notes on verse 14:32b

V “said” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
VI “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
VII “sit” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.
VIII “pray” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.

33 He tookIX with him PeterX and JamesXI and John,XII

Notes on verse 14:33a

IX “took” = paralambano. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to receive, take, acknowledge, associate with. It can also mean to take on an office or to learn.
X “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
XI “James” = Iakob. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
XII “John” = Ioannes. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel); {from havah (to become); from hayah (to be, exist, happen)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”

and beganXIII to be distressedXIV and agitated.XV 

Notes on verse 14:33b

XIII “began” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
XIV “be distressed” = ekthambeo. 4x in NT– 1x when Jesus healed a boy with a spirit and the crowd was overcome with awe in Mark 9:15, 1x when Jesus was distressed at Gethsemane in Mark 14:33 & 2x when Mary Magdalene, Mary, and Salome were alarmed at seeing the angel at the empty tomb and the angel says, “do not be alarmed” in Mark 16:5-6. From ekthambos (amazed, filled with wonder that affects the viewer greatly); {from ek (from, from out of) + thambos (amazement, wonder, being stunned or dumbfounded because something unusual happened; it can be positive or negative); {akin to tapho (dumbfounded)}}. This is to amaze, be full of awe, to be distressed.
XV “agitated” = ademoneo. 3x in NT. Perhaps from adeo (to be full to the point of loathing). This is being distressed, troubled, fearful, lacking courage.

34 And he said to them, “IXVI am deeply grieved,XVII even to death;XVIII remainXIX here, and keep awake.”XX 

Notes on verse 14:34

XVI “I” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
XVII “deeply grieved” = perilupos. 5x in NT– including 2x when Jesus prays in Gethsemane in Matthew and Mark. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + lupe (pain, whether physical or mental; grief, sorrow, distress, a heavy heart). This is very sorrowful, deeply grieved.
XVIII “death” = thanatos. From thnesko (to die, spiritually or literally). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
XIX “remain” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.
XX “keep awake” = gregoreo. From egeiro (to awake, raise up or lift up; to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death; figuratively, rising from inactivity or from ruins); probably from agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare); from ageiro (to gather). This is to be or stay awake, watch. Figuratively, it can be alertness or vigilance.

35 And going a littleXXI farther,XXII he threwXXIII himself on the groundXXIV

Notes on verse 14:35a

XXI “little” = mikros. This is small in reference to a size or the number of something, least or less. Figuratively, it can refer to little dignity.
XXII “going…farther” = proerchomai. Related to “went” in v14:32. 9x in NT. From pro (before, earlier, above) + erchomai (see note I above). This is go on ahead, advance, precede.
XXIII “threw” = pipto. This is to fall literally or figuratively.
XXIV “ground” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.

and prayed that, if it were possible,XXV the hourXXVI might passXXVII from him. 

Notes on verse 14:35b

XXV “possible” = dunatos. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is mighty or powerful. It speaks of ability of persons, possibility of things. It is what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits. The root verb is also related to miracles i.e. deeds of power.
XXVI “hour” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
XXVII “pass” = parerchomai. Related to “went” in v14:32 & “going…farther” in v14:35. From para (from beside, by) + erchomai (see note I above). This is pass by, neglect, disregard. Figuratively, it can mean to perish or to become void.

36 He said, “Abba,XXVIII Father,XXIX for you all thingsXXX are possible;

Notes on verse 14:36a

XXVIII “Abba” = Abba. 3x in NT. From Aramaic ab (father); corresponding to Hebrew ab (father in a literal or figurative sense – grandfather, chief, ancestor). This is abba, which means father – not a diminutive daddy.
XXIX “Father” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
XXX “all things” = pas. This is all or every.

removeXXXI this cupXXXII from me; yet, not what I want,XXXIII but what you want.” 

Notes on verse 14:36b

XXXI “remove” = paraphero. 4x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to carry away, remove, mislead, to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXII “cup” = poterion. From pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is a drinking vessel. Figuratively, it can refer to one’s lot, to fate, or to what God has in store for you.
XXXIII “want” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.

37 He came and foundXXXIV them sleeping;XXXV and he said to Peter, “Simon,XXXVI are you asleep? CouldXXXVII you not keep awake oneXXXVIII hour? 

Notes on verse 14:37

XXXIV “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
XXXV “sleeping” = katheudo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + heudo (to sleep). This is to settle down to rest, to sleep, fall asleep in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXVI “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
XXXVII “could” = ischuo. From ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance); {from is (force) + echo (to have, hold, possess)}. This is to be strong or have power. It can also refer to being healthy and vigorous. Further, it can mean to prevail. It is strength in action against resistance, exercising force in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXVIII “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.

38 Keep awake and pray that you may not come into the time of trial;XXXIX the spiritXL indeedXLI is willing,XLII but the fleshXLIII is weak.”XLIV 

Notes on verse 14:38

XXXIX “time of trial” = peirasmos. From peirazo (to test, try, tempt, or make proof of, scrutinize, or assay something; could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline); from peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative or peiro (to pierce). This is a test as in an experiment or assaying. It is also trial, temptation, and discipline. Further, it could be used to mean calamity, affliction, or adversity more generally.
XL “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
XLI “indeed” = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XLII “willing” = prothumos. 3x in NT. From pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + thumos (passion, actions that stem from passion or impulse; can be rage, indignation); {from thuo (to breathe violently, seethe, rage; properly, to rush as breathing heavy; so smoke as in offering an animal sacrifice by fire; by extension, killing or slaying in general)}. This is willing, eager, ready, enthusiastic, free from resistance. It can also be predisposed, willing, or generous from one’s own impulse.
XLIII “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).
XLIV “weak” = asthenes. From a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}. This is without strength so weak, sick, helpless, frail, feeble. It can also be unimpressive or impotent. It can be used for physical or moral weakness.

39 And again he went awayXLV and prayed, saying the same words.XLVI 40 And once more he came and found them sleeping, for their eyesXLVII were very heavy;XLVIII and they did not knowXLIX what to say to him. 

Notes on verses 14:39-40

XLV “went away” = aperchomai. Related to “went” in v14:32 & “going…farther” in v14:35 & “pass” in v14:35. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note I above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
XLVI “words” = logos. Related to “said” in v14:32. From lego (see note V above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
XLVII “eyes” = ophthalmos. From optanomai (to appear, be seen by); from horao (become, seem, appear). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.
XLVIII “very heavy” = katabareo. 2x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout) + bareo (heavy, press, weigh down, or burden); {from barus (heavy, burdensome; figuratively, violent, oppressive; that which presses down on someone so that they cannot move freely); from the same as baros (weight, burden in a literal or figurative sense; authority); from the same as basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go).. This is to weigh down, oppress, to be a destructive force on something. It is often used for financial burdens.
XLIX “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.

41 He came a third timeL and said to them, “Are you stillLI sleeping and taking your rest?LII Enough!LIII

Notes on verse 14:41a

L “third time” = tritos. From treis (three). This is third.
LI “still” = loipon. 13x in NT. From loipos (the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue); from leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is what remains, from now on, finally.
LII “taking…rest” = anapauo. 12x in NT– including Matthew 11:28 “come to me, all you that are weary and are carrying heavy burdens, and I will give you rest.” From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + pauo (to stop, refrain, pause, restrain, quit, come to an end). This is a break from work, which implies being refreshed. It denotes that rest that one gets once a necessary task is finished.
LIII “enough” = apecho. Related to “could” in v14:37. 19x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + echo (see note XXXVII above). This is to be distant, have fully, abstain, be paid, be distant, be enough. It is having something by detaching it from something else or releasing something else.

The hour has come;LIV the SonLV of ManLVI is betrayedLVII into the handsLVIII of sinners.LIX 

Notes on verse 14:41b

LIV {untranslated} = idou. Related to “now” in v14:40. From eido (see note XLIX above). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
LV “Son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
LVI “Man” = anthropos. Related to “eyes” in v14:40. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (see note XLVII above). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
LVII “betrayed” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
LVIII “hands” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
LIX “sinners” = hamartolos. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. This is sinning, sinful, sinner. It referred to missing the mark or falling short. The term was also used in archery for missing the target.

42 Get up,LX let us be going.LXI See,LXII my betrayerLXIII is at hand.”LXIV

Notes on verse 14:42

LX “get up” = egeiro. Related to “keep awake” in v14:34. See note XX above.
LXI “going” = ago. This is lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go.
LXII “see” = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v14:41. See note LIV above.
LXIII “betrayer” = paradidomi. Same as “betrayed” in v14:41. See note LVII above.
LXIV “is at hand” = eggizo. From eggus (nearby or near in time). This is extremely close by – approaching, at hand, immediately imminent.

43 Immediately,LXV while he was still speaking, Judas,LXVI one of the twelve,LXVII arrived;LXVIII

Notes on verse 14:43a

LXV “immediately” = eutheos. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + tithemi (to place, lay, set, establish)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
LXVI “Judas” = Ioudas. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.
LXVII “twelve” = dodeka. From duo (two, both) + deka (ten). This is twelve – also shorthand for the apostles.
LXVIII “arrived” = paraginomai. From para (from beside, by) + ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is to arrive, appear, reach. It implies appearing publicly.

and with him there was a crowdLXIX with swordsLXX and clubs,LXXI

Notes on verse 14:43b

LXIX “crowd” = ochlos. Related to “could” in v14:37 & “enough” in v14:41. Perhaps from echo (see note XXXVII above). This is a crowd, the common people, a rabble. Figuratively, it can refer to a riot.
LXX “swords” = machaira. Perhaps from mache (fight, battle, conflict; figuratively, controversy); from machomai (to fight, strive, dispute, quarrel; to war). This is a short sword, slaughter knife, or dagger. It is a stabbing weapon. Figuratively, associated with retribution, war, or legal punishment.
LXXI “clubs” = xulon. This refers to things made of wood such as a tree trunk, club, staff, or cross. It can also refer to timber used as fuel for a fire.

from the chief priests,LXXII the scribes,LXXIII and the elders.LXXIV 

Notes on verse 14:43c

LXXII “chief priests” = archiereus. Related to “began” in v14:33. From archo (see note XIII above) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
LXXIII “scribes” = grammateus. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (to write). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.
LXXIV “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.

44 Now the betrayer had givenLXXV them a sign,LXXVI saying, “The one I will kissLXXVII is the man;

Notes on verse 14:44a

LXXV “given” = didomi. Related to “betrayed” in v14:41. See note LVII above.
LXXVI “sign” = sussemon. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); {from sema (a sign or mark)}. This is a prearranged signal or sign.
LXXVII “kiss” = phileo. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person). This is friendship love and fondness with personal attachment.

arrestLXXVIII him and lead him awayLXXIX under guard.”LXXX 

Notes on verse 14:44b

LXXVIII “arrest” = krateo. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control. In this sense, it means arrest.
LXXIX “lead…away” = apago. Related to “going” in v14:42. 16x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + ago (see note LXI above). This is to lead away, take away, or bring. Figuratively, it can refer to being led astray or put to death.
LXXX “under guard” = asphalos. 3x in NT.  From asphales (certain, reliable, secure, definite; literally unfailing – something that is secure because it is solid and constructed on something that will not fall or slip; it is literal or figurative); {from a (not, without) + sphallo (to trip up or fail)}. This is securely in a literal or figurative sense. Also, it’s certainly, steadfastly, or assuredly.

45 So when he came, he went upLXXXI to him at onceLXXXII and said, “Rabbi!”LXXXIII and kissedLXXXIV him.

Notes on verse 14:45

LXXXI “went up” = proserchomai. Related to “went” in v14:32 & “going..farther” in v14:35 & “pass” in v14:35 & “went away” in v14:39. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (see note I above). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
LXXXII “at once” = eutheos. Same as “immediately” in v14:43. See note LXV above.
LXXXIII “Rabbi” = Rhabbi. 15x in NT– 8x in the Gospel of John. From Hebrew rab (chief); from rabab (to be many, increase, multiply). This is a title of respect for a teacher-scholar. Literally, it means great one or honorable sir. It can also be understood as my master or my teacher.
LXXXIV “kissed” = kataphileo. Related to “kiss” in v14:44. 6x in NT– 2x of Judas’s betrayal, 2x of the woman who washes Jesus’s feet and kisses them (Lk 7:38, 45), 1x when the father kisses the prodigal son (Lk 15:20), and 1x when Paul kisses the Ephesian elders goodbye (Acts 20:37). From kata (down, against, according to) + phileo (see note LXXVII above). This is kissing with great emotion or kissing repeatedly, earnestly, affectionately.


46 Then they laidLXXXV hands on him and arrested him. 47 But one of those who stood nearLXXXVI drewLXXXVII his sword

Notes on verses 14:46-47a

LXXXV “laid” = epiballo. 18x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to place on, fall, lay, throw over, think about, waves crashing, emotions emerging.
LXXXVI “stood near” = paristemi. From para (from beside, by) + histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is literally to place by stand. It can mean to present, exhibit, appear, bring, stand by, or prove. It can also mean to be ready, to assist, to yield, or to commend.
LXXXVII “drew” = spao. 2x in NT. This is to pull or draw like one draws a sword.

and struckLXXXVIII the slaveLXXXIX of the high priest, cutting offXC his ear.XCI 

Notes on verse 14:47b

LXXXVIII “struck” = paio. 5x in NT. To strike or sting – a single blow.
LXXXIX “slave” = doulos. Perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
XC “cutting off” = aphaireo. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is remove, take away, cut in a literal or figurative sense.
XCI “ear” = otion. 5x in NT. From ous (ear; figuratively, hearing). This is ear or it might refer to the earlobe.

48 Then JesusXCII said to them, “Have you come outXCIII with swords and clubs to arrestXCIV me as though I were a bandit?XCV 

Notes on verse 14:48

XCII “Jesus” = Iesous. Related to “John” in v14:33. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (see note XII above) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XCIII “come out” = exerchomai. Related to “went” in v14:32 & “going…farther” in v14:35 & “pass” in v14:35 & “went away” in v14:39 & “went up” in v14:45. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note I above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
XCIV “arrest” = sullambano. Related to “took” in v14:33. 16x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + lambano (see note IX above). This is to take, take part in, conceive, help. It can also be clasp or seize as to arrest or take hold of someone.
XCV “bandit” = lestes. 15x in NT– 3x “you are making [my house] a den of robbers” when Jesus cleanses the temple, 3x of Jesus’ arrest “did you come for me…as though I were a bandit?”; 3x of bandits crucified on Jesus’ left and right; 2x of the man falling into the hands of robbers in the Good Samaritan parable; 2x of the Good Shepherd speech (anyone who doesn’t come in by the gate is a bandit) in John 10:1, 8; 1x of Barabbas as a bandit; and 1x Paul writes he is in danger from bandits. From leis (booty); from leizomai (to plunder). This is a bandit or thief – one who steals by violence/force out in the open as opposed to by stealth. These were part of armed gangs.

49 DayXCVI after day I was with you in the templeXCVII teaching,XCVIII

Notes on verse 14:49a

XCVI “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
XCVII “temple” = hieron. Related to “chief priests” in v14:43. From hieros (see note LXXII above). This is the word for temple.
XCVIII “teaching” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.

and you did not arrestXCIX me. But let the scripturesC be fulfilled.”CI 50 All of them desertedCII him and fled.CIII

Notes on verses 14:49b-50

XCIX “arrest” = krateo. Same as “arrest” in v14:44. See note LXXVIII above.
C “scriptures” = graphe. Related to “scribes” in v14:43. From grapho (see note LXXIII above). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.
CI “fulfilled” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
CII “deserted” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
CIII “fled” = pheugo. This is to run away in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to flee, escape, shun, or vanish.

51 A certain young manCIV was followingCV him, wearingCVI nothing butCVII a linen cloth.CVIII

Notes on verse 14:51a

CIV “young man” = neaniskos. 11x in NT. From neanias (youth, young man; someone in their prime to the age of 40); from neos (young, new, youth, person). This is a youth or young man in their prime up to 40.
CV “following” = sunakoloutheo. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + akoloutheo (to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does); {from a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way)}. This is to follow together, accompany.
CVI “wearing” = periballo. Related to “laid” in v14:46. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + ballo (see note LXXXV above). This is to thrown around, clothe, array, put on.
CVII “nothing but” = gumnos. 15x in NT. This is naked. Generally, it refers to someone who is not completely clothed i.e. only wearing the undergarment and not the complete attire for going out. Rarely, it can mean completely naked. It can be naked in a literal or figurative sense – open, bare, ill-clad. This is where “gymnasium” comes from.
CVIII “linen cloth” = sindon. 6x in NT. This is byssos, a fine linen cloth, garment, or sheet.

They caught hold ofCIX him, 52 but he leftCX the linen cloth and ran offCXI naked.CXII

Notes on verses 14:51b-52

CIX “caught hold of” = krateo. Same as “arrest” in v14:44. See note LXXVIII above.
CX “left” = kataleipo. Related to “still” in v14:41. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (see note LI above). This is to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve.
CXI “ran off” = pheugo. Same as “fled” in v14:50. See note CIII above.
CXII “naked” = gumnos. Same as “nothing but” in v14:51. See note CVII above.

53 They tookCXIII Jesus to the high priest; and all the chief priests, the elders, and the scribes were assembled.CXIV 54 Peter had followedCXV him at a distance,

Notes on verses 14:53-54a

CXIII “took” = apago. Same as “lead…away” in v14:44. See note LXXIX above.
CXIV “assembled” = sunerchomai. Related to “went” in v14:32 & “going…farther” in v14:35 & “pass” in v14:35 & “went away” in v14:39 & “went up” in v14:45 & “come out” in v14:48. From sun (with, together with) + erchomai (see note I above). This is to go with, assemble, leave together with, cohabit.
CXV “followed” = akoloutheo. Related to “following” in v14:51. See note CV above.

right into the courtyardCXVI of the high priest; and he was sittingCXVII with the guards,CXVIII warmingCXIX himself at the fire.CXX 

Notes on verse 14:54b

CXVI “courtyard” = aule. 12x in NT. Perhaps from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is a building that has a courtyard within it – an area that has no roof, but does have walls and is open to the air. It could also imply a palace or mansion as larger buildings that would include courtyards.
CXVII “sitting” = sugkathemai. Related to “sit” in v14:32 & “day” in v14:49. 2x in NT.  From sun (with, together with) + kathemai (to sit, be enthroned, or reside); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (see note XCVI above)}. This is to sit with.
CXVIII “guards” = huperetes. From huper (by, under, subordinate to another) + eresso (to row). This is originally a rower or someone who crewed a boat on the lower deck. It came to mean underling, servant, or attendant. It is also used in the New Testament of disciples under the gospel.
CXIX “warming” = thermaino. 6x in NT. From thermos (hot); from the same as theros (heat, which implies the summer); from thero (to heat). This is to warm or warm oneself. This root is where the words “thermometer” and “thermos” come from.
CXX “fire” = phos. From phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is light, a source of light, fire, or radiance. This is light with specific reference to what it reveals. It is luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative.

55 Now the chief priests and the wholeCXXI councilCXXII were looking forCXXIII testimonyCXXIV against Jesus to put him to death;CXXV but they found none. 

Notes on verse 14:55

CXXI “whole” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
CXXII “council” = sunedrion. Related to “sit” in v14:32 & “sitting” in v14:54. From sun (with, together with) + hedra (convening, siting together, being firm and faithful); {from aphedron (seat, well-seated; figuratively, this is firm in purpose, steadfast); from hedra (a seat)}. This is Sanhedrin – literally a sitting together. It was the high court for Jews and had 71 members. This term could also mean council or meeting place and was used for the lower courts that were throughout the land and had 23 members.
CXXIII “looking for” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
CXXIV “testimony” = marturia. From martureo (to bear witness, testify, give evidence; to testify in a literal or figurative sense); from martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is testimony, witness, evidence, record, reputation.
CXXV “put…to death” = thanatoo. Related to “death” in v14:34. 11x in NT. From thanatos (see note XVIII above). This is to kill in a literal or figurative sense – subdue, mortify, be apart from.

56 For manyCXXVI gave false testimonyCXXVII against him, and their testimony did not agree.CXXVIII 

Notes on verse 14:56

CXXVI “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
CXXVII “gave false testimony” = pseudomartureo. Related to “testimony” in v14:55. 5x in NT.
CXXVIII “agree” = isos + ho + marturia + ou + eimi. Literally, “their testimonies were not alike.” Isos is related to “know” in v14:40 & {untranslated} in v14:41. 8x in NT. Perhaps from eido (see note XLIX above). This is equal, identical, same, similar. Marturiais the same as “testimony” in v14:55. See note CXXIV above.

57 Some stood upCXXIX and gave false testimony against him, saying, 58 “We heardCXXX him say, ‘I will destroyCXXXI this templeCXXXII that is made with hands,CXXXIII

Notes on verses 14:57-58a

CXXIX “stood up” = anistemi. Related to “stood near” in v14:47. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note LXXXVI above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
CXXX “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
CXXXI “destroy” = kataluo. 17x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). Literally, this means thoroughly loosening. It can mean unharnessing or unyoking animals and so to lodge somewhere for a night. It can also mean to disintegrate or demolish in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be destroy, overthrow, abolish, or tear down.
CXXXII “temple” = naos. From naio (to dwell, inhabit). This is a place for God (or a god) to live – a sanctuary, shrine, or temple. It is a place for God or a god to manifest. For the Jewish Temple, it is used of the Temple itself and the two inner chambers.
CXXXIII “made with hands” = cheiropoietos. Related to “hands” in v14:41. 6x in NT. From cheir (see note LVIII above) + poieo (to make, do, construct, cause). This is literally made by hand, i.e. artificial. It can also mean to perform.

and in threeCXXXIV days I will buildCXXXV another,CXXXVI not made with hands.’”CXXXVII 59 But even on this point their testimony did not agree. 

Notes on verses 14:58b-59

CXXXIV “three” = treis. Related to “third time” in v14:41. See note L above.
CXXXV “build” = oikodomeo. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + domeo (to build). This is to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden.
CXXXVI “another” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
CXXXVII “not made with human hands” = acheiropoietos. Related to “hands” in v14:41 & “made with hands” in v14:58. 3x in NT. From a (not, without) + cheiropoietos (see note CXXXIII above). This is literally not made by hand i.e. unmanufactured.

60 Then the high priest stood up before them and askedCXXXVIII Jesus, “Have you no answer? What is it that they testify againstCXXXIX you?” 

61 But he was silentCXL and did not answer. Again the high priest asked him, “Are you the Messiah,CXLI the Son of the BlessedCXLII One?” 

Notes on verses 14:60-61

CXXXVIII “asked” = eperotao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of)}. This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.
CXXXIX “testify against” = katamartureo. Related to “testimony” in v14:55 & “gave false testimony” in v14:56. 3x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + martureo (see note CXXIV above). This is testify or bear witness against.
CXL “was silent” = siopao. 10x in NT. From siope (silence or muteness). This is to be silent whether by choice or not. Figuratively, this is being calm as water, keeping one’s peace.
CXLI “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
CXLII “Blessed” = eulogetos. Related to “said” in v14:32 & “words” in v14:39 & “immediately” in v14:43. 8x in NT. From eulogeo (speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited; praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing); {from eu (see note LXV above) + logos (see note XLVI above)}. This is blessed, spoken well of, to be praiseworthy, or adorable. This is the root that “eulogy” comes from.

62 Jesus said, “I am; and

‘you will seeCXLIII the Son of Man
seatedCXLIV at the right handCXLV of the Power,’CXLVI
and ‘coming with the cloudsCXLVII of heaven.’”CXLVIII

Notes on verse 14:62

CXLIII “see” = horao. Related to “eyes” in v14:40 & “man” in v14:41. See note XLVII above.
CXLIV “seated” = kathemai. Related to “day” in v14:49 & “sitting” in v14:54. See note CXVII above.
CXLV “right hand” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
CXLVI “Power” = dunamis. Related to “possible” in v14:35. From dunamai (see note XXV above). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
CXLVII “clouds” = nephele. From nephos (cloud; figurative for a great crowd or multitude). This is cloud or cloudiness.
CXLVIII “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.

63 Then the high priest toreCXLIX his clothesCL and said, “Why do we still needCLI witnesses?CLII 

Notes on verse 14:63

CXLIX “tore” = diarresso. 5x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + rhegnumi (to break, burst, wreak, crack, break apart). This is to tear apart or burst.
CL “clothes” = chiton. 11x in NT. From a Semitic language – see Hebrew kethoneth (tunic). Root means to cover. This is the garment worn beneath the cloak or robe – the one that is closest to the skin.
CLI “need” = chreia + echo. Chreia is from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary). This is the is task, business, or affair. It can also be need, want, or destitution. Echo is related to “could” in v14:37 & “enough” in v14:41 & “crowd” in v14:43. See note XXXVII above.
CLII “witnesses” = martus. Related to “testimony” in v14:55 & “gave false testimony” in v14:56 & “testify against” in v14:60. See note CXXIV above.

64 You have heard his blasphemy!CLIII What is your decision?”CLIV All of them condemnedCLV him as deservingCLVI death. 

Notes on verse 14:64

CLIII “blasphemy” = blasphemia. 18x in NT. From perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (to say, declare, speak comparatively through contrasts, bring to light); from phao (to shine)}. This is slander, blasphemy, or abusive language. It is calling something wrong that is right or calling something right that is wrong – mis-identifying what is good and bad. This is particularly used for vilifying God. This is where the word “blasphemy” comes from.
CLIV “decision” = phaneroo. Literally, “what to you does it appear.” Related to “fire” in v14:54. From phaneros (visible, apparent, clear, shining); from phos (see note CXX above). This is to make visible or clear, to make known. Properly, it is to illumine and so to make apparent or bring into open view.
CLV “condemned” = katakrino. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is judging down, which is to say to vote guilty or deserving of punishment, to condemn. This is a decisive judgment of guilt. It can also be to damn someone.
CLVI “deserving” = enochos. Related to “could” in v14:37 & “enough” in v14:41 & “crowd” in v14:43 & {untranslated} in v14:63. 10x in NT. From enecho (to hold in, ensnare, be angry at); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + echo (see note XXXVII above)}. This is bound by, liable to, deserving, guilty, subject, in danger of.

65 Some began to spit on him, to blindfoldCLVII him, and to strikeCLVIII him, saying to him, “Prophesy!”CLIX The guards also took him overCLX and beatCLXI him.

Notes on verse 14:65

CLVII “blindfold” = perikalupto + autos + ho + prosopon. Literally, “cover his face.” Perikalupto is 3x in NT. From peri (all-around, encompassing, excess) + kalupto (to cover, hide, conceal; figuratively, to keep hidden or secret) {related to kalube (hut, cabin)}. This is to cover around, blindfold, cover entirely, overlay. Prosopon is related to “eyes” in v14:40 & “man” in v14:41 & “see” in v14:62. From pros (at, towards, with) + ops (see note LVI above). This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
CLVIII “strike” = kolpahizo. 5x in NT. From kolaphos (to hit with a fist); from the base of kolazo (to punish, particularly to punish slaves so that they are restricted or chastised); from kolos (docked). This is to punch – literally to hit with knuckles. It can also more generally mean violent mistreatment.
CLIX “prophesy” = propheteuo. Related to “blasphemy” in v14:64. From prophetes (prophet or poet; one who speaks with inspiration from God); {from pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (see note CLIII above)}}. This is to prophesy, foretell, or tell forth.
CLX “took…over” = lambano. Related to “took” in v14:33 & “arrest” in v14:48. See note IX above.
CLXI “beat” = rhapisma. 3x in NT. From rhapizo (to hit with a rod or to slap); from a derivation of rhabdos (staff, rod, cudgel; a staff that denotes power, royalty, or authority); from rhepo (to let fall, to rap). This is a hit from a stick or an open-handed slap.

66 While Peter was below in the courtyard, one of the servant-girlsCLXII of the high priest came by. 67 When she saw Peter warming himself, she staredCLXIII at him and said, “You also were with Jesus, the man from Nazareth.”CLXIV 

Notes on verses 14:66-67

CLXII “servant-girls” = paidiske. Related to “struck” in v14:47. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (see note LXXXVIII above). This is young girl or female slave or servant.
CLXIII “stared” = emblepo. 12x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + blepo (to see, used primarily in the physical sense; figuratively, seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, beware, and acting on the visual information). This is to look at, gaze, consider, stare, see clearly, look with particular interest.
CLXIV “Nazareth” = Nazarenos. 6x in NT. Probably from Nazara (Nazareth); perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazarene. See

68 But he deniedCLXV it, saying, “I do not know or understandCLXVI what you are talking about.” And he wentCLXVII out into the forecourt.CLXVIII Then the cockCLXIX crowed.CLXX 

Notes on verse 14:68

CLXV “denied” = arneomai. From a (not) + rheo (say, speak of). This is to deny, disown, refuse, repudiate someone or a previously held belief, to contradict.
CLXVI “understand” = epistamai. Related to “stood near” in v14:47 & “stood up” in v14:57. 14x in NT. From epihistemi (to stand upon, be present, stand by, be urgent; to attack, confront, appear); {from epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + histemi (see note LXXXVI above)}. This is to know, stand on, get knowledge face to face or with personal effort, comprehend, be acquainted. It is related to “epistemology.”
CLXVII “went” = exerchomai. Same as “come out” in v14:48. See note XCIII above.
CLXVIII “forecourt” = proaulion. Related to “courtyard” in v14:54. 1x in NT. From pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + aule (see note CXVI above). This is a vestibule, porch, or alley.
CLXIX “cock” = alektor. 12x in NT. Perhaps from aleko (to ward off). This is a cock or rooster.
CLXX “crowed” = phoneo. Related to “fire” in v14:54 & “decision” in v14:64 & “blasphemy” in v14:64 & “prophesy” in v14:65 From phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi (see note CLIII above). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.

69 And the servant-girl, on seeing him, began again to say to the bystanders,CLXXI “This man is one of them.” 

70 But again he denied it. Then after a little while the bystanders again said to Peter, “CertainlyCLXXII you are one of them; for you are a Galilean.”CLXXIII, CLXXIV 

Notes on verses 14:69-70

CLXXI “bystanders” = paristemi. Literally, “to those standing by.” Same as “stood near” in v14:47. See note LXXXVI above.
CLXXII “certainly” = alethos. 18x in NT. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic); from a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is truly, really, surely, truthfully, indeed. Properly, this is saying “in accordance with fact…” – what one is about to say can be proven and is true to reality.
CLXXIII “Galilean” = Galilaios. 11x in NT. From galilaia (Galilee, the region and the sea); from Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilean.
CLXXIV Some manuscripts add “and your manner of speech agrees” = kai + ho + lalia + su + homoiazo. Lalia is 4x in NT. From laleo (to talk, say, preach); from lalos (talkative). This is talk, saying, the way one talks, a dialect. Homoiazo is 1x in NT. From paromoiazo (to resemble); from paromoios (like, similar, nearly); {from para (beside, by, in the presence of) + homoios (similar to, resembling, like); {from the same as homou (together); from homos (the same)}}. This is agree, resemble.

71 But he began to curse,CLXXV and he swore an oath, “I do not know this man you are talking about.” 72 At that momentCLXXVI the cock crowed for the second time.CLXXVII

Notes on verses 14:71-72a

CLXXV “curse” = anathematize. Related to “immediately” in v14:43. 4x in NT. From anathema (solemn, anathema, or accursed; a thing that is laid up, such as a votive offering or something one pledges to God; it can be a divine curse or a divine ban, something or someone that is cast out); {from anatithemi (to set up or fort, communicate, submit, declare); {from ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + tithemi (see note LXV above)}}. This is to curse or make a solemn oath or vow. It can also mean devote to destruction.
CLXXVI “at that moment” = eutheos. Same as “immediately” in v14:43. See note LXV above.
CLXXVII “second time” = deuteros. Related to “twelve” in v14:43. From duo (see note LXVII above). This is second, twice, again. It is part of where “Deuteronomy” comes from, which means “second law” or “a repetition of the law.” See

Then Peter rememberedCLXXVIII thatCLXXIX Jesus had said to him, “Before the cock crows twice,CLXXX

Notes on verse 14:72b

CLXXVIII “remembered” = anamimnesko. Related to “remain” in v14:34. 6x in NT. From ana (up, again, among, anew) + mimnesko (to remind or remember; memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful; not incidentally or accidentally remembering); {from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (see note XIX above)}. This is to remind, admonish; to follow the path of memory.
CLXXIX {untranslated} = rhema. Related to “asked” in v14:60 & “denied” in v14:68. From rheo (see note CLXV above). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
CLXXX “twice” = dis. Related to “twelve” in v14:43 & “second time” in v14:72. 7x in NT. From duo (see note LXVII above). This is twice, utterly, or again.

you will denyCLXXXI me three times.”CLXXXII And he broke downCLXXXIII and wept.CLXXXIV

Notes on verse 14:72c

CLXXXI “deny” = aparneomai. Related to “denied” in v14:68 & {untranslated} in v14:72. 11x in NT– 8x of Peter’s denial of Jesus, 2x “let them deny themselves and take up their cross and follow me” (Mt 16:24 & Mk 8:34), 1x “whoever denies me before others will be denied before the angels of God” (Lk 12:9). From apo (from, away from) + arneomai (see note CLXV above). This is a strong denial or rejection – utter denial, disowning, or repudiation.
CLXXXII “three times” = tris. Related to “third time” in v14:41 & “three” in v14:58. 12x in NT. This is three times.
CLXXXIII “broke down” = epiballo. Same as “laid” in v14:46. See note LXXXV above.
CLXXXIV “wept” = klaio. This is to weep, lament, or sob. It is weeping aloud.

15:1 As soon asCLXXXV it was morning,CLXXXVI the chief priests heldCLXXXVII a consultationCLXXXVIII with the elders and scribes and the whole council.

Notes on verse 15:1a

CLXXXV “as soon as” = eutheos. Same as “immediately” in v14:43. See note LXV above.
CLXXXVI “morning” = proi. 12x in NT. From pro (before, earlier than, ahead, prior). This is early, at dawn, during the daybreak watch.
CLXXXVII “held” = poieo. Related to “made with hands” and “not made with hands” in v14:58. See note CXXXIII above.
CLXXXVIII “consultation” = sumboulion. 8x in NT. From souboulos (counselor or adviser in an official capacity); {from sun (with, together with) + boule (counsel, plan, purpose, decision; wisdom that comes from deliberation); {from boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination)}}. This is to counsel and so could be used for a group of advisers. It could also be to plot or conspire together. Abstractly, it could refer to advice or resolutions.

They boundCLXXXIX Jesus, led him away,CXC and handed him overCXCI to Pilate.CXCII 

Notes on verse 15:1b

CLXXXIX “bound” = deo. Related to “slave” in v14:47. See note LXXXIX above.
CXC “led…away” = apophero. Related to “remove” in v14:36. 6x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to carry off or away. It can mean carry off violently.
CXCI “handed…over” = paradidomi. Same as “betrayed” in v14:41. See note LVII above.
CXCII “Pilate” = Pilatos. From Latin Pilatus (may mean one who has skill with a javelin); perhaps from pilum (javelin) OR perhaps from pileus (a soft cap made of felt that was brimless and was associated with people who were freedmen). This is Pilate. See

2 Pilate asked him, “Are you the KingCXCIII of the Jews?”CXCIV

He answered him, “You say so.” 3 Then the chief priests accusedCXCV him of many things. 

Notes on verses 15:2-3

CXCIII “King” = basileus. Related to “very heavy” in v14:40. Probably from basis (see note XLVIII above). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
CXCIV “Jews” = Ioudaios. Related to “Judas” in v14:43. From Ioudas (see note LXVI above). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
CXCV “accused” = kategoreo. Related to “keep awake” in v14:34 & “get up” in v14:42. From kategoros (prosecutor or accuser; used in legal context, but also of Satan); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + agoreuo (speaking in the assembly)} OR {from kata (see above) + agora (see note XX above)}. This is to accuse, charge, or prosecute. This is where the word “category” comes from, but it is in the sense of applying logic and offering proof.

Pilate asked him again, “Have you no answer? SeeCXCVI how many charges they bring againstCXCVII you.” But Jesus made no further reply, so that Pilate was amazed.CXCVIII

Notes on verses 15:4-5

CXCVI “see” = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v14:41. See note LIV above.
CXCVII “charges…bring against” = kategoreo. Same as “accused” in v15:3. See note CXCV above.
CXCVIII “was amazed” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.

Now at the festivalCXCIX he used to releaseCC aCCI prisonerCCII for them, anyone for whom they asked.CCIII 

Notes on verse 15:6

CXCIX “festival” = heorte. This is a holiday or feast.
CC “used to release” = apoluo. Related to “destroy” in v14:58. From apo (from, away from) + luo (see note CXXXI above). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.
CCI “a” = heis. Same as “one” in v14:37. See note XXXVIII above.
CCII “prisoner” = desmios. Related to “slave” in v14:47 & “bound” in v15:1. 17x in NT. From desomon (a chain, bond, impediment; being in jail, a ligament); from deo (see note LXXXIX above). This is a binding or one who is bound. So, it can be a prisoner or captive.
CCIII “asked” = paraiteomai. 12x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + aiteo (to ask, demand, beg, desire). This is to beg off, refuse, avoid, request.

7 Now a man called BarabbasCCIV was in prisonCCV with the rebelsCCVI

Notes on verse 15:7a

CCIV “Barabbas” = Barabbas. Related to “Abba” in v14:36. 11x in NT. From Aramaic bar (son literal or figurative, age); {corresponding to Hebrew ben (son literal or figurative, subject, age)} + Aramaic abba (see note XXVIII above}. This is Barabbas, meaning son of the father.
CCV “was in prison” = deo. Same as “bound” in v15:1. See note CLXXXIX above.
CCVI “rebels” = sustasiastes. Related to “stood near” in v14:47 & “stood up” in v14:57 & “understand” in v14:68. 1x in NT. From stasiastes (standing, position, uproar, insurrection, controversy); from histemi (see note LXXXVI above) OR from sun (with, together with) + stasis (standing, rebel, place, insurrection); {from histemi (see note LXXXVI above)}. This is a rebel.

who had committedCCVII murderCCVIII during the insurrection.CCIX 8 So the crowd cameCCX and began to askCCXI Pilate to doCCXII for them according to his custom. 

Notes on verses 15:7b-8

CCVII “committed” = poieo. Same as “held” in v15:1. See note CLXXXVII above.
CCVIII “murder” = phonos. 9x in NT. From pheno (to slay). This is killing, murder, or slaughter. It is one of the crimes that Barabbas and Saul are accused of.
CCIX “insurrection” = stasis. Related to “stood near” in v14:47 & “stood up” in v14:57 & “understand” in v14:68 & “rebels” in v15:7. 9x in NT– including Barabbas’s crime. From histemi (see note LXXXVI above). This is standing – the act of standing, a place, an uprising, insurrection, dissension, or controversy.
CCX “came” = anabaino. Related to “very heavy” in v14:40 & “king” in v15:2. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (see note XLVIII above). This is to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter.
CCXI “ask” = aiteo. Related to “asked” in v15:6. See note CCIII above.
CCXII “do” = poieo. Same as “held” in v15:1. See note CLXXXVII above.

9 Then he answered them, “Do you want me to release for you the King of the Jews?” 10 For he realizedCCXIII that it was out of jealousyCCXIV that the chief priests had handed him over. 11 But the chief priests stirred upCCXV the crowd to have him release Barabbas for them instead.CCXVI 

Notes on verses 15:9-11

CCXIII “realized” = ginosko. Related to “called” in v14:32. See note III above.
CCXIV “jealousy” = phthonos. 9x in NT. Perhaps from phtheiro (to destroy, corrupt, ruin, deteriorate, wither; also used of moral corruption); from phthio (perish, waste away). This is jealousy, spite, or ill-will. It can also be feeling glad when misfortune befalls another (akin to Schadenfreude).
CCXV “stirred up” = anaseio. 2x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + seio (to shake, vibrate; figuratively to agitate or show fear). This is to shake up, move back and forth, or excite.
CCXVI “instead” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.

12 Pilate spoke to them again, “Then what do you wishCCXVII me to do with the man you call the King of the Jews?” 

13 They shoutedCCXVIII back, “CrucifyCCXIX him!” 

Notes on verses 15:12-13

CCXVII “wish” = thelo. Same as “want” in v14:36. See note XXXIII above.
CCXVIII “shouted” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.
CCXIX “crucify” = stauroo. Related to “stood near” in v14:47 & “stood up” in v14:57 & “understand” in v14:68 & “rebels” and “insurrection” in v15:7. From stauros (upright stake, cross; literally the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die); from the same as histemi (see note LXXXVI above). This can be to attach someone to a cross or fencing with stakes. In a figurative sense, it could be to destroy, mortify, or subdue passions/selfishness.

14 Pilate asked them, “Why, what evilCCXX has he done?”

But they shouted all the more,CCXXI “Crucify him!” 15 So Pilate, wishingCCXXII to satisfyCCXXIII the crowd, released Barabbas for them; and after floggingCCXXIV Jesus, he handed him over to be crucified.

Notes on verses 15:14-15

CCXX “evil” = kakos. This is bad, evil, harm, ill. It is evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm. It refers to deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character. Can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue.
CCXXI “all the more” = perissos. 17x in NT. From perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is abundantly, exceedingly, far more, or all the more. This is going beyond what is anticipated or past the upper limit.
CCXXII “wishing” = boulomai. Related to “consultation” in v15:1. See note CLXXXVIII above.
CCXXIII “satisfy” = hikanos. From hikneomai (to reach, come to, attain). This is sufficient, suitable, adequate, competent, ample.
CCXXIV “flogging” = phragelloo. This is to whip or scourge – a whipping as a punishment given in public.

16 Then the soldiersCCXXV ledCCXXVI him into the courtyard of the palace (that is, the governor’s headquarters);CCXXVII and they called togetherCCXXVIII the whole cohort.CCXXIX 

Notes on verse 15:16

CCXXV “soldiers” = stratiotes. From stratia (army; used figuratively for large organized groups like the angels and the hosts of heaven, which is to say the stars); from the same as strateuo (to wage war, fight, serve as a soldier; used figuratively for spiritual warfare); or from the base of stronnuo (to spread, to spread out like a bed). This is a soldier in a literal or figurative sense.
CCXXVI “led” = apago. Same as “lead…away” in v14:44. See note LXXIX above.
CCXXVII “governor’s headquarters” = praitorion. 8x in NT. From Latin praetorium (headquarters, general’s tent, villa, place where the governor lives); from prator (leader, chief, president); from pareeo (to lead, go before). This is praetorium or preatorian guard. It is the place where the governor lives or the place where the praetorian guard of Rome lived. It could also mean courtroom. See
CCXXVIII “called together” = sugkaleo. 8x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to summon or call together.
CCXXIX “cohort” = speira. 7x in NT. From Latin spira (something wound up like a coil or twist, the base of a column, a hair braid, etc.); from Greek speira (a twist or wreath); from Proto-Indo-European *sper- (to twist, turn). This is a group of soldiers or military guard. Properly, this is something wound up. Figuratively, it refers to a group of men. Thus, a tenth of a legion. Also used for Levitical janitors. This is where the word “spiral” comes from. See

17 And they clothedCCXXX him in a purpleCCXXXI cloak; and after twistingCCXXXII some thornsCCXXXIII into a crown,CCXXXIV they put it onCCXXXV him. 

Notes on verse 15:17

CCXXX “clothed” = endidusko. 2x in NT– 1x when the soldiers dressed Jesus in purple at the crucifixion in Mark 15:17 & 1x of the rich man dressed in purple in Luke 16:19. From enduo (to clothe, put on in a literal or figurative sense); {from en (in, on, at, by, with, within) + duno (to enter, sink into; can also be set like the sun); {from duo (to sink)}}. This is to be clothed in or put on.
CCXXXI “purple” = porphura. 4x in NT– 2x of the purple cloak the soldiers put on Jesus at the crucifixion, 1x of the rich man in Luke 16 & 1x of the purple goods from Babylon in Revelation 18:12. Perhaps from phuro (to mix something dry with something wet). This is purple dye, cloth, or a garment from that cloth. Its shade ranged from violet to scarlet to blue. The dye was made from a snail. The color symbolized royalty, wealth, or power.
CCXXXII “twisting” = pleko. 3x in NT– all in Gospel parallels of soldiers mocking Jesus. This is to twist, braid, or weave together.
CCXXXIII “thorns” = akanthinos. 2x in NT. From akantha (thorn bush, thorn); from ake (point, edge). This is thorny.
CCXXXIV “crown” = stephanos. 18x in NT. From stepho (to twine, encircle). This is something that surrounds i.e. a crown or garland. Properly, this refers to the wreath or garland that the winner of athletic games would win. It symbolized victory and honor from skill as contrasted with a royal crown, which is diadema in Greek. This is the word used for the crown that the saints in heaven wear in, for example, Revelation 4:4.
CCXXXV “put…on” = peritithemi. Related to “immediately” in v14:43 & “curse” in v14:71. 8x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + tithemi (see note LXV above). This is to place around i.e. to clothe. Figuratively, it can mean to bestow or to present.

18 And they began salutingCCXXXVI him, “Hail,CCXXXVII King of the Jews!” 19 They struckCCXXXVIII his headCCXXXIX

Notes on verses 15:18-19a

CCXXXVI “saluting” = aspazomai. Related to “drew” in v14:47. Perhaps from a (with, together with) + a form of spao (see note LXXXVII above). This is to welcome, salute, or greet. It can also be to embrace or acclaim.
CCXXXVII “hail” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).
CCXXXVIII “truck” = tupto. 14x in NT. This is to strike, beat, or wound – generally with a stick or cudgel. It is hitting with repeated blows. So, it contrasts with paiso and patasso, which describe single blows by hand or weapon. Also contrast plesso (beating with a fist or hammer), rhapizo (to slap), and tugchaono (hitting accidentally). This word is hitting to punish. Figuratively, it can refer to being offended.
CCXXXIX “head” = kephale. This is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from.

with a reed,CCXL spat upon him, and knelt downCCXLI in homageCCXLII to him. 

Notes on verse 15:19b

CCXL “reed” = kalamos. 12x in NT. This is a reed, whether the plant itself or a stem that is like the reed. It can also imply a staff, pen, or measuring rod.
CCXLI “knelt down” = tithemi + ho + gonu. Literally, “lay the knee.” Tithemi is related to “immediately” in v14:43 & “curse” in v14:71 & “put…on” in v15:17. See note LXV above. Gonu is 12x in NT. This is knee.
CCXLII “homage” = proskuneo. From pros (advantageous for, at, to, toward, with) + kuneo (to kiss); {may be related to kuno (dog)}. This is to do reverence, kneel, to prostrate oneself in homage, to worship.

20 After mockingCCXLIII him, they strippedCCXLIV him of the purple cloak and put his ownCCXLV clothesCCXLVI onCCXLVII him. Then they led him outCCXLVIII to crucify him.

Notes on verse 15:20

CCXLIII “mocking” = empaizo. Related to “struck” in v14:47 & “servant-girls” in v14:66. 13x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + paizo (to play like a child does – can include singing and dancing); {from pais (see note CLXII above). This is to mock, ridicule, jeer.
CCXLIV “stripped” = ekduo. Related to “clothed” in v15:17. 6x in NT– 3x Jesus being stripped before crucifixion, 2x in 2 Corinthians 5:3-4 as a metaphor for death – being stripped of this earthly tent, & 1x in Parable of the Good Samaritan when the man is attacked. From ek (from, from out of) + duo (see note CCXXX above). This is to strip off or take off.
CCXLV “own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
CCXLVI “clothes” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.
CCXLVII “put…on” = enduo. Related to “clothed” in v15:17 & “stripped” in v15:20. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + duno (to sink into, set like the sun); {from duo (see note CCXXX above)}. This is to put on as when one puts on clothes. It is the idea of sinking into one’s clothing.
CCXLVIII “led…out” = exago. Related to “going” in v14:42 & “lead…away” in v14:44. 12x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + ago (see note LXI above). This is to lead out or forth. It can be one being led to their death.

21 They compelledCCXLIX a passer-by,CCL who was coming in from the country,CCLI to carryCCLII his cross;CCLIII

Notes on verse 15:21a

CCXLIX “compelled” = aggareuo. 3x in NT– 2x of Simon the Cyrene & 1x “if anyone forces you to go one mile, go also the second mile” from Matthew 5:41. From Persian, but compare Aramaic iggerah (a letter); corresponding to Hebrew iggereth (letter); from the same as Agur (hired, gathered, received from the sages); from agar (to gather or harvest). This means to impress into service, to force. It can also mean send someone on an errand, particularly as a courier or other public service.
CCL “passer-by” = parago. Related to “going” in v14:42 & “lead…away” in v14:44 & “led out” in v15:20. 11x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of, alongside) + ago (see note LXI above). This is to lead near or by, to pass by, go along, be a passer-by.
CCLI “country” = agros. This is a field as a place where one grows crops or pastures cattle. It can also refer to a farm or lands. This is one of the roots of “agriculture.”
CCLII “carry” = airo. Related to “cutting off” in v14:47. See note XC above.
CCLIII “cross” = stauros. Related to “stood near” in v14:47 & “stood up” in v14:57 & “understand” in v14:68 & “rebels” and “insurrection” in v15:7 & “crucify” in v15:13. See note CCXIX above.

it was Simon of Cyrene,CCLIV the father of AlexanderCCLV and Rufus.CCLVI 

Notes on verse 15:21b

CCLIV “Cyrene” = Kurenaios. 6x in NT. From Kurene (Cyrene, a Greek mythological figure; perhaps meaning sovereign queen). This is from Cyrene. See
CCLV “Alexander” = Alexandros. Related to “man” in v14:41. 6x in NT. From alexo (to ward off) + aner (see note LVI above). This is Alexander, meaning “man-defender.”
CCLVI “Rufus” = Rhouphos. 2x in NT. From Sabellian Rufrae or Rufrium (proper names); related to Latin ruber (red, ruby). This is Rufus, meaning “red.” See

22 Then they broughtCCLVII Jesus to the place called GolgothaCCLVIII (which meansCCLIX the placeCCLX of a skull).CCLXI 

Notes on verse 15:22

CCLVII “brought” = phero. Related to “remove” in v14:36 & “led…away” in v15:1. See note XXXI above.
CCLVIII “Golgotha” = Golgotha. Related to “Galilean” in v14:70. 3x in NT. From Aramaic golgolta (skull); from Hebrew gulgolet (skull, head; a census or poll that counts people by head); from galal (see note CLXXIII above). This is Golgotha, skull. See &
CCLIX “means” = methermeneuo. 8x in NT. From meta (with, among, beyond) + hermeneuo (to interpret, translate, explain the meaning of); {perhaps from Hermes, the god of language and a proper name}. This is to explain beyond i.e. to translate or interpret.
CCLX “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
CCLXI “skull” = kranion. 4x in NT. From kara (the head) OR from the base of keras (horn or something horn-shaped; horn in a literal or figurative sense – that which prevails or a symbol of power). This is skull. It’s where we get the word “cranium” from.

23 And they offeredCCLXII him wineCCLXIII mixed with myrrh;CCLXIV but he did not takeCCLXV it. 

Notes on verse 15:23

CCLXII “offered” = didomi. Same as “given” in v14:44. See note LXXV above.
CCLXIII “wine” = oinos. Perhaps from Hebrew yayin (wine; root means to effervesce). This is wine. It is where the word “oenophile” comes from.
CCLXIV “mixed with myrrh” = smurnizo. 1x in NT. From smurna (myrrh, perfume as incense; ointment for embalming or figurative for romantic desire); perhaps from muron (ointment, perfume, or anointing oil. Probably olive oil mixed with spices and scents such as myrrh). This is to be similar to myrrh or to mix with myrrh. It was given to those sentenced to death to help numb their pain.
CCLXV “take” = lambano. Same as “took…over” in v14:65. See note CLX above.

24 And they crucified him, and dividedCCLXVI his clothesCCLXVII among them, castingCCLXVIII lotsCCLXIX to decide what each should take.CCLXX

Notes on verse 15:24

CCLXVI “divided” = diamerizo. Related to “sinners” in v14:41. 12x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + merizo (to divide, part, share, distribute, assign; figuratively, to differ); {from meros (see note LIX above)}. This is to divide up, distribute, or share. Figuratively, it can mean dissension.
CCLXVII “clothes” = himation. Same as “clothes” in v15:20. See note CCXLVI above.
CCLXVIII “casting” = ballo. Related to “laid” in v14:46 & “wearing” in v14:51. See note LXXXV above.
CCLXIX “lots” = kleros. 12x in NT. Perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread). This lot, portion, heritage. It is that share assigned to you. It could also refer to a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will.
CCLXX “take” = airo. Same as “carry” in v15:21. See note CCLII above.

25 It was nine o’clock in the morningCCLXXI when they crucified him. 26 The inscriptionCCLXXII of the chargeCCLXXIII against him read,CCLXXIV “The King of the Jews.” 

Notes on verses 15:25-26

CCLXXI “nine o’clock in the morning” = hora + tritos. Literally, “third hour.” Hora is the same as “hour” in v14:35. See note XXVI above. Tritos is the same as “third time” in v14:41. See note L above.
CCLXXII “inscription” = epigraphe. Related to “scribes” in v14:43 & “scriptures” in v14:49. 5x in NT. From epigrapho (to write on, inscribe, read; a literal inscription or a mental one); {from epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + grapho (see note LXXIII above)}. This is some kind of title or label like an inscription or superscription.
CCLXXIII “charge” = aitia. Related to “asked” in v15:6 & “ask” in v15:8. From aiteo (see note CCIII above). This is a cause or reason. It can also be a legal crime, accusation, guilt, or case.
CCLXXIV “read” = epigrapho. Related to “scribes” in v14:43 & “scriptures” in v14:49 & “inscription” in v15:26. 5x in NT. See note CCLXXII above.

27 And with him they crucified twoCCLXXV bandits, one on his right and one on his left.CCLXXVI 28 And the scripture was fulfilled that says, “And he was countedCCLXXVII among the lawless.”CCLXXVIII

Notes on verses 15:27-28

CCLXXV “two” = duo. Related to “twelve” in v14:43 & “second time” in v14:72 & “twice” in v14:72. See note LXVII above.
CCLXXVI “left” = euonumos. Related to “called” in v14:32 & “realized” in v15:10 &to “immediately” in v14:43 & “blessed” in v14:61. 9x in NT. From eu (see note LXV above) + onoma (see note III above). This is literally well-named. It is left.
CCLXXVII “counted” = logizomai. Related to “said” in v14:32 & “words” in v14:39 & “blessed” in v14:61. From logos (see note XLVI above). This is this is to compute or reckon up, to count; figuratively, it is coming to a conclusion or decision using logic; taking an inventory in a literal or figurative sense.
CCLXXVIII “lawless” = anomos. 10x in NT. From a (not, without) + nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}. This is literally without law. So, it could refer to someone who disregards authority or one who is not under the law (i.e. a Gentile). It can be lawless, wicked, or a transgressor.

29 Those who passed byCCLXXIX deridedCCLXXX him, shakingCCLXXXI their heads and saying, “Aha!CCLXXXII

Notes on verse 15:29a

CCLXXIX “passed by” = paraporeuomai. 5x in NT. From para (from beside, by) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, or die; transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination)}. This is to pass long, journey near, go past.
CCLXXX “derided” = blasphemeo. Related to “blasphemy” in v14:64 & “prophesy” in v14:65 & “crowed” in v14:68. From blasphemos (blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil); {from perhaps blapto (see note CLIII above) + pheme (see note CLIII above). This is to slander, malign, hurl abuse, speak against, blaspheme, or defame. It is speaking evil or abusive language – not acknowledging what is good or worth reverence/respect.
CCLXXXI “shaking” = kineo. 8x in NT. This is to move, excite, or provoke. It is to stir in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “kinetic” comes from.
CCLXXXII “aha” = oua. 1x in NT. This is an exclamation of wonder or surprise like ah or ha. It can have a derisive sense to it.

You who would destroy the templeCCLXXXIII and build it in three days, 30 saveCCLXXXIV yourself, and come downCCLXXXV from the cross!” 

31 In the same wayCCLXXXVI the chief priests, along with the scribes, were also mocking him among themselves and saying, “He saved others;CCLXXXVII he cannotCCLXXXVIII save himself. 

Notes on verses 15:29b-31

CCLXXXIII “temple” = naos. Same as “temple” in v14:58. See note CXXXII above.
CCLXXXIV “save” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.
CCLXXXV “come down” = katabaino. Related to “very heavy” in v14:40 & “king” in v15:2 & “came” in v15:8. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note XLVIII above). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
CCLXXXVI “in the same way” = homoios. Related to {untranslated} in v14:70. From homoios (see note CLXXIV above). This is likewise or similarly.
CCLXXXVII “others” = allos. Same as “another” in v14:58. See note CXXXVI above.
CCLXXXVIII “cannot” = ou + dunamai. Dunamai is related to “possible” in v14:35 & “power” in v14:62. See note XXV above.

32 Let the Messiah, the King of Israel,CCLXXXIX come down from the cross now, so that we may seeCCXC and believe.”CCXCI Those who were crucifiedCCXCII with him also tauntedCCXCIII him.

Notes on verse 15:32

CCLXXXIX “Israel” = Israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.
CCXC “see” = horao. Same as “see” in v14:62. See note CXLIII above.
CCXCI “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
CCXCII “crucified” = sustauroo. Related to “stood near” in v14:47 & “stood up” in v14:57 & “understand” in v14:68 & “rebels” and “insurrection” in v15:7 & “crucify” in v15:13 & “cross” in v15:21. 5x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + stauroo (see note CCXIX above). This is to crucify together literally or figuratively.
CCXCIII “taunted” = oneidizo. Related to “called” in v14:32 & “realized” in v15:10 & “left” in v15:27. 9x in NT. From oneidos (a personal disgrace that leads to harm to one’s reputation, a taunt or reproach); perhaps from the base of onoma (see note III above). This is to disgrace, insult, mock, blame, or curse someone so as to create shame. This is when a person or thing is considered guilty and deserving punishment. So, it can be denounce, revile, defame, or chide.

33 When it wasCCXCIV noon,CCXCV darknessCCXCVI cameCCXCVII over the whole landCCXCVIII until three in the afternoon.CCXCIX 

Notes on verse 15:33

CCXCIV “was” = ginomai. Related to “arrived” in v14:43. See note LXVIII above.
CCXCV “noon” = hora + hektos. Literally, “sixth hour.” Hora is the same as “hour” in v14:35. See note XXVI above. Hektos is 14x in NT. From hex (six). This is sixth.
CCXCVI “darkness” = skotos. Perhaps from the base of skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it. This can also mean obscurity.
CCXCVII “came” = ginomai. Same as “was” in v15:33. See note CCXCIV above.
CCXCVIII “land” = ge. Same as “ground” in v14:35. See note XXIV above.
CCXCIX “three in the afternoon” = hora + ennatos. Literally, “ninth hour.” Hora is the same as “hour” in v14:35. See note XXVI above. Ennatos is related to “slave” in v14:47 & “bound” in v15:1 & “prisoner” in v15:6. 10x in NT. From enatos (needy, ninth, lacking); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + deo (see note LXXXIX above)} OR from enna (nine). This is ninth.

34 At three o’clock Jesus cried outCCC with a loudCCCI voice,CCCII

Notes on verse 15:34a

CCC “cried out” = boao. 12x in NT. From boe (a cry or shout). This is cry out, make a distress call, ask for desperately need assistance.
CCCI “loud” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
CCCII “voice” = phone. Related to “fire” in v14:54 & “decision” in v14:64 & “crowed” in v14:68 & “blasphemy” in v14:64 & “prophesy” in v14:65 & “crowed” in v14:68 & “derided” in 15:29. See note CLXX above.

“Eloi,CCCIII Eloi, lemaCCCIV sabachthani?”CCCV which means, “My God,CCCVI my God, why have you forsakenCCCVII me?” 

Notes on verse 15:34b

CCCIII “Eloi” = Eloi. Related to “Israel” in v15:32. 2x in NT. From Aramaic elah (God, a god); related to Hebrew eloah (God, a god); from el (see note CCLXXXIX above). This is my God.
CCCIV “lema” = lama. 2x in NT. From Hebrew mah (what, how, why, whatever). This is “why.”
CCCV “sabachthani” = sabachthani. 2x in NT. From Aramaic shebaq (to leave, leave alone, quite); corresponding to Hebrew azab (loosen, relinquish, permit, forsake, fail, leave destitute). This is forsake or leave.
CCCVI “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
CCCVII “forsaken” = egkataleipo. Related to “still” in v14:41 & “left” in v14:52. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + kataleipo (to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing)}. This is left behind, left as a remainder, desert, forsake. Properly, it means to leave someone or something wanting or lacking – so, to forsake or cause someone to be helpless in a serious scenario.

35 When some of the bystanders heard it, they said, “Listen,CCCVIII he is callingCCCIX for Elijah.”CCCX 

Notes on verse 15:35

CCCVIII “listen” = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v14:41. See note LIV above.
CCCIX “calling” = phoneo. Same as “crowed” in v14:68. See note CLXX above.
CCCX “Elijah” = Elias. Related to “John” in v14:33 & “Jesus” in v14:48– rel to “Israel” in v15:32 & “Eloi” in v15:34. From Hebrew Eliyyah (Elijah) {from el (see note CCLXXXIX above) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note XIII above)}. This is Elijah, “The Lord is God.”

36 And someone ran,CCCXI filledCCCXII a spongeCCCXIII with sour wine,CCCXIV

Notes on verse 15:36a

CCCXI “ran” = trecho. 20x in NT. To run, make progress, rush. This is running like an athlete in a race. Figuratively, to work quickly towards a goal in a focused way.
CCCXII “filled” = gemizo. 8x in NT. From gemo (to be full, swell, at capacity, actions taken to fulfill a goal). This is to fill up or load, be swamped as a boat with water.
CCCXIII “sponge” = spoggos. 3x in NT– all during the crucifixion. Perhaps related to spoggos (sponge or tonsil) –  a “Mediterranean-Pontic Pre-Greek substrate loanword.” This is sponge. See
CCCXIV “sour wine” = oxos. Related to “thorns” in v15:17. 6x in NT– all of the crucifixion. From oxus (sharp, eager, quick); probably related to akmen (even now, still, yet); from the same as akmazo (become ripe, reach maturity); from akme (point or edge); related to ake (see note CCXXXIII above). This is sour wine or vinegar. As the lowest grade of Roman wine, it was a common drink for Roman soldiers.

putCCCXV it on a stick,CCCXVI and gave it to him to drink,CCCXVII saying, “Wait,CCCXVIII let us seeCCCXIX whether Elijah will come to take him down.”CCCXX 

Notes on verse 15:36b

CCCXV “put” = peritithemi. Same as “put…on” in v15:17. See note CCXXXV above.
CCCXVI “stick” = kalamos. Same as “reed” in v15:19. See note CCXL above.
CCCXVII “gave it…to drink” = potizo. Related to “cup” in v14:36. 15x in NT. From potos (drink or for drinking) OR from pino (see note XXXII above). This is to give to drink, water, furnish, irrigate, or feed.
CCCXVIII “wait” = aphiemi. Same as “deserted” in v14:50. See note CII above.
CCCXIX “see” = horao. Same as “see” in v14:62. See note CXLIII above.
CCCXX “take…down” = kathaireo. Related to “cutting off” in v14:47 & “carry” in v15:21. 9x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout) + haireo (see note XC above). This is to take down, destroy, yank down, demolish in a literal or figurative sense.

37 Then Jesus gaveCCCXXI a loud cryCCCXXII and breathed his last.CCCXXIII 

Notes on verse 15:37

CCCXXI “gave” = aphiemi. Same as “deserted” in v14:50. See note CII above.
CCCXXII “cry” = phone. Same as “voice” in v15:34. See note CCCII above.
CCCXXIII “breathed his last” = ekpneo. Related to “spirit” in v14:38. 3x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + pneo (see note XL above). This is to breath out as in a last breath – to expire.

38 And the curtainCCCXXIV of the templeCCCXXV was tornCCCXXVI in two, from topCCCXXVII to bottom. 

Notes on verse 15:38

CCCXXIV “curtain” = katapetasma. 6x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + petannumi (to spread out). This is the inner veil in the Temple. Literally, it is what spreads down i.e. hangs down. The curtain hung between the Holy of Holies, the innermost part of the Temple, from the rest of it.
CCCXXV “temple” = naos. Same as “temple” in v14:58. See note CXXXII above.
CCCXXVI “torn” = schizo. 11x in NT. This is to split, divide, tear, sever; split in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “schism” comes from and also “schizophrenia” (literally “split mind”).
CCCXXVII “top” = anothen. 13x in NT– this is the word used in John 3:3 in the being born “from above”/“again” conversation between Jesus and Nicodemus.. From ano (up, above, up to the top, things above, heaven); from ana (up, upwards, again, back, among, anew). This is from above, from the top, again, beginning, from the source. It implies anew.

39 Now when the centurion,CCCXXVIII who stoodCCCXXIX facing him, sawCCCXXX that in this way he breathed his last, he said, “TrulyCCCXXXI this man was God’s Son!”

Notes on verse 15:39

CCCXXVIII “centurion” = kenturion. 3x in NT– all in Mark (a different word for “centurion” is used elsewhere). From Latin centurio (to separate by hundreds, make military companies); from centuria (a unit of a hundred, a century; can be an infantry unit or other group of a hundred); from centum (a hundred). This is a centurion in the Roman army who has charge over a hundred infantry. See
CCCXXIX “stood” = paristemi. Same as “stood near” in v14:47. See note LXXXVI above.
CCCXXX “saw” = horao. Same as “see” in v14:62. See note CXLIII above.
CCCXXXI “truly” = alethos. Same as “certainly” in v14:70. See note CLXXII above.

40 There were also womenCCCXXXII looking onCCCXXXIII from a distance; among them were MaryCCCXXXIV Magdalene,CCCXXXV

Notes on verse 15:40a

CCCXXXII “women” = gune. Related to “arrived” in v14:43 & “was” in v15:33. Perhaps from ginomai (see note LXVII above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
CCCXXXIII “looking on” = theoreo. Related to “was amazed” in v15:5. From theaomai (see note CXCVIII above). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
CCCXXXIV “Mary” = Maria. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.
CCCXXXV “Magdalene” = Magdalene. 12x in NT. From Magdala (Magadan, a place near the Sea of Galilee); perhaps from Aramaic migdal, see also Hebrew migdal (tower); from gadal (to grow, grow up, be great). This is from Magdala.

and Mary the motherCCCXXXVI of James the youngerCCCXXXVII and of Joses,CCCXXXVIII and Salome.CCCXXXIX

Notes on verse 15:40b

CCCXXXVI “mother” = meter. This is mother in a literal or figurative sense.
CCCXXXVII “younger” = mikros. Same as “little” in v14:35. See note XXI above.
CCCXXXVIII “Joses” = Ioses. 3x in NT. Perhaps from Ioseph (Joseph, “he increases”); from Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joses, meaning “he increases.”
CCCXXXIX “Salome” = Salome. 2x in NT– both in Mark. From Hebrew Shalem (Salem or Shalem, meaning “peaceful”); from shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound). This is Salome or Shelomah, meaning “peaceful.”


41 These used to followCCCXL him and provided forCCCXLI him when he was in Galilee;CCCXLII and there were many other women who had come up withCCCXLIII him to Jerusalem.CCCXLIV

Notes on verse 15:41

CCCXL “follow” = akoloutheo. Same as “followed” in v14:54. See note CXV above.
CCCXLI “provided for” = diakoneo. From diakonos (servant, minister, waiter, or attendant; a person who performs a service, including religious service); {perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute); {related to dio (put to flight)}}. This is to wait at table, to serve generally, to minister or administer, to be in the office of deacon. To wait on someone as a slave, friend, or host.
CCCXLII “Galilee” = Galilaia. Related to “Galilean” in v14:70 & “Golgotha” in v15:22. See note CLXXIII above.
CCCXLIII “come up with” = sunanabaino. Related to “very heavy” in v14:40 & “king” in v15:2 & “came” in v15:8 & “come down” in v15:30. 2x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + anabaino (to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter); {from ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + the same as basis (see note XLVIII above)}. This is to come up with, ascend together.
CCCXLIV “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. Related to “Salome” in v15:40. From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (see note CCCXXXIX above)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

42 When evening had come,CCCXLV and since it was the day of Preparation,CCCXLVI that is, the day before the sabbath,CCCXLVII 

Notes on verse 15:42

CCCXLV “come” = ginomai. Same as “was” in v15:33. See note CCXCIV above.
CCCXLVI “Preparation” = paraskeue. 6x in NT. From paraskeuazo (to prepare, get ready); {from para (from beside, by) + skeuos (vessel, tool, container, implement; also vessel in a figurative or literal sense); {from skeuazo (to prepare using a tool)}}. This is preparation or readiness. It can be used specifically to refer to preparing for the Sabbath or a festival.
CCCXLVII “day before the sabbath” = prosabbaton. 1x in NT. From pro (before, earlier, above) + sabbaton (the sabbath; also shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths); {from Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate)}. This is the day prior to the sabbath.

43 JosephCCCXLVIII of Arimathea,CCCXLIX a respectedCCCL member of the council,CCCLI

Notes on verse 15:43a

CCCXLVIII “Joseph” = Ioseph. Related to “Joses” in v15:40. See note CCCXXXVIII above.
CCCXLIX “Arimathea” = Harimathaia. From Hebrew compare Ramah (Ramah, height); from rum (to be high, rise, exalt self, extol, be haughty; to rise literally or figuratively). This is Arimathea, a city by Jerusalem.
CCCL “respected” = euschemon. Related to “could” in v14:37 & “enough” in v14:41 & “crowd” in v14:43 & {untranslated} in v14:63 & “deserving” in v14:64 & “immediately” in v14:43 & “blessed” in v14:61 & “left” in v15:27. 5x in NT. From eu (see note LXV above) + schema (figure, appearance, form – outer shape; figuratively, can be external condition); {from echo (see note XXXVII above)}. This is presentable, seemly, prominent, noble, appropriate, desirable, well-formed.
CCCLI “member of the council” = bouleutes. Related to “consultation” in v15:1 & “wishing” in v15:15. 2x in NT. From bouleuo (to plan, consider, deliberate, advise); from boule (see note CLXXXVIII above). This is a member of a council, adviser. In the New Testament, it refers to people on the Sanhedrin.

who was also himself waiting expectantly forCCCLII the kingdomCCCLIII of God, wentCCCLIV boldlyCCCLV to Pilate and asked for the bodyCCCLVI of Jesus. 

Notes on verse 15:43b

CCCLII “waiting expectantly for” = prosdechomai. Related to “right hand” in v14:62. 14x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + dechomai (see note CXLV above). This is to receive, welcome, expect, accept. It is reception with a warm, personal welcome or active waiting. It can also mean endurance or patience.
CCCLIII “kingdom” = basileia. Related to “very heavy” in v14:40 & “king” in v15:2 & “came” in v15:8 & “come down” in v15:30 & “come up with” in v15:41. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (see note XLVIII above). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
CCCLIV “went” = eiserchomai. Related to “went” in v14:32 & “going…farther” in v14:35 & “pass” in v14:35 & “went away” in v14:39 & “went up” in v14:45 & “come out” in v14:48 & “assembled” in v14:53. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note I above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
CCCLV “boldly” = tolmao. 16x in NT. From tolma (boldness); perhaps from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax); from tello (to start out with a definite goal in mind). This is to show courage to take a risk, to venture decisively, to put it on the line for something that matters.
CCCLVI “body” = soma. Related to “save” in v15:30. Perhaps from sozo (see note CCLXXXIV above). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.

44 Then Pilate wonderedCCCLVII if he were already dead;CCCLVIII and summoningCCCLIX the centurion, he askedCCCLX him whether he had been deadCCCLXI for some time.CCCLXII 

Notes on verse 15:44

CCCLVII “wondered” = thaumazo. Same as “was amazed” in v15:5. See note CXCVIII above.
CCCLVIII “were…dead” = thnesko. Related to “death” in v14:34 & “put…to death” in v14:55. 9x in NT. See note above. See note XVIII above.
CCCLIX “summoning” = proskaleo. Related to “called together” in v15:16. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kaleo (see note CCXXVIII above). This is to call to oneself, summon.
CCCLX “asked” = eperotao. Same as “asked” in v14:60. See note CXXXVIII above.
CCCLXI “been dead” = apothnesko. Related to “death” in v14:34 & “put…to death” in v14:55 & “were…dead” in v15:44. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (see note CCCLVIII above). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.
CCCLXII “for some time” = palai. 7x in NT. Perhaps from palin (back, again, further); probably from the same as pale (wrestling, struggle, conflict); from pallo (to sway or vibrate). This is long ago, former, ancient, in the past.

45 When he learnedCCCLXIII from the centurion that he was dead, he grantedCCCLXIV the bodyCCCLXV to Joseph. 

Notes on verse 15:45

CCCLXIII “learned” = ginosko. Same as “realized” in v15:10. See note CCXIII above.
CCCLXIV “granted” = doreomai. Related to “betrayed” in v14:41 & “given” in v14:44. 3x in NT. From doron (gift, offering, sacrifice; emphasizes that the gift is given freely, voluntarily); from didomi (see note LVII above). This is to give, grant, donate – a free gift.
CCCLXV “body” = ptoma. Related to “threw” in v14:35 & “curtain” in v15:38. 7x in NT. From pipto (see note XXIII above). This is a fall, misfortune, ruin, corpse.

46 Then Joseph boughtCCCLXVI a linen cloth, and taking down the body, wrappedCCCLXVII it in the linen cloth, and laidCCCLXVIII it in a tombCCCLXIX that had been hewnCCCLXX out of the rock.CCCLXXI

Notes on verse 15:46a

CCCLXVI “bought” = agorazo. Related to “keep awake” in v14:34 & “get up” in v14:42 & “accused” in v15:3. From agora (see note XX above). This is to go and buy something at market with a focus on goods being transferred. It can also mean to purchase or redeem.
CCCLXVII “wrapped” = eneileo. 1x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + eileo (to wind) OR the base of heilisso (to roll or wrap up);{from helisso (to roll up, coil, wrap)}. This is to wind up, roll in.
CCCLXVIII “laid” = tithemi. Same as “knelt down” in v15:19. See note CCXLI above.
CCCLXIX “tomb” = mnemeion. Related to “remain” in v14:34 & “remembered” in v14:72. From mousikos (to remember); from mneme (memory or mention); from mnaomai (see note CLXXVIII above). This is properly a memorial – a tomb, grave, monument.
CCCLXX “hewn” = latomeo. 2x in NT. From laas (a stone) + temno (to cut with a repeated blows). This is to hew or cut as when one quarries stones.
CCCLXXI “rock” = petra. Related to “Peter” in v14:33. 15x in NT. See note X above.

He then rolledCCCLXXII a stoneCCCLXXIII against the doorCCCLXXIV of the tomb. 47 Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses sawCCCLXXV where the body was laid.CCCLXXVI

Notes on verses 15:46b-47

CCCLXXII “rolled” = proskulio. 2x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kulioo (to roll, wallow); {from kulindo (to roll, roll along); from kuma (wave, billow, curve, bend); from kuo (to swell as one pregnant)}. This is to roll towards or against.
CCCLXXIII “stone” = lithos. This is stone in a literal or figurative sense.
CCCLXXIV “door” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.
CCCLXXV “saw” = theoreo. Same as “looking on” in v15:40. See note CCCXXXIII above.
CCCLXXVI “laid” = tithemi. Same as “knelt down” in v15:19. See note CCXLI above.

Image credit: “Pietà” by Ruizanglada.

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